HOMEBREW Digest #1450 Wed 15 June 1994

Digest #1449 Digest #1451

		Rob Gardner, Digest Janitor

  Thermal loses in mash (Bob Jones)
  Sparge temps: Jack and Jim both correct. (Bill Szymczak)
  Re: Lids on Steins (Jeff Sargent)
  misc. Q and A (Jeremy Ballard Bergsman)
  EasyBottle ("Glen A. Wagnecz, X6616")
  Whitbread Ale/Pilsner Urquell (Aaron Shaw)
  Root Beer (CJORGENSEN)
  Who is the keeper of the Brewpub Database? (Dave Shaver)
  propane cookers (Steve Christiansen)
  Homebrew Supply Shops in VA Beach (John W. Carpenter)
  Yeast Starters / Sparge Temp (Don Rudolph)
  Bottle Head Space? ( LARRY KELLY)
  What is Belgium Biscuit Grain? ( LARRY KELLY)
  Cylindroconical Fermenters (wyatt)
  Apple or Strawberry Beer Recipe NEEDED!! ( LARRY KELLY)
  Twistoffs/SUDS (David Draper)
  temps again (ANDY WALSH)
  A Retraction in re: rings (Jeff Frane)
  Zoological zymurgy (kit.anderson)
  Infection Rings; Lovibond (Spencer.W.Thomas)
  YeastLabs European Lager yeast (Allan Rubinoff)
  Skunks (Spencer.W.Thomas)
  shipping damage (Rich Ryan)
  yeast starters (Ron Hart)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 09:05:41 +0900 From: bjones at novax.llnl.gov (Bob Jones) Subject: Thermal loses in mash On the subject of thermal losses during sparging...... I use to have these big temperature drops when I sparged. Now I don't, here is what I do. I heat the mash to 170 deg f for mashout. I heat the sparge water to 168 deg f. My sparge water drains through a very short piece (1 ft) of hose and then down to Uncle Bob's Auto Sparger (TM, patent pending, all rights reserved, copyright). It is a copper ring placed right on top of the mash. The ring has small holes around the outside and inside. The ring hooks up to a float valve that controls the rate of flow automatically, allowing me to seal (really a 2" thick foam rubber) the top of the mash tun. This gadget works well because I don't have any of the losses from droping the sparge water through the air and the mash is sealed thermally. I have to laugh when I see some of the spinning sparge gadgets that are sold. I made a really cool spinning sparger at one point, and it looked neat and everyone was amazed. Great clouds of steam rose from the mash tun. This is the maximum way of heat loss. My mash temp does drop from 170 to about 165 during sparging. The wort ends up in the kettle at about 155, that loss is due to the pump and line losses. I got the float valve from Graingers. Some of you might have seen photos of the sparge gadget at my talk during last years AHA conference. Good brewing and low thermal losses! Bob Jones bjones at novax.llnl.gov Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 94 14:02:23 EDT From: bszymcz%ulysses at relay.nswc.navy.mil (Bill Szymczak) Subject: Sparge temps: Jack and Jim both correct. With all this arguing about sparge temperatures, I decided to also measure the temperature of my mash while sparging last Saturday. For this batch I used 8 lbs of grain in a 4 gallon SS Farberware pot with a copper manifold sparger. The mash contained about 10-11 quarts of water. After mashing-out at 170 F, the mash sat for 15 minutes, after which I recirculated about 3 quarts before beginning to collect the wort in my boiling kettle. At this time, the temperature of the mash had indeed dropped to 152 F. However, I left the thermometer in the mash-tun (=lauter-tun with this set up) during the entire sparge (about 40 minutes for 7 gallons) and found the temperature slowly rise to 161 F by the end. The sparge water temperature was kept within 168-172 F the entire time. I think that the conclusion here is that both Jack and Jim are correct, depending on the lauter-tun design, speed of the sparge, etc. With a thinner pot, or one with a wider diameter, and by sparging slower, it is possible to actually lose heat, or have the temperature come to equilibrium (as Mike McCaw reported in HBD1447). However, with a better insulated lauter-tun, and/or a slightly faster sparge, the temperature can approach that of the sparge water especially near the end of the sparge. This is also the most likely time to extract tannins as the Ph of the "mix" is probably higher (unless you acidify the sparge water, which I do not). So, I recommend checking your setup for yourself. Personally, I would rather err on the low side. Bill Szymczak bszymcz at ulysses.nswc.navy.mil Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 94 13:07:22 -0500 From: jeff_sargent at il.us.swissbank.com (Jeff Sargent) Subject: Re: Lids on Steins There is a beautiful biergarden/open air market in downtown Munich within a few blocks of the Town Hall/Glockenspiel called the Viktualmarket or something similar. They server wonderful helles and weissBiers there, in large class mugs with optional pewter discs that you could place over the top. The reason for the lid became obvious to me within 10 minutes -- the beautiful trees lining the biergarden would drop leaves/seeds/twigs and so forth periodically. There were also birds in the trees to contend with. The bugs were not much of a problem in the early spring, but the lids would definately help that as well. - Jeff sargent at il.us.swissbank.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 13:19:14 -0700 (PDT) From: Jeremy Ballard Bergsman <jeremybb at leland.Stanford.EDU> Subject: misc. Q and A > From: HEWITT at arcges.arceng.com > Subject: bottle volume/priming rate > > The priming rate I've used for my all-grain beers (usually high gravity) > has been 1/2 to 3/4 cup corn sugar. No problem carbonating at this level > except it's usually much too highly carbonated. I'm aware that priming rates > should be reduced for kegging and wonder if this is true in going from a > 12 oz bottle to 0.5L (17 oz). Intuitively, it doesn't seem logical that > the beer volume should affect the degree of carbonation. Is there any > experience regarding bottle volume related to priming rate? > I do the experiment to answer this question every time I bottle. I add my priming sugar (boiled then cooled in water) to the entire beer (for non-porters too :)). I then bottle in bottles of various sizes, from 6 to 25 oz and the carbonation always comes out the same. Are you changing the relative amount of headspace? > From: terfintt at ttown.apci.com (Terri Terfinko) > Subject: Mash Water Adjustments > gypsum container states that it is a water hardener. I do understand the > importance of having an acidic PH 5.1 - 5.5 for mashing, but not sure > why it is > advisable to add gypsum regardless of water PH or hardness. The point is to lower the pH and add calcium, both of which are important to many people's water (but not all). I wouldn't recommend blind addition of any salt. > I feel it is important to understand the makeup of my water so I had an > analysis done. The PH of 6.1 matched my litmus paper calculations. I am not > sure how to determine from the mineral analysis if my water is soft or > Here is the analysis report. I included the whole report since I am not > which minerals determine hardness. What the heck does MG/L or UG/L stand > for? Books I read referred to PPM. Any advice on mashing adjustments I mg/l is milligrams per liter, the same thing as ppm (w/v). ug/l is micrograms per liter, the same thing as ppbillion (US billion). That u should be a greek mu. > should make would be appreciated. > PH 6.1 Not bad consider the low carbonate alkalinity, below. You probably don't need to adjust your pH at all. > T ALK CAC03 16.0 MG/L > PHOS-TOTAL .03 MG/L > C TOT ORGAN 1.2 MG/L This sounds bad to me. Usually organics in water supplies are the result of industrial pollution. > T HARD CACO3 27.0 MG/L This is your total hardness, expresses as the concentration of CaCO3 that would give the same hardness. This is quite low. > CA TOTAL 9.02 MG/L > MG 3.06 MG/L > NA 4.63 MG/L > K 1.38 MG/L > CL 5.00 MG/L > SO4 TOTAL 23.0 MG/L > SILICA TOTAL 17.95 MG/L Sandy water? > FE 334.0 UG/L I think this borders on being too high. Your water is nice and soft so it is easy to adjust for brewing. Add about .5 g/gal of NaCl and 1 g/gal of CaCl2 unless making a beer that wants soft water (e.g. pilsener). Add .5 g/gal MgSO4 (Epsom salts) for pale ales. Throw away the gypsum. > From: KMYH09A at prodigy.com ( LARRY KELLY) > Subject: Racking wort to secondary in 8 hours? > I just finished reading Millers book: The Complete Handbook of Homebrewing > > He mentions that the wort should be racked in the secondary fermenter 8 > hours after racked into the primary. > WHY?? Doesn't that give a better chance to contaminate the wort? Yes, I > know about trub build up, but if you pitch the yeast and the yeast finishes > in a few days and then rack into the secondary, a few days is no big deal. > So why does he say 8 hours? The idea is to minimize the exposure to the trub. In my hands this is silly advice since at 8 hours the yeast are churning stuff up so much that I could never rack off of the trub. I agree with you, what's a few days (of course I use an immersion chiller and leave most of both my hot and cold break in the kettle)? > From: GONTAREK at FCRFV1.NCIFCRF.GOV > Subject: My first all grain/raspbeery ale recipe/KitchenAid grain mill > My first all-grain batch was made by borrowing a corona grain > mill from a buddy. Because I want to continue the all-grain brewing, > I have been looking into inexpensive grain mills. My wife and I > received a beautiful Kitchen Aid stand-up mixer as a wedding gift > last year, and I understand that a grain mill attachment is made > that is compatible with it. The price I got from a local > distributer was about $180, but my Dad works in food service and > can get me one for $90. Has anyone used this type of grain mill > set-up (either for homebrewing or anything else)? Is it worth > the investment? I would appreciate hearing from anyone with > information regarding the Kitchen Aid grain mill. I have never used a Kitchen Aid (KA) grain mill but I hear that they are traditional grain mills, that is, they grind. For the same price as teh KA you could buy a nice roller mill (Glatt, Maltmill no flames please). It wouldn't be motorized but due to the large hoppers and ease of cranking, I bet the total amount of work would be the same and I'm sure the crush would be better. Plus, you shouldn't be grinding in the kitchen, assuming that's where you brew :). > From: dweller at GVSU.EDU (RONALD DWELLE) > Subject: thermometer correction? > > A dumb high-school chemistry question: > > I just bought a new mercury floating thermometer and discovered > on my first mash/boil that it's off. At boil, it reads about > 220-221 F. Can I assume the error is linear, always reading 8-9 > degrees high? That is, if the thermo reads 150, I'm mashing at > 141-142? Should I take it back and rant and rave and demand my > money back, or is this normal? (This was just a cheapo K-mart > kitchen floater.) > Why don't you test it at the other end putting it in water in equilibrium with ice. If it reads 40 then use your correction factor, otherwise toss it or interpolate. - --------------- I must add to the chorus defending Jack S. against Jim B. regarding sparge water temps. I use sparge water at about 200 F. I have a thermometer stuck about 1 inch into my grain bed and it never goes above 175 (uninsulated zapap deal), even though part of it is exposed to the hot water above the grain bed. Jeremy Bergsman jeremybb at leland.stanford.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 94 16:25:14 EDT From: "Glen A. Wagnecz, X6616" <wagnecz at PICA.ARMY.MIL> Subject: EasyBottle There's no such thing. But, if you take a good look in the recycle bin, you'll find certain champagne bottles that make your bottling life much easier. Two come to mind: Korbel Brut and Martinelli Sparkling cider. I'm able to bottle both of these with a bench capper. Some of the Taylor bottles also have the right size for our caps. There is also a slightly larger size that _does not_ work. Cook's brand is an example. I usually carry a cap in my pocket for the questionable ones. Don't be afraid to go to the recycle center. In every case, as soon as people found out I was a homebrewer, the response ranged from "right on!" to being treated like some kind of wizzard (You create beer from the elements??!!!). And the price is right... Your friends will also get quite a kick out of the campagne bottles when you break them out. Mine got nick-named "sluggers" due to their resemblance to a softball bat... Or was it the convenient thirst quenching (32 oz) size? Glen Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 16:32:57 -0400 From: ar568 at freenet.carleton.ca (Aaron Shaw) Subject: Whitbread Ale/Pilsner Urquell Greetings all in homebrew land! In previous articles Dan Trollinger and Stephen Lovett inquired about recipes for a Whitbread Pale Ale and Pilsner Urquell. Both of these recipes are taken from Dave Line's book "Brewing Beers Like Those You Buy". Whitbread Light Ale (He does not have a recipe for the Pale Ale, I thought that this one would be close enough to give you an idea.) 5 lb./2.5kg Crushed pale malt 5 oz./150 gm Crushed crystal malt 8 oz./250 gm Flaked barley 2.5 gallons/12 litres water for "light ale" brewing 2 oz./60 gm Goldings hops .75 oz.+ .75 oz./25 + 25 gm Northern brewer hops 8 oz./250 gm Invert sugar 1 tsp. Irish Moss 2 oz./60 gm Brewers yeast .5 oz./15 gm Gelatine .5 tsp.per pint/5 ml per litre White Sugar (for priming) 1) Raise temp. of water to 60'C and stir in crushed malts, while stirring raise mash temp. to 66'C. Leave for 1.5 hours, occasionally returning temp. back to this value. 2) Contain the mashed grain in a large grain bag to retrieve sweet wort. Using slightly hotter water than mash, rinse the grains to collect 4 gallons/20 litres of extract. 3) Boil the extract with Goldings and first quota of Northern Brewer hops for 1.5 hours. Dissolve the main batch of sugar and the Irish moss during last 10 min. 4) Add second part of N.B. hops, strain wort and top up with cold water to make 5 gallons/25 litres. 5) 4-5 days in Primary, add gelatine, 7 days in Secondary, 10 days maturation. Pilsner Urquell (Pizenske Prazdo) 7 lb.10oz./3.85 kg Crushed lager malt 3 gallons/15 litres Water for "lager" brewing 1 tsp. Irish moss 2.5 +.5 +.25 oz./75 + 15 + 10 gm Saaz hops 2 oz./60 gm Lager yeast .5 oz./15 gm Gelatine .5 tsp.per pint/5 ml per liter White sugar 1) Raise temp. of water up to 45'C and stir in crushed malt, while stirring raise mash temp. to 55'C, leave for .5 hours. Then raise temp. to 66'C, leave for 1 hour, occasionally returning temp. to 66'C. 2) Contain the mashed grain in a large grain bag to retrieve sweet wort. Using slightly hotter water than mash, rinse grains to collect 4 gallons/20 litres of extract. 3) Boil the extract with first quota hops for 1.5 hours, pitch Irish moss 10 min. before the end. 4) Add 2nd batch of hops, strain off the clear wort and top up with cold water to make 4 gallons/20 litres. 5) Pitch yeast when cool. Ferment until gravity falls to 1015 and rack into secondary adding the dry hops before fitting airlock. 6) Leave for 21 days before racking to bottles, allow 30 days maturation. Unfortunately I have not tried either of these recipes, so I can not say how successful they are. The only thing that seems a bit odd to me is the quantity of yeast, 60 GRAMS! Good luck, let me know how they turn out. - -- "Come my lad, and drink some beer!" Aaron Shaw Ottawa, Canada Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 14:46:47 -0700 (MST) From: CJORGENSEN at cc.weber.edu Subject: Root Beer It seems to me that y'all are making the whole rootbeer issue way too complicated. I have had great success in using grocery-store variety yeast. Granted, there is always a little yeast flavor--more if you don't pour carefully so as to not stir up the sediment--but that is one of the pleasures of home-made IMHO. Another option is to use a _tough_ sealable container and some dry ice. I have used milk cans with boy scouts sitting on top for ballast. The results are fine and the process is more than fun. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 16:09:05 -0500 From: shaver at healthcare.com (Dave Shaver) Subject: Who is the keeper of the Brewpub Database? I find the brewpub database quite useful and I have some updates and comments to add. Who is the keeper of the database? /\ Dave Shaver \\ Plano, TX \/ Internet: shaver at healthcare.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 94 15:14:51 -0700 From: Steve Christiansen <steven at sequent.com> Subject: propane cookers I would like to increase my brewing capacity to 10 gallon batches using a converted keg for a kettle. Obviously when I do, my electric stove won't cut it any more, so I've been looking at propane cookers. I have a bunch of questions I hope somebody can help me with. How many BTUs are enough? I need enough heat to bring 12 gallons of 150F runnings to boiling by the time the sparge is done, but I don't want to burn up mass quantities of gas generating more heat than I need. I've seen two brands of big cookers in local discount stores, the 170,000 BTU King Kooker, and a 140,000 BTU cooker from Camp Chef (#SH-140L). Any pros or cons about these? They appear to have similar burners, but different frames. The King Kooker has a large ring above the burner, apparently to keep the pot from sliding off, but I would think it would be hard to put a keg on it. The Camp Chef looks sturdier, but I don't know if it's wide enough to support a keg. (What is the diameter of the bottom ring of a Sankey keg anyway? Could somebody run out and measure theirs and let me know?) Any other cooker info would be appreciated. I don't want to make a mistake with this. The thought of a keg full of boiling wort turning into a loose cannon scares the stuffing out of me. Steven Christiansen Beaverton, OR steven at sequent.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 94 18:39:18 EDT From: jwc at med.unc.edu (John W. Carpenter) Subject: Homebrew Supply Shops in VA Beach My brother came to visit me this past weekend, and we brewed a batch. I think he is interested in starting. He lives in the VA Beach area and was wondering if there are any Homebrew supply stores around there. Does anyone know of one (or more)? Thanks in advance. John Carpenter Return to table of contents
Date: 13 Jun 94 18:58:05 EDT From: Don Rudolph <76076.612 at CompuServe.COM> Subject: Yeast Starters / Sparge Temp On using hops in yeast starters: Yes. For four reasons (not necessarily in order). (1) Hop resins are supposed to inhibit bacteria, this item has already been mentioned. (2) I like the smell when I'm making the starter, don't you? (3) I get to use left-over pellet/leaf hops that might not be in top shape to dump into the next brew. (4) Empirically, starters made with hops are clearer than those made without hops (Speculating ... polyphenols from the hops aid in the hot/cold break?) On the disparagement on sparges: I normally sparge with 165-170F water into a picnic cooler tun. I try to do a mash out, but usually succeed in getting to 160F max. By the time I am done recirculating the runnings, the grain bed temp is at 150F or less. Even with 170F sparge water, the bed never got above 155F. After reading the debate, I decided to experiment with boiling sparge water. On my last batch, I brought the sparge water to a boil, struck the kettle from the heat and began sparging. I monitored the grain bed temp every five minutes or so. BTW, I use a copper sparge "arm" (tubing configured into a coil with holes drilled in the bottom). At the end of the sparge (45 minutes), here were the "data points" (as the HBD'ers say): Recipe: Kolsch, 7.5 lb Belgium Pils, 1 lb Wheat, 4 oz 40L crystal Mash in at 122F, Maltose rest at 142F, Sacc. rest at 153F Mash out at 157F. No mineral additions. Start End ----- --- Sparge water : 210F 180F Water above grain bed : 160F 170F Grain bed : 145F 165F pH : 5.2 5.5 Iodine test : Negative Negative Specific Gravity : Unknown 1.012 I was willing to try this on my precious brew because having experience with decoction mashes, I was fairly certain I would not leach too much tannin and unconverted starch into the run off. Extraction efficiency did seem marginally better than previous batches, I haven't run the calculations, but my final gravity was 1.046 for 5.75 gallons, I would normally expect 1.044-45. Don't read much into this, there are too many other factors affecting extraction efficiency to make a conclusion one way or another. Will I do it again? Yes, not because of increased efficiency (although it is a bonus), but because it is more convenient to boil the sparge water and NOT WORRY about getting the temp to 168F and keeping it there. Don Rudolph Seattle, WA 76076.712 at Compuserve.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 19:48:58 EDT From: KMYH09A at prodigy.com ( LARRY KELLY) Subject: Bottle Head Space? I was looking through some back issues of HBD and could not find some straight forward recommendations for how much head space to leave when bottling. Any one have any answers? I use 12oz, 16oz and 22oz Grolsh type bottles. Larry KMYH09A at prodigy.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 19:49:04 EDT From: KMYH09A at prodigy.com ( LARRY KELLY) Subject: What is Belgium Biscuit Grain? My local supply store has a grain called "Belgium Biscuit". What is it and what beer types is it used in. Larry KMYH09A at prodigy.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 94 17:55:18 pst From: wyatt at Latitude.COM Subject: Cylindroconical Fermenters Hi All! Has anyone used, priced, seen or heard any information on cylindroconical fermenters. The smallest I have heard of is 1/2 barrel. They seem to be a pretty good idea but I imagine that they are quite expensive. They all seem to be temperature controlled, which would help to reserve the refrigerator for lagering. I have seen extremely large ones in large brewpubs but never one this small. I plan to check them out but I thought I would get some input first. Any info would be greatly appreciated. TIA. Wyatt Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 20:40:30 EDT From: KMYH09A at prodigy.com ( LARRY KELLY) Subject: Apple or Strawberry Beer Recipe NEEDED!! Does anyone out there have an All Grain recipe on making an Apple or a Strawberry beer recipe?? If so can you email me it RIGHT AWAY!!!!!! I got a friends suprise birthday party coming up next month Also I do not want a dark type beer, a lighter or amber color is fine, but not dark. Larry KMYH09A at prodigy.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 12:04:20 +1000 (EST) From: David Draper <David.Draper at mq.edu.au> Subject: Twistoffs/SUDS Whud id iz: In #1448, Al added to the ongoing twistoff thread, which prompts me to recount my recent positive experiences with them. Many weeks back I asked the Digestives for feedback, and got a mixed response, with about 60% in favor and 40% (some vehemently) against. I tried a few in my first batch since re-starting operations after arriving here, and they were all fine. So tried a few more in the next, and then more in the next, and so on. So far (about 200 bottles all told) one (1) has leaked. I no longer worry about how many crown-seals I have empty and ready to use--I just bottle with whatever is to hand. BTW, I use regular crown seals, not special twistoff style, and a 2-arm pull down capper. The only downside is that it takes a bit of practice to get the motion down to seal the twistoff properly--the pull-down action will not go to completion in one go. I pull down one of the arms, which seals about a third of the circumference of the cap, then rotate the bottle and repeat twice. At the end, you can clearly see the "threaded" or "rifled" look to the side of the cap--compare to a commercial twistoff and they should look the same. This takes about 5-10 times as long as using a regular crown seal (ie 5-10 seconds instead of 1). Sorry if this description is opaque, it's not easy to put into words. Don't mean to dispute Al's comments, only adding a couple data points. Bill Rust characterizes SUDS as basically a record-keeping program. I would disagree, this is much more applicable to BrewHaHa--did you refer to SUDS by mistake, Bill?. With SUDS, recipe formulation is well-provided for, calculating estimates of OG, ABV, IBUs, and color for one-button comparison to the current AHA guidelines. I won't waste space with more description, but it does many other things too. The most recent version, which addresses some bugs in the previous edition (including catering for us metric types, thanks Michael), has just been put on the sierra server. BrewHaHa is a computerized brew notebook, and a very good one. It is also FREE. Both programs perform as advertised. My *personal preference* is for SUDS because it keeps records well enough for me and has the added bonus of formulation modules. Standard disclaimer applies, just a satisfied user who has happily just put a check in the mail for the shareware fee for SUDS. Cheers, Dave in Sydney - -- ****************************************************************************** David S. Draper School of Earth Sciences, Macquarie University ddraper at laurel.ocs.mq.edu.au NSW 2109 Sydney, Australia Fax: +61-2-805-8428 Voice: +61-2-805-8347 Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 14 Jun 94 14:31:57 +1000 From: ANDY WALSH <awalsh at ozemail.com.au> Subject: temps again Once again I am a few issues late with this - I am sure you will all forgive me. Last time I was late it caused me to write one too many responses - oops. This time I have sparged my brain with 170F water, so I am less hot-headed and my ramblings have a less astringent nature! John Pratte writes: > Heat is energy; in fact, it is the energy > transferred between objects of different temperature. Temperature, >on the other hand, is simply the property of an object; namely, the >property that two objects have in common when no heat is being >transferred between them. Now I im joost an ingenoor, but I am certain I learned that temperature is a measure of heat energy in my physics lectures. This a minor point, but the equation H=m.S.(T2-T1) S=specific heat constant of material H=heat energy m=mass of object T2-T1=temperature differential may be rewritten (substituting T1=0 Kelvin) gives T2=H/(m.S) 0 Kelvin is by definition that temperature at which objects have 0 energy. Thus the temperature of an object (in Kelvin) is an indication of the heat energy of the object. Any comments? This should be of no concern to the homebrewer, but I thought I'd mention it in passing. >If you keep the lid on your sparging apparatus >(apparatii), you should be able to minimize convective heat losses, >meaning that the primary method of heat loss is by conduction. Some may be like me and find it difficult to put the lid over the top of your sparging equipment (I use Phil's sparging system). I have found a thick towel helps to minimise this loss. The equation John later mentions I think brewers will find little use for. In theory it is possible to derive exactly the optimum temperature and sparge rate for a given homebrewery, but in practice there are too many variables to the average system and it is far easier to "close the loop" as we engineers say and chuck a thermometer in the thing and manually adjust your variables until your desired temperature is reached. This brings me to the point of this post. How accurate are these laboratory type mercury thermometers (mine is all glass, calibrated in 1 degree intervals from about -10C to 110C) How do you know what the real temperature is and where and how to measure it? I live at sea level. I have tried "calibrating" a number of thermometers by sticking them in boiling water. I have used wort, tap water and charcoal filtered tap water with similar results. The tap water here in Sydney is pretty soft, pH=7, but I have not contacted the water board for an analysis. All thermometers used (3 of them) read water boiling at 105C (thereabouts) instead of 100C. The thermometers are supposedly accurate to 0.5C. I measure with the bulb immersed in the boiling liquid, the themometer dangling against the metal sides, with the cover on the pot. What is happening here? Is the metal pot at a greater temperature than the liquid and conducting through the glass to the mercury? Even if I dangle just the very tip into an uncovered boiling pot the temperature reads 102C or so. This raises a number of points: - presumably there is a "standard technique" for temperature measurement I am not following correctly. If so, what is it? - are the thermometers inaccurate? -does wort boil at a higher or lower temperature than water (or the same?). I know that salty solutions have a higher boiling point, but what is your average wort? In any case there is obviously a problem here. I know that if I have seen it, many others will have it too, without even realising. It is easy to just believe what that thermometer tells you without question. When 1C can make a difference to your mash you need to be sure your mash is at the temperature you think it is. I am sure someone can shed some light on this. Andy Walsh Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 13:32:42 -0700 (PDT) From: Jeff Frane <gummitch at teleport.com> Subject: A Retraction in re: rings In a recent Digest, I stuck my foot in it by declaiming that bottle neck rings were a definite sign of contamination. Charlie Gow was the first (and definitely not the last) to point out the hole in my adamantine statement -- the possibility of rings being a result of wort priming. I confess it didn't occur to me, since I've only run across the relationship of wort priming and rings a couple of times in the HBD and nowhere else. I bottled that way a few times, years ago, and had no problems. But, a couple of people have reported the same and I now see a reference to it in Dave Miller's book: "A minor disadvantage is that bottle fermentation may throw a ring of yeast and and hop resins around the necks of your bottles; this is purely cosmetic but may lead judges to conclude that your beer is infected before they ever taste it." p 170 So, mea culpa. - --Jeff Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 13 Jun 94 11:08:10 -0400 From: kit.anderson at acornbbs.com Subject: Zoological zymurgy TO: homebrew at hpfcmi.fc.hp.com 'Zoological Zymurgy' or Brewing With Live Animals by Kit Anderson Throughout brewing history, somebody has always managed to add something extra to the mash tun or boiling kettle in order to come up with a beer that pushed the envelope. Being a grain beverage, you can find references that every known grain has been used in beer. For added flavor, most herbs, spices, and fruit have been tried. Bold moves, yes. But limited to vegetable matter. Little has been written about the varied protein sources available on this planet that have been under utilized in the brewing process. I am referring, of course, to the animal kingdom. I am not talking the minor amount of bee parts found in honey. We need to discuss intentionally adding animals to beer. And because we are always concerned with sanitation and freshness, live animals are necessary. After all, who would want a second sip of a 'Rigor Mortis Porter'. A buzzard perhaps, but not humans. One of the only writers to mention animals is Charlie Papazian who wrote of a beer described by Edwaed Spencer in 1899 that used a rooster in secondary. Charlie also made a reference to adding horseflesh to stout. He didn't pursue this enough. It might have been a fining agent. He did give a recipe for 'Goat Scrotum Ale' in TNCJOHB. But in looking at the ingredients, one could not find a reference to goat. I first became interested in 'zoological zymurgy' while reading Jackson's 'Beer Companion'. He wrote of people in the British Isles becoming enamored with drinking stout while eating oysters. After downing a few, some science major probably began dropping oysters in his stout. This practice caught on and several breweries started adding oysters to their stouts. Pike Place Brewery in Seattle attempted to resurrect this style, but they used granulated oysters and the flavor was too 'oystery'. I decided to try it since these are two of my favorite foods. I split a five gallon batch of a dry stout. One half pint of freshly shucked (live) Pemaquid, Maine oysters went into secondary. The control stout finished fermenting a full week before the oysters. At bottling, I added 1/4 pound of lactose to give a little more mouth feel. "What's it like?", you ask. Well, you can smell it when you open the bottle. Initially, you can't taste it. But let it warm on your tongue ...just a little. There is a slight tingling. Swallow. There it is! 'Red Tide Stout'! The fabulous frenetic flavor of fermented filter feeders frolics on your pharynx. The after taste is the same as after a round of smoked oysters. Is it good? Yes! Can you drink a lot of this? No. But I don't pound kreik lambic all night either. A perfect cigar beer. Paul White of the 'Brew Free or Die' Homebrew Club in New Hampshire likes to brew Belgian ales. The following is from their newsletter. "The perfect garnish for Belgian ales is a spider. When bottling, use 1 spider per six pack, or 1 in every 3 quarts. They are great for perking up a party- everyone checks their glasses and conversations pick up. The first thing you need to do is catch the appropriate size spiders. This is easier than you think. Choose a spot in your house that spiders like to roam, like a basement, closet, porch, attic, or out in the garage. Next, sanitize and air dry 12 or more beer bottles. Twist off are OK. Set the bottles in your chosen trapping area. Check Weekly. If you don't have any luck is 3-4 weeks, change hunting grounds. Once you have a spider in a bottle, move it to a warm, sunny window sill. Do not feed or water the spider. This would make the spider too big and slow down the drying process. When dry, shake the finished product into a mason jar along with a packet of silica gel that came with the last piece of electronic equipment you bought. Voila! You have dried spiders ready for use. Don't worry about legs that fall off. Most people won't notice. Pieces and parts can be used in the boil and whole units for bottling. Store your spiders next to the eye of newt. If you keg your beer, add a spider to the glass before filling. These tend to be crispier than bottle conditioned." The above examples have used animals intentionally. In science, however, the unexpected sometimes becomes your result. Genius comes into play when the you realize an accident is actually a major discovery. Such as with Maine Ale and Lager Tasters president Brews Stevens' lambic. Brews brewed up a 15 gallon batch of cloudy wheat beer and put it into three five gallon buckets in the basement of his vintage home. The joists are carefully hung with spider webs duplicating Leifman's brewery in Belgium. He left the covers off and allowed chance to do the wild thing with his brew. After three weeks, he discarded one bucket with brown scum on it while the other two held a healthy looking white fuzz. A bunch of us were sipping the result (an outstanding cassis lambic) as Brews related this tale. At bottling time, Brews noticed an area of gray fuzz in the head of one of the buckets. So, he scooped out what he thought was a minor area of mold. It turned out to be a field mouse. Brews said, "He had a smile on his face, though!" We all laughed and said it was too bad that the batch was ruined. "Ruined!", exclaimed Brews. "I put ten pounds of black currants to it!" After a moment of silence...we looked down at our glasses.... looked at Brews...Naw....Yeah!! Someone, I don't remember who, passed 'Mouseketeer Cassis Lambic' through his nose. I hadn't seen that trick since Ronnie Farr shot milk out his nose after watching Mundo Gorgis eat his own ear wax in second grade. We all watched and took another sip. Hmm. None of that typical rodent after taste. More silence. "You know what living organisms do when they die?", asked Dr. Tom, our club physician. "They void their bowels and bladder." We looked at our glasses....looked at Dr. Tom...looked at Brews...took another sip. Hmm. None of that typical rodent-after after taste. - --- ~ CMPQwk #1.4~ UNREGISTERED EVALUATION COPY Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 14 Jun 94 09:08:55 EDT From: Spencer.W.Thomas at med.umich.edu Subject: Infection Rings; Lovibond As I understand it, the L rating of grains & other wort additives is computed as follows: for L in 0-10: rating is based on the color (absorbance at a particular wavelength) of 1 lb in 1 gallon of water. L in 10-100: Compute L for 0.1 lb in 1 gallon, multiply by 10. L above 100: Computer L for 0.01 lb in 1 gallon, multiply by 100. Thus, if there is any non-linearity at all, one would expect DISTINCT breaks at 10 and 100. Indeed Manning's curve shows this sort of behavior. Of course, I may have totally misunderstood what I read.... =S Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 14 Jun 94 09:13:37 EDT From: Allan Rubinoff <rubinoff at BBN.COM> Subject: YeastLabs European Lager yeast In HBD #1449, rpyle1 at ef2007.efhd.ford.com (Robert Pyle) writes: >I pitched one package of rehydrated European Lager dry yeast and kept >the fermenter in my dining room at about 70 deg. F for about 18 hours. >I then racked into a carboy and put into my freezer at 57 deg. F last >night. I plan to drop the temperature 5 degrees per day to 45 degrees >and ferment there until completion. I mostly brew English ales, and during the winter the temperature in my apartment was too cold for ale yeast. Since I use dry yeast, I decided to try the YeastLab European Lager, which seems to be the only dry lager yeast available. I've heard the warnings about lager yeast not being able to withstand the rigors of the drying process, but I decided to give it a shot anyway. I brewed two batches with this yeast and they turned out fine. One of them, a brown "ale," was quite good, though a little dry. In the Summer '94 Zymurgy, Patrick Weix has a published a chart of information on various yeast strains. He says that this yeast is supposed to produce a clean lager, and that it should be fermented between 60 and 70 degrees. That temperature range doesn't sound right for lager yeast. So what gives? Anybody know anything more about this yeast? Is it actually a lager yeast? If so, has YeastLab figured out a way to dry lager yeast without harming it? Thanks, Allan Rubinoff <rubinoff at bbn.com> Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 14 Jun 94 09:23:50 EDT From: Spencer.W.Thomas at med.umich.edu Subject: Skunks Now we know the real reason for lids on German beer mugs. To keep the beer from skunking while you quaff in the Biergarten! =S Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 07:58:29 -0400 From: ryancr at allspice.jsan.gtefsd.com (Rich Ryan) Subject: shipping damage >Jack said, >The "manufacturer" (that's me) received complete restitution from UPS for > the damage and to imply that it was an "initial" attempt to slough off > production problems on shipping damage is less than unkind. That's funny, I had a feeling you would say that. At least you staying with the same story you told him. I'm glad you've cleared up your production problems. Rich Ryan ryancr at allspice.jsan.gtefsd.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 09:25:30 -0500 From: Hart at actin.rutgers.edu (Ron Hart) Subject: yeast starters Domenick Venezia <venezia at zgi.com> writes: >I have always blindly, unthinkingly used some hops when making up my yeast >starters. The question is "why bother?". >... >So let's start a thread, who hops their yeast starters and why? I wondered the same thing. Like Domenick, I have access to regular lab glassware, autoclaves, etc., so I figured I'd just use more standard culturing methods. Why bother with hops when they're not needed to keep the yeast happy? So I make my starter with light DME and Difco Yeast Extract similar to Domenick's recipe, then autoclave for 30 minutes. I use 2 lit culture flasks, which have "fingers" around the bottom edge of the flask for aeration, and a metal culture cap. There is no real danger of contamination. I begin my cultures from agar plates made from LB+0.2% glucose by picking a single colony with a sterile loop into a 250 ml culture flask containing 50 ml LB+0.2% glucose (BTW, LB is a standard, rich bacterial medium. I add glucose since yeasts like extra sugar). This is grown overnight in a 30C shaking incubator. Then it is pitched into the 500-1000 ml DME culture described above. It's again incubated with shaking 30C overnight. By this time, it's foamy, with visible yeast settling when the shaking stops, and it smells distinctly of freshly-baked bread. So that's my method, which I realize might be kind of hard for real homebrewers. But my question is about the aeration. My starter cultures are grown _very_ aerobically, then pitched. I've always assumed that since I can keep my cultures sterile right up to pitching, this would be an advantage, building up stores of sterols (according to Fix). This works very well, with my fermentation beginning quickly and smoothly (hardly ever any foaming-over). Does the fact that the starter is aerobic bother anyone? Ron Hart Department of Biological Science, Rutgers University Newark hart at actin.rutgers.edu Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #1450, 06/15/94