HOMEBREW Digest #4380 Wed 22 October 2003

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  Re: tempering malt (petr.otahal)
  Re: Old thread on mead ("Mark Tumarkin")
  More Spent Grain Uses (Jonathan Royce)
  Carpet Stains (beer related) (Jonathan Royce)
  Starter wort shelf life (David Harsh)
  Re: Old thread on mead (Jeff Renner)
  advice for touring Belgian breweries? ("larry  maxwell")
  Re: tempering malt (Jeff Renner)
  Re: Immersion Chiller Efficiency (Jeff Renner)
  Immersions and other cool things ("Dr. Pivo")
  making mead quickly (ensmingr)
  Lookout California Here I come! ("Philip J Wilcox")
  re:Immersion Chiller (" Holistic Hound")
  Quick mead ("Dave Burley")
  Re: Nutrition/Recipes for Spent Grains (David Radwin)
  Questions on rauchbiers (Paul Shick)
  re: Degassing SG readings ("Chad Stevens")
  Music City Brewers Spirit of Homebrewing deadline extention (johncampbell)
  Whoops! (making mead quickly) (ensmingr)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 17:31:02 +1000 (EST) From: petr.otahal at aardvark.net.au Subject: Re: tempering malt >From: Jeff Renner <jeffrenner at comcast.net> > >Not only did it result in better milling, there was less dust. > >Since I never (knock on wood) have stuck mashes, I can't say that >this improved runoff. My efficiency was a bit higher than usual, >however. Hi Jeff, I have used this method many times before, generally I add around 10-15mL cold water per kilo of grain (thats somewhere around 1/4oz water per lb of grain if my math is correct), stir thoroughly, and rest for 15-20min. I don't use this method regularly anymore because it can jam my mill, but I do use it to crush the barley malt for my wheat beers. I found as you did Jeff, that my husks came out very intact, broken into no more than two pieces, and less dust was created during milling. I couldn't come to a conclusion as to whether or not it improved my efficiency. >This toughens the husk a bit, keeping >it from breaking into as many pieces as it might otherwise. I expect that it doesn't toughen the husk but actually makes it softer and more pliable, so it is less inclined to crack into many pieces while it is squashed between the rollers. Cheers Petr Otahal Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 06:47:27 -0400 From: "Mark Tumarkin" <mark_t at ix.netcom.com> Subject: Re: Old thread on mead Welcome back, Kirk. you asked about > making a drinkable mead that was ready in a matter of > months instead of years. I can't remember who wrote it, or the > specific information, but the gist of it was to use an ale > yeast, use PLENTY of yeast nutrients, wait until bottling to add > acid, etc. If anybody has the specifics of this topic, please > let me know. You've got the basics there. I'd add a couple of things to the mix. Most importantly, control your fermentation temps. Many people make mead at ambient room temps. While mead is more forgiving than beer in this respect, you'll end up with a much cleaner mead (and one drinkable more quickly) if you keep the temps in the mid-60s. As you mention, nutrients are also key. With this in mind, you might consider adding some fruit juice. This will provide a lot more nutrients without requiring as long a settling/clearing time as whole fruit. If you don't want to make a melomel (fruit mead), consider adding a small amount of DME, 1/2 cup or so in a 5 gal batch. This will make the yeast happy without significantly affecting flavor. Also, a lower gravity mead will ferment more quickly & cleanly. Use something less than a gal of honey for a 5 gal batch. Serving the mead carbonated, rather than still, can also help improve a young mead's drinkability. Oxygenate well before pitching, but be very careful when racking or bottling .... mead is very susceptible to oxidation (though sometimes the effects can add to complexity, though this usually requires aging). All that said, while it's entirely possible to make a mead that is quite drinkable at several months; more time will usually improve it significantly. At the very least, put a six-pack or so aside and sample over time to see the effects of aging. It can make a huge difference...... though you'll be incredibly sad when the last bottle of aged mead is gone. So start another batch and let it begin aging. Mead is extremely simple to make - though, like many things, making a truly great one isn't so easy. good luck, Mark Tumarkin Hogtown Brewers Gainesville, FL Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 05:09:27 -0700 From: Jonathan Royce <jonathan at woodburybrewingco.com> Subject: More Spent Grain Uses Steve Smith asked about spent grain uses. I recently also have been on a quest to use mine for more productive things than compost. I made bread one time, but I found that a yeast bread on HB day makes for a LONG day. Last time I made dog biscuits, but I don't have a dog so they were just gifts for coworkers & friends (with dogs). However, in making the doggie treats, I realized that spent grains must be perfect for making granola bars, so that's on the schedule for next time. There are a lot of granola bar recipes on the internet and I don't think they'll be too difficult to adapt to spent grains. Just do a google search. I most certainly will post back here if I'm successful with mine. Anyone else? Jonathan Woodbury Brewing Co. www.woodburybrewingco.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 05:16:57 -0700 From: Jonathan Royce <jonathan at woodburybrewingco.com> Subject: Carpet Stains (beer related) Sunday night I was labeling bottles while watching the game on TV and with all of the distractions I managed to knock a 12-pack from a TV tray and break two full bottles of pale ale on our living room carpet. Now there is a nice brown stain in the middle of our tan berber carpet and I am having some difficulty getting it out. Tried so far: - Tons of paper towels, followed by wet/dry shop-vac'ing, followed by Resolve, followed by rubbing with warm water-soaked towels, followed by more vac'ing. Stain looked like it was gone, but upon drying it was obviously still there next AM. - Rented a Rug Doctor and used their Spot Remover (not Pet Stain remover). Cleaned the area of the stain as well as the rest of the carpet (HEY, I paid for the thing for 24 hours anyway!) Again, stain looked like it had vanished, but by the next AM it was back. I am starting to worry that the pad is full of beer and what is happening is that it is wicking back into the carpet. Tonight I am going to try Oxyclean and hopefully avoid overwetting so that I can test my wicking theory. Anyone have any other tips? This is most inopportune for me as we are moving and our house is on the market. The stain isn't smack-you-in-the-face obvious, but it is certainly noticeable to someone who is looking closely. Thanks in advance, Jonathan Woodbury Brewing Co. www.woodburybrewingco.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 08:31:15 -0400 From: David Harsh <dharsh at fuse.net> Subject: Starter wort shelf life > From: Steve Funk <steve at hheco.com> > > Does anyone have a rough idea of how long canned DME/LME based wort > will > remain good for growing yeast starters? Are there any deleterious > effects to using old starter wort? If so, how old? Is there special > storage criteria? The reason for asking is that I have several quarts > of starter wort that I canned a couple of years ago but it looks as if > some things have precipitated and I'm wondering if this is a problem. In order: Forever, No, N/A, 50-70 F If (and this a big one) you properly pressure canned it- it will last forever, or at least be sterile until you open it as long as a vacuum remains on the jar. I think its at the Pasteur Institute where they have some of Louis' swan neck flasks that remain uninnoculated after a couple hundred years - and they are open to the atmosphere. After pressure canning, I routinely see more precipitate in the jars. I don't worry about it, I just decant the starter into another jar when I use it. And no, my beer isn't ruined. I've always assumed that the combination of pressure and temperature causes an additional hot break. I once asked Chris White about the need for pressure canning and the danger of botulism in starters. He was unaware if anyone had ever successfully gotten it to grow in wort, but clearly wasn't willing to tell me there was no danger. The last time I saw it published, the USDA "limit" for something being considered an acid food was maximum pH 4.6 (that may have been updated in recent years and you may wish to check as I'm not responsible for anything that happens to you) I also once read that boiling at 10 minutes at low altitudes will destroy the botulism toxin. So as a starter, it theoretically wouldn't matter - but I haven't been willing to test that one either. It is recommended that canned food be stored between 50 and 70 F, but I've never figured out the reason for those limits. If you want more information, the USDA is a good place to start; from a commercial standpoint the "Ball BlueBook" is a fairly comprehensive guide to home canning. Although older versions are more technically oriented, their standards may not be current. I have a new version that doesn't even mention half gallon jars and just gives you recipes w/out explanation... Dave Harsh Bloatarian Brewing League Cincinnati, OH Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 08:38:04 -0400 From: Jeff Renner <jeffrenner at comcast.net> Subject: Re: Old thread on mead Kirk Harralson <kirk78h at yahoo.com> stumbles out of the woods and writes: >I just re-subscribed to the HBD after a very long absence (5+years). >I'm amazed at some of the old names still kicking the brewing >knowledge around! I'm no doubt one of those old names. Welcome back to the fold. >I know there was a thread many years ago regarding tips on making a >drinkable mead that was ready in a matter of months instead of >years. I can't remember who wrote it, or the specific information, >but the gist of it was to use an ale yeast, use PLENTY of yeast >nutrients, wait until bottling to add acid, etc. I'm not a regular mead maker, but I have been following this since Charlie P wrote in Zymurgy in the early 80's about his trip to a New Zealand meadery. He reported that they had a secret method of producing fine meads quickly. Over the years it became apparent that the trick is to keep the pH of the fermenting mead from dropping too low (becoming too acidic). A solution of honey and water (called must - a wine making term) has virtually no buffering capacity, so acidic yeast fermentation byproducts drop the pH quickly to a point where the yeast is debilitated and it ferments very slowly. It is necessary to monitor pH and add calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as needed to keep the pH in a desirable range. Then if you do need to adjust the acidity, you do it after it's finished. Nutrients also are important. HBDer Ken Schramm's new book, The Compleat Meadmaker, promises to be the standard for meadmakers. I'm sure it has details, but I can't check as I've loaned out my autographed copy. You might also want to join Mead Lover's Digest. Send a subscribe message to <mead-request at talisman.com> (replace the @ that the HBD bot has taken out). Cheers Jeff - -- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan USA, JeffRenner at comcast.net "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943 Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 09:02:36 -0400 From: "larry maxwell" <larrymax at bellsouth.net> Subject: advice for touring Belgian breweries? I have a trip planned to Brussels in late January, and I have about three or four days during which I would like to experience whatever I can in the way of brewery/ monastery tours or other any beer-related places or events. I don't know where to look to find out what is where, whether tours are offered or can be negotiated, how to get there, etc. (1) Have any of you done such a mini-tour? If so, I would appreciate all the recommendations and advice you can give me. (2) Are there any books or web sites with Belgian beer-related travel advice that might have just such a tour route outlined? A search of the HBD archives turned up lots of relevant posts and mentions of individual brewery tours, but I didn't see anything that outlined exactly what route one could take to hit several places over the course of a few days. (I will not have a car ... fortunately :-) Larry Maxwell Atlanta, GA larrymax at bellsouth.net Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 09:53:36 -0400 From: Jeff Renner <jeffrenner at comcast.net> Subject: Re: tempering malt Petr Otahal wrote: >I have used this method many times before, generally I add around >10-15mL cold water per kilo of grain (thats somewhere around 1/4oz >water per lb of grain if my math is correct), stir thoroughly, and >rest for 15-20min. Good to hear from you, Petr. You have done the math correctly, or maths, as you all down under probably say. I used a bit more: 3-4 oz. for 11 lbs, or ~18-24 ml/kg. [Rant mode on] Too bad you even have to do the calculations. If only the US had gone through with the metrication that it started with the 1975 Metric Conversion Act. Even though it was started under a conservative president (Ford), it was jerked to a halt by an even more conservative one (Regan). Today the whole word uses metric except the US and our buddies Liberia and Burma. See http://www.metric4us.com/. [Rant mode off] >I couldn't come to a conclusion as to whether or not it improved my >efficiency. I wouldn't really want to claim this either without actually testing it, which I don't care to do. It seemed a bit higher than usual, but by very little, and it could very well have been due to other factors, such as the fact that I mashed for 90 minutes as opposed to my usual 60 minutes. I ran out to get more propane and didn't leave until the mash was more than half over. I don't know whether I will continue to do this or not since I had trouble with the malt feeding at the end of the second pass, which was a pain, but it was a remarkable result in appearance, if nothing else. Jeff - -- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan USA, JeffRenner at comcast.net "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943 Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 10:06:11 -0400 From: Jeff Renner <jeffrenner at comcast.net> Subject: Re: Immersion Chiller Efficiency A few years back, Dan McConnell and Ken Schramm wrote two articles for Zymurgy* on counter-flow and immersion wort chillers. They and a few other AABG members (including me) "road" tested a number of chillers (well, actually, it was a driveway test - my driveway; my well water is 48-53F (9-12C) depending on the season). Among the conclusions reached and quantified was that agitating greatly speeded up chilling with immersion chillers. One way of accomplishing this, which I use, is to recirculate the cooling wort with a pump. This also helps clarify the wort by filtering it through the bed of hops on the false bottom. Once the temperature reaches 80F or so (~27C) I begin aerating to oxygenate the wort. I do this by cracking open the hose fitting on the kettle outlet. This allows the pump to pull a stream of bubbles. The pump impeller beats the bubbles to a very small size, increasing the surface area and, presumably, the absorption of O2. I continue this until I reach the desired temperature and also when I pump the wort to the fermenter. Sometimes I add the well suspended yeast to the cooling wort in the kettle. No, the hops don't filter out the yeast, as long as there are no lumps. BTW, the big winner on counterflow speed tests was the Heart chiller, which is no doubt why they have posted the counterflow article at http://www.heartshomebrew.com/home_brew_beer.cgi?cart_id=&page=Zymurgy_ Evaluating_Wort_Chillers.html. (cut and paste the divided URL) It kicked butt. Rumor is that it is the oil cooler from a semi. It is compact and really efficient. There are advantages to both kinds of chillers. I prefer an immersion chiller because it leaves both hot and cold break behind in the kettle on the hop filter bed. Jeff *SPRING 1996 (VOL. 19, NO.1) "From Hot to Cold: A Cool Brew Cruise: A Counterflow Wort Chiller Road Test" Daniel S. McConnell Ph.D. and Kenneth D. Schramm FALL 1996 (VOL. 19, NO.3) "Cool Coils - Immersion Chiller Road Test" Daniel S. McConnell, Ph.D., and Kenneth D. Schramm - -- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan USA, JeffRenner at comcast.net "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943 Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 16:40:44 +0200 From: "Dr. Pivo" <dp at pivo.w.se> Subject: Immersions and other cool things Eric Ahrent has a very good memory: > Several years (1999 or so?)back Doc Pivo posted about a > setup he had that caused the chiller to "jump" (using > water hammer) every so often. For the life of me I > can't remember the mechanism, but it addressed this > very issue. > Indeed it did. Pretty simple really. I'm not the first to notice that "shaking the chiller" speeds cooling times, nor the first to notice that turning on and off the faucet causes the immersion coils to "jump" with the pressure change... I just wanted to automate it. I took a "check valve" (or "foot valve"; or "safety valve", or any other spring loaded valve will do... the same principle as the safety vavle atop the cornie keg, only bigger but less spring action), and put it in line with an expansion chamber filled with air. The water pressure compressed the air until the pressure was enough to compress the spring, whoosh went the water, and then the spring closed the valve and the coil "jumped". A little playing with flow rates and spring strengths, and you can get a regular little "choo-choo train" that will amuse a simpleton like myself. It's just sort of using the "stick-slip" principle instead of getting used by it. That little toy is now doing service in "the Museum of Archaic Brewing Instruments".... which is to say - an unknown location in one of the barns. I found a better way. A counter flow AND an immersion. Instead of moving the coil you move the wort. As you start pulling through the counter flow, you are moving wort past the immersion. It's sort of a "1 plus 1 is equal to 4" solution. Where the combination works far better than you would expect from each one by itself. Dr. Pivo Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 12:18:28 -0400 From: ensmingr <ensmingr at twcny.rr.com> Subject: making mead quickly Numerous commercial mead makers treat their must (unfermented honey and water) with an ultrafiltration system (~0.1 micron) and then add yeast for fermentation. Ultrafiltration removes high MW proteins and suspended contaminants; boiling/heating is unnecessary. Fermentation is complete in about two weeks at which time the meads are clear, smooth, and ready to drink. Unfortunately, ultrafiltration systems are prohibitively expensive for home mead-makers. By contrast, my own meads take a year or more to develop that amount of smoothness. Is a one month old batch of ultrafiltered mead better than a batch that is unfiltered but aged instead? Not sure. But if I were a commercial mead maker, I would definitely use ultrafltration. Some key references on mead ultrafiltration: *Kime, R.W. et al. 1991. An Improved Method of Mead Production. American Bee Journal 6: 394. *Kime, R.W. et al. 1991. Ultrafiltration of Honey for Mead Production. American Bee Journal 8: 517. Cheerio! Peter A. Ensminger Syracuse, NY http://www.hbd/ensmingr Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 12:30:47 -0400 From: "Philip J Wilcox" <pjwilcox at cmsenergy.com> Subject: Lookout California Here I come! Suds up, Dudes, (and Dudettes) I'll be taking the newest brewer in the family for short tour of California the first week of November. I'll be flying into LAX, Staying in Plya Del Ray and Bera to visit the sisters before heading to Modesto to introduce the baby to her Great-Grandma. So if you know of brewpubs/breweries/beerbars in these area's I have built in babysitters and would love to swap suds with a few West Coast HBD'ers! Email me and we'll swap Cell phone numbers as plans firm up. Phil Wilcox Poison Frog Home Brewery Bumblefrog Meadery Leaping Frog Winery Warden - Prison City Brewers AABG, AHA, BJCP, CAP, etc. and so on ... Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 09:58:36 -0700 From: " Holistic Hound" <david at holistic-hound.ca> Subject: re:Immersion Chiller David Townsend writes: >In HBD 4378, with reference to having to continuously move an immersion >chiller up and down to maintain cooling efficiency, Pete Calinski asks: "To >me it means the chiller should be moving almost constantly. Anybody ever >experience this or tried continuous movement?" >For some time, I have been using a counterflow chiller. But during my >"immersion chiller days", I noted the same thing, and I regularly moved the >chiller up and down the whole time it was in use. I tried just parking the >thing near the top of the liquid and letting convection do the work, but >that was no where near as effective as keeping it moving. In essence, a counter flow chiller is an immersion chiller that is constantly moving. The theory being that the larger the temperature difference between the cooling medium and the liquid being cooled, the greater the rate of heat transfer. What happens with an immersion chiller when it is stationary,the cooling process only takes place where the liquid to be cooled physically touches the chiller. The thin film of liquid surrounding the chiller transmits some of the heat to the cooler but acts more as an insulator; slowing down the rate of heat transfer. If the chiller is constantly moving (as the cooling water is constantly moving in a counterflow chiller) this film of cooled liquid isn't able to insulate the chiller. Because the chiller is moving, a maximum heat difference is maintained; therefore, the speed at which the heat is transferred stays high as well. Same goes for the people who stir as opposed to moving the chiller up and down. David Gates Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 14:01:19 -0400 From: "Dave Burley" <Dave_Burley at charter.net> Subject: Quick mead Brewsters: Kirk rejoins us ( welcome back) and asks how to make quick mead or at least to avoid the year(s) long wait typical of pure honey meads to finish fermenting. Kirk, the basic problem with mead is that honey has no buffers in it ( unlike wort and fruit musts). This causes the pH to drop rapidly during the fermentation and it quickly drops below the pH where yeast enzymes can operate easily. Solution one - make meads which contain fruit or wort Solution two - Add calcium carbonate 1 tsp at a time per 5 gallons to keep the pH in the 4s region until the fermentation is finished. Often a teaspoon or two is sufficient. This will allow mead to ferment in a normal time of a week or two ( depending on the yeasts you use, the OG, temperature, etc.) and produce a sounder product consistently. Keep on Brewin' Dave Burley Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 11:13:58 -0700 From: David Radwin <dradwin at sbcglobal.net> Subject: Re: Nutrition/Recipes for Spent Grains > From: "Steve Smith" <sasmith at in-tch.com> > Second, if there can be a > place in the diet for it, are there other kinds of food recipes, besides > bread, that utilize spent grains? I can't speak to the nutritive value, but my dogs like this recipe for dog biscuits: http://hbd.org/hbd/archive/3775.html#3775-7 I've found that you don't have to do the second (long) bake immediately after the first bake--you can wait a day or split it up over two days. Also, apparently you can make spent grain into breakfast cereal. I haven't tried this personally: http://hbd.org/hbd/archive/1562.html#1562-16 - -- David Radwin This email account forwards to trash. Reply to news at removethis.davidradwin.com. Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 15:53:09 -0400 From: Paul Shick <shick at jcu.edu> Subject: Questions on rauchbiers Hi all, I'm about to start a run of lagers, and I'm planning to make a rauchbier for one of them, since I've run across some nice Bamberg-type smoked malt. Since I use an immersion chiller and leave most of the break and trub in the kettle, I generally rack one batch to a secondary and put the new batch right onto the primary yeast cake. For lagers, I try to get about three brews out of the yeast this way, usually increasing the gravity with each batch. I'm planning to do a run of a helles, a Vienna, a rauchbier and a bock, probably in that order. Am I likely to have some smoky flavor carry over to a later batch from the rauchbier yeast? If this seems likely, I'll just grow up some more yeast separately for the bock, but I thought I'd first ask the group if anyone has tried this. While I'm planning the rauchbier, I'm curious about how much smoked malt people have used in their rauchbiers. Looking at some recipes, it seems to vary from as little as 10% to as much as 100% of the grist. The Weyermann smoked malt I've got is a bit old, so I plan to use a fair bit, but I'm leery of going much over 50% of the grist, with the rest being Vienna and Munich malts, with a touch of Caramunich. I'd welcome any feedback from anyone who's played with the style. And yes, before anyone suggests it, I _am_ ordering the Daniels and Larson AHA Styles book. Thanks in advance for any feedback. Paul Shick Cleveland Heights, Ohio Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 13:27:34 -0700 From: "Chad Stevens" <zuvaruvi at cox.net> Subject: re: Degassing SG readings A week or two ago someone was pondering degassing methods. In his attempt to degas, he realized he had boiled off the alcohol when he raised the temp to 180. I just read this little blurb in Noonan's "New Brewing Lager Beer." Thought you might like to see it: Page 186. "Real and Apparent Attenuation: ...The real attenuation can be determined. First, a volume of beer is measured at the temperature the brewer's hydrometer is calibrated to, usually 60 or 68 degrees F, and is decarbonated, usually by membrane filtration. This volume of beer is raised to a temperature of 173 degrees F or slightly higher and roused for 30 to 60 minutes to drive off the alcohol. The sample is cooled to 60 degrees F and topped-up to its original volume with distilled water. The volume of water required to replace the lost volume of beer, divided by the original volume, is equal to the percent alcohol by volume of the beer. The hydrometer reading of the dealcoholized sample, after topping-up, accurately reflects the real extract content of the beer. The real attenuation is measured by subtracting this reading from the original OG of the wort." Looks like you stumbled into the right path after all. Hope this helps, Chad Stevens San Diego Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 15:46:54 -0500 From: johncampbell at comcast.net Subject: Music City Brewers Spirit of Homebrewing deadline extention We received only one entry for this special category before the dead line for the 8th Annual Music City Brew Off. Several brewers and judges have emailed expressing a desire to bring late entries. Late entries will be accepted for this category only until the day of show this Saturday October 25th at 8am. If you have any questions, please contact me. Cyserman http://musiccitybrewers.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 19:42:29 -0400 From: ensmingr <ensmingr at twcny.rr.com> Subject: Whoops! (making mead quickly) In the previous post, I meant to say that commercial ultrafiltration of mead must uses a 0.01 to 0.1 micron (not ~0.1 micron) filter, and removes large and medium-sized proteins and other molecules. Cheerio! Peter A. Ensminger Syracuse, NY http://hbd.org/ensmingr Return to table of contents
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