HOMEBREW Digest #4483 Tue 24 February 2004

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  Re: mass flow meters ("-S")
  RE: Garden Hose in brewing? ("Renato Bugge")
  Chooks In Our Shorts? ("Phil Yates")
  Unused Brewing Equipment (Alexandre Enkerli)
  RE:Garden Hoses ("Pat and Debbie")
  Mass Flow Meters ("Pete Calinski")
  Re: mass flow meters ("Mike Sharp")
  Regarding Turndown ("Mike Sharp")
  Re: Link of the week ("Richard S. Sloan")
  static fizz (Burn Unit)
  Seattle brewpubs ("Peter A. Ensminger")
  Lead and garden hose misinformation? (Calvin Perilloux)
  Clinit*st availability, unflavored water hoses ("Dave Burley")
  Cool Technology (no pun intended) ("Reif and Angie Hammond")
  max safe ambient temp for ful CO2 tank ("Andy and Tina Bailey")
  Solvent and banana flavors ("Steve Smith")
  Fifth Annual Lallemand Scholarship! ("Rob Moline")

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 01:44:16 -0500 From: "-S" <-s at adelphia.net> Subject: Re: mass flow meters Mike says ..., > > Still the MFMs are temp sensitive > No, they're not that bad. [...] 0C to 50C. The ones I see on Omega are 1.5%FS from 18C to 25C but only 3%FS from 0-50C. [low resolution and error issues ] > But if you're interested in the *integral* of flow (the total CO2 mass > produced), I'd say the accuracy at the low end doesn't really matter all > that much. I disagree. The cumulative error at that low end is very important. Look at Ken's data, ~400L from a 5gal ferment. If you are off by 15ml/min for a 42 hour ferment that's 40L (10% total) error!! Also about a third of his non-zero data is below the turndown point assuming 500ml/min and 10:1. I don't want a thermometer that's labeled cool, warm, hot - I want numerical results at least as accurately as a good hydrometer. Total CO2 to 3% accuracy and hopefully 1%. > If you're interested in the *rate* then buy a meter that's about > 150% of the rate you're interested in. You are missing the point. HBing is NOT an industrial process. Our peak CO2 rate will necessarily vary and we can't afford an extra sensor for each case. I will probably have to compromise, but that's the goal. > It's not fair to say you're > interested in the rate at all points! ;^) It's completely fair to seek better resolution & accuracy so long as I'm willing to pay for it. > Both coriolis and thermal mass flow meters have around a 10:1 turndown > ratio. Typically the accuracy is rated from 10% to 100%, but the > resolution is much better. > In the case of the Omega thermal mass flowmeter, the > repeatability is 0.5% FS. But while the coriolis MFMs have a better > accuracy for a given rate (about 0.5% of the rate, I think), they still > only go from 10%-100%. We are CLEARLY talking about two different things Mike. For anyone interested turndown ration is ... http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/32_494.html Coriolis MVDs have a turndown around 100:1 and as high as 500:1 and an accuracy of 0.1%; so error is spec down to 1% (or 0.2%). They are stunningly accurate and ideal for HB use. If only they were cheap ! > IMHO, It's hard to argue with 1-1.5% FS, when the turndown is 10 to 1. > You're still in within 10% of the actual rate at the low end. I agree that 1.5% is fine for a 10:1 turndown, but 10:1 isn't acceptable given the range of our parameter and my design requirement to get the integral under 3% total error. > And at the end of ferment, as you said, the source of a lot of that gas is > the CO2 coming out of solution, so it's not telling you much about the > current state of fermentation anyway. And it makes little difference in >the total gas produced. Mike - I can see why you don't care about several percent meter error when you throw away a 10% sized terms without a second thought.. Your approach is far too primitive for me at least. There are two distinct gas rates involved - the rate at which CO2 is produced by yeast (which related to the Balling eqn) and the rate that CO2 evolves from the fermenter(related to vols vs partial pressures and nucleation sites, etc) The wort/beer fluid acts as a reservoir of CO2 which absorbs and releases the gas according to some simple rules. The meter reads the evolved gas rate NOT the yeast CO2 production rate. You can determine an approximate figure for the supersaturation decay time constant and model the entire system with 1/ yeast CO2 production, 2/ wort CO2 reservoir and 3/ CO2 evolution rates all included. This is Control Theory 101 type stuff and I'm sure a dozen people on this forum can produce the eqn faster & better than I. Right now I don't have the hour necessary to fiddle with it. > so it's not telling you much about the > current state of fermentation anyway. The evolved and measured CO2 rate NEVER tells you directly what the yeast is doing. It's not just a problem at the end of fermentation. In the first part of fermentation the yeast produce CO2 but little is evolved - it stays in solution and the meter reads near zero. As the peak approached the wort CO2 buffer dampens the rate. Later the yeast have almost ceased fermenting but the CO2 evolution continues out of the buffer. The Wort/beer buffer effectively causes a phase shift of the "signal" which is the CO2 creation rate. The wort buffering of CO2 is a bit like throwing a capacitor over your signal voltage if you'd like a circuit analogy. The only way to derive a *dynamic* model is to correct for the wort buffering and that's ONLY rocket science. > And it makes little difference in >the total gas produced. No. In practice wort with typical gravity and attenuation will produce around 20-25 volumes of CO2. You CANNOT ignore even 0.5 vol of CO2 if you hope to match the accuracy of a good hydrometer. Ignoring the late evolution of supersaturated CO2 - gives around 6 % error ! Unacceptable. === It's a different topic but I've also been exploring driving supersaturated CO2 from the fermenter actively. This would improve fermentation and also make the model above much simpler. === > > The performance of Coriolis MVDs sensors looks completely outstanding, ... > You mean like: http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=2598064685&category=1504 No - that's a thermal MFM I believe. What I am talking about are Coriolis effect meters ... http://www.emersonprocess.com/micromotion/products/pdf/ELITE_PDS_ENG_00374_B.pdf I'm certainly not opposed to other technology or arranging several thermal MFMs to get accuracy but I really want the integral accuracy <3% at worst case. ==== "When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge of it is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced it to the stage of science", Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) "Hats off" to Ken A. For those who didn't realize - Ken took all those data points *manually* and it must have cost him a lot of sleep and being chained to his fermenter for several days in a row ! That's dedication. -Steve Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 09:33:05 +0100 From: "Renato Bugge" <renato.bugge at iet.ntnu.no> Subject: RE: Garden Hose in brewing? Pat Babcock wrote: > Something about garden hose (deleted).. :) > >Between pots, I've been in the habit of using washing machine >hookups (armored hose). This thread begs the question: is lead >involved in the manufacture of the interior hose of these >beasties? Maybe not, since hoses made throuhg a similar process >are used to hook up sinks; however, I still wonder... To my remeberance, such hoses consists of rubber interior and exterior with a fiber wowen in between the two layers. It has black inside and red outside? Rubber does not contain lead, but there could be trace amounts of sulphur (from the rubber processing). Garden hoses are essencially more cheaper versions made of plastic (and seldom rubber), personally I prefer rubber (not for wear, though). Running some hot water through the rubber hose should remove any sulphur, but to be shure you shuld add a little vinegar (not much!) to the water (the weak acid will dissolve any surface sulphur). Rubber hoses are essencially more expensive as they last many times longer. If you are only planning to brew a couple of batches of your favorite imperial stout, it shouldn't matter which type you use. Cheers! Renato Bugge, Trondheim, Norway. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 21:59:01 +1100 From: "Phil Yates" <phil.yates at bigpond.com> Subject: Chooks In Our Shorts? Steve Alexander makes note: > Phil Y notes ... > >I can't see anything wrong with sticking the odd chook in the cask > >when making Cock Ale, > > That sounds more than a bit perverse, but whatever twists your pickle > Phil ;^) Yes I was being a bit judgement - in jest. I don't generally > enjoy vegetables or poultry in beer and I can find a better place to > keep my chook. > > -S Oh dear oh dear, I see a dreadful misunderstanding here. I believe Steve has grasped the chook by the wrong end. In fact I think he's altogether grasped the wrong chook! I blame all this on Arnold Chickenshorts, who may have left a wrong interpretation of Aussie terms (and led Steve to believe we keep chickens or chooks in our trousers). But who would remember Arnold, other than Steve? My reference to Cock Ale comes from an old recipe that suggests it (the cock) be parboiled, flayed and stamped with a stone mortar till his bones are broken. With raisins, mace and a few cloves he is added to the cask before bottling. Mr Charles Papazian himself made reference to this very recipe in one of his early books. I'm a bit inclined though to agree with Steve, it might be one you drink whilst pinching your nose very tight. But on the other hand, who knows? It might be worth a try. I think homebrewing is all about getting away from laws and restrictions. What got me started (in brewing) was a fascination with being able to brew any style (or non style) you wanted. I'm surprised so many brewers tie themselves down to accepted styles, as though there is nothing else to discover. But be assured Steve, real Aussies don't keep chickens in their shorts, nor chooks for that matter. Phil Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 07:38:24 -0400 From: Alexandre Enkerli <aenkerli at indiana.edu> Subject: Unused Brewing Equipment Guy Gregory, of Spokane, WA (1660.4, 294.3 Rennerian) described his experience with rehabilitating some of his equipment after two years of something called "not brewing." My experience differs from his in that when I reused my equipment after leaving it for two years, not much more cleaning was needed. Likewise, the equipment I use now belongs to someone who has stopped using it three years ago and I've not had had any problem with this either. Well, there was a cracked racking cane which eventually gave up but it probably had little to do with storage. In both cases, I soaked the equipment in hot tap water for a while then inspected everything and soaked it in a chlorine solution. Extensive rinsing and then boiling some of the equipment. Use as usual. Good as new. Some of my own equipment (plastic and glass, including carboys) spent extended amounts of time in chlorine solution and I didn't perceive any effect of chlorine residue. Of course, I rinse very thoroughly and I boil everything that can be boiled. Of course, I made the mistake of boiling my hydrometer and kept getting weird readings. Turns out the paper in the hydrometer slid down because of the heat... ;-) But everything's fixed now and I brew happily ever after... Cheers! AleX in Moncton, NB [1568.9km, 68] Apparent Rennerian Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 08:19:02 -0600 From: "Pat and Debbie" <reddydp at charter.net> Subject: RE:Garden Hoses I piped hot water in to my existing pipe leading to the outside as I brew in the garage. This has several advantages that I'll save for another post. The problem I ran in to was that my "reinforced" garden hose lasted me 3 batches before it got some ugly bubbles in the cover and ultimately burst. I don't know about garden hose materials and how they may effect an otherwise healthy brew, but I can tell you without a doubt that garden hoses are NOT meant for high temps. PMR River Bound Brewing Co. - --- Outgoing mail is certified Virus Free. Checked by AVG anti-virus system (http://www.grisoft.com). Version: 6.0.593 / Virus Database: 376 - Release Date: 2/20/2004 Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 10:52:13 -0500 From: "Pete Calinski" <pjcalinski at adelphia.net> Subject: Mass Flow Meters Well, Mike Sharp said, "I'd be interested if someone could find a lower accuracy version (especially with a display) in the $100 range". I don't have the full solution but, just about every vehicle engine has a mass flow meter in the air cleaner path. Of course, this is just the sensor. The measurement and interpretation is done by the "vehicle computer". I have built the OBDII Scantool (http://www.scantool.net/index.htm) (no affiliation just a satisfied....) and use my PocketPC and/or PC to read the vehicle computer, including "Air Flow Rate (MAF sensor)". So a trip to the auto junk yard will get the sensor and hopefully the computer. Then buy the Scantool chip ($16.00) or complete unit. Tie it to your computer and you are off and running. If your junk yard version is the same system as your vehicle, you can also use it to shut off the "Check Engine" light so you won't need to keep the masking tape over the light. Of course I have no idea if the MAF measures in range of interest or can be modified to the correct range. Just an idea, I may get interested in this project. Hope this helps. Pete Calinski East Amherst NY Near Buffalo NY http://hbd.org/pcalinsk *********************************************************** *My goal: * Go through life and never drink the same beer twice. * (As long as it doesn't mean I have to skip a beer.) *********************************************************** Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 09:17:32 -0800 From: "Mike Sharp" <rdcpro at hotmail.com> Subject: Re: mass flow meters -S rants in typical fashion, saying among other things: > Coriolis MVDs have a turndown around 100:1 and as high as 500:1 > and an accuracy of 0.1%; so error is spec down to 1% > (or 0.2%). They are stunningly accurate and ideal for HB use. > If only they were cheap ! You need to re-examine what you've read. You don't get maximum accuracy at maximum turndown. The specified accuracy is governs the turndown ratio. As the TD increases, the accuracy gets worse. There isn't a Coriolis MFM made with 500:1 and 0.1% of rate! (BTW, MVD is Micromotion's trademark for their signal processing technology; there's no such thing as a Coriolis MVD unless you're talking about Micromotion Coriolis MFM with MVD). The thermal MFMs can work with higher TD, but like ALL measuring devices, the accuracy suffers if you require high TD. Coriolis MFMs are unique in that their accuracy is flat until the reading disappears in the zero stability region. They are "stunningly accurate" if the flow rate is high enough. They are stunningly inaccurate if the flow rate is very low, as it is here. However they are anything *BUT* ideal for HB use. In fact, (and as far as I'm concerned, this ends the discussion about coriolis MFMs), the meter you're so hot on won't go anywhere near low enough for our use. In fact, Micromotion recommends (for their smallest device) about 1000 sccm *at the low end* and the accuracy is around 3% at that flow. They can't even *measure* the flow rates you want at the low end. Low flows are the domain of the thermal MFM. My suggestion is to use two thermal MFMs in series, if you're so concerned with the accuracy at the extreme end of the turndown. And if accuracy at the low end is that important, I'd run the gas through a dryer, as the moisture will affect your reading. Steve, I've installed both coriolis AND thermal MFMs in the past (including the Micromotion products, which are wonderful products), and I'm intimately familar with what each can do. You're welcome to go out and spend a couple grand on a meter that won't work at all for you...These meters have their application "sweet spots", but home brewing isn't it. Now, if you want to measure CO2 production in a 15 bbl fermenter, you're getting closer. Even then, I'd say thermal MFMs are more appropriate and cost effective. > "Hats off" to Ken A. For those who didn't realize - Ken took all those data > points *manually* and it must have cost him a lot of sleep and being chained > to his fermenter for several days in a row ! That's dedication. At least we agree on something! Thanks Ken! Regards, Mike Sharp Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 09:56:39 -0800 From: "Mike Sharp" <rdcpro at hotmail.com> Subject: Regarding Turndown I wanted to add one more comment about turndown ratios. The turndown of a given instrument is based on the *instrument's* maximum flow, not your *desired* max flow. You can't say "I'm interested in 1000 sccm" and assume you'll have even 500:1 of reading available. The smallest Micromotion MFM is rated for 4 SCFM at a 10psi pressure drop. That's 113300 sccm, which is a bit out of our range for both flow and pressure. A 500:1 TD takes it down below the instruments capacity to read. To get 500:1, you have accept a much greater pressure drop across the instrument. At the pressures we're working with, you're not going to get anywhere near 500:1, even assuming they had a meter to measure the flow. Regards, Mike Sharp Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 10:12:09 -0800 From: "Richard S. Sloan" <rssloan at household.com> Subject: Re: Link of the week On Sat, 21 Feb 2004 Bob Devine wrote... >> >>When you are on the road and want a good beer, how to you >>find out what is worth stopping for? Another good link for this is http://beeradvocate.com/beerfly/ Cheers & Beers! Richard Sloan San Diego, CA Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 12:31:36 -0600 From: Burn Unit <burnunit at waste.org> Subject: static fizz That sounds like a decent name for an ambient band, or a brewery. BUT, it's a symptom in my carboy. To wit, I have this dunkel-mumblemumble in the secondary right now (I say mumble mumble because it was supposed to be a dunkel bock, but the OG placed it out of that style so I just call it a dunkel). I've done four hydrometer tests over three weeks and it hasn't moved from 1.013. To me that says it's basically fermented out and ready to bottle. EXCEPT, it's still active. It's a little fizzy, with some fizz in the graduated cylinder and the airlock shows positive pressure from within, and it bubbles if I jostle it (like when I went to take a reading). Hence, the 'static' fizz. It's my first lager and first serious all grain, so I'm not adjusted fully to the slow ferment times and catch myself trying to get back to the 'relax don't worry' mode (the samples have all tasted great!). But since it hasn't budged at all from that 1.013 gravity, I feel it's done. I just don't want to overprime it. Do I wait til it's flat and then go? Or do I use less than my usual amount of priming sugar? Or do I use a normal amount but keep it cold for a while? Suggestions? Thanks, JonO Minneapolis, MN Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 14:06:41 -0500 From: "Peter A. Ensminger" <ensmingr at twcny.rr.com> Subject: Seattle brewpubs I am going to Seattle, WA soon for a conference. I got a list of brewpubs from links posted in yesterday's digest (<http://www.hbd.org/hbd/archive/4482.html#4482-5>, see below). Any locals care to give their opinions of these places? TIA for your help. Cheerio! Peter A. Ensminger Syracuse, NY - ----- Seattle Brewpubs: Big Time Brewery & Alehouse Dad Watsons Elliott Bay Brewing Company Elysian Brewing Company Elysian Brewing Company - TangleTown Gordon Biersch Brewing Company Hale's Ales Brewery & Pub Hart Brewery & Pub / Pyramid Ales Maritime Pacific Brewing McMenamins Queen Anne Hill McMenamins/Six Arms Pub Pacific Crest Brewing Company Pike Brewery & Pub Pyramid Alehouse, Brewery & Restaurant Ram Restaurants / Big Horn Breweries Rock Bottom Brewery Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 11:16:12 -0800 (PST) From: Calvin Perilloux <calvinperilloux at yahoo.com> Subject: Lead and garden hose misinformation? Tim Howe complains in Monday's HBD about misinformation regarding using garden hose in brewing. Seems to be a bit of confusion as to which aspect of brewing was being addressed, as we've discussed offline, so let's straighten it out.. I was talking about the post of the day before: > David Houseman mentioned the possibility of using garden > hose in home brewing. > > I wouldn't advocate that as I would be concerned that some > of the platicisers may come out into the wort, but it is > possible to get "catering grade" hose that does the job > admirably. Being specially designed for food, I'm more > happy with leaving it in contact with wort. So I was thinking of this posting regarding "plasticisers" and adding some info to that, whereas I believe Tim was talking about another posting using garden hose as the outer shell of a counter flow wort chiller. I think both Tim and I agree that wort-contact applications are bad, and waste-water-contact applications are fine. No misinformation there, just some clarification. Anyone feel like running some tests on hot wort through a garden hose? I do wonder what the lead testing kits would tell you if they got a sample jar of wort instead of water! And I also wonder if the lead coming out of that hose would actually be higher than what our poor brewing brethren in DC are getting fresh out of their kitchen taps already! (So THAT'S what happens to our hometown politician after they've been in DC too long... it IS the water!) Calvin Perilloux Middletown, Maryland, USA Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 15:00:32 -0500 From: "Dave Burley" <Dave_Burley at charter.net> Subject: Clinit*st availability, unflavored water hoses Brewsters: Andy in Hillsborough decries starting a new Clinitest row but asks about getting Clinitest. You must have missed my first reply. You can buy the tablets from your pharmacy ( maybe 100 in a box) and if you don't have the kit, just get an eyedropper from the pharmacy and use a testube. The color test comparisons and instructions are in the box of tablets. - ------------------ Another place to get those unflavored white, food-grade water hoses is from camping and RV stores and probably Wall-Mart. Keep on Brewin' Dave Burley Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 21:37:32 -0500 From: "Reif and Angie Hammond" <arhammond at comcast.net> Subject: Cool Technology (no pun intended) Check this out: http://www.coolsystem.de/home.html Reif Hammond Durham NH Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 20:13:35 -0800 From: "Andy and Tina Bailey" <atmlobailey at cox.net> Subject: max safe ambient temp for ful CO2 tank I would like to put my CO2 tank outside of my refrigerator. However, where I live, average daily high temps are 100+ for 2.5 to 3 months. What is the safest ambient temperature that I can keep my full CO2 tank at without worry. Also, what is the highest ambient temperature for a high pressure hose leading from the tank to the regulator? Any help would be appreciated. Andy in Las Vegas Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 21:34:46 -0700 From: "Steve Smith" <sasmith at in-tch.com> Subject: Solvent and banana flavors In my recent batch of Belgian Ale, I ended up with a fair amount of the solvent and banana flavors that result from fermenting with Chimay yeast (cultured from a bottle of Chimay) at too high a temperature, or from poor yeast health. Can anybody who has experienced this tell me if, after 6 months of cellar storage, those flavors dissipate to where the beer is actually enjoyable? Whoops..., Steve Smith Missoula, MT Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 19:48:50 -0600 From: "Rob Moline" <jethrogump at mchsi.com> Subject: Fifth Annual Lallemand Scholarship! Fifth Annual Lallemand Scholarship! Folks, It is with the utmost delight that I post this! Lallemand, the makers of Danstar dry yeast and Servomyces yeast nutrient, is once again proud to sponsor the Fifth Annual Lallemand Scholarship. This scholarship is for one lucky American Homebrewers Association member to attend the 2004 World Brewing Academy Concise Course in Brewing Technology (Nov. 1 - 12, 2004) in Chicago, Illinois. The famous two-week WBA Concise Course in Brewing Technology will provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of the brewing process, the dynamics of brewery operations, and socioeconomic issues affecting the industry. This two-week course (valued at $ 2,900) is provided at the Siebel Institute of Technology campus in Chicago, America's oldest and most recognized brewing school. The winner also receives $1,000 towards any expenses while in Chicago, one of America's most exciting and vibrant cities. REQUIREMENTS AHA members may enter the contest by filling out the online form linked to this page. You will need to know your AHA membership number, which appears on your AHA membership card. If you do not know your membership number or would like to join, e-mail info at aob.org, call 888-822-6273, or visit our membership page. HOW TO ENTER Online entry forms must be submitted by June 4, 2004. Entries will also be accepted from attendees at the AHA National Homebrewers Conference in Las Vegas, NV, June 17-19, 2004. Only one entry per AHA Member will be accepted, however, an additional entry may be obtained by submitting a ballot for the AHA Board of Advisors election or see the ballot in the March/April Zymurgy for details. All ballots must be submitted by April 1, 2004. WINNER ANNOUNCED The drawing for the Lallemand Scholarship will take place at the AHA National Homebrewers Conference in Las Vegas, NV during the Grand Banquet on June 19, 2004. The winner must have a current AHA membership at the time of the drawing to be eligible. SCHOLARSHIP RULES Members of the AHA Board of Advisors, Association of Brewers Board of Directors, staff of the Association of Brewers, Siebel, Lallemand, and anyone who has previously been awarded any scholarship to the Siebel Institute are ineligible. Awarded courses must be completed within one year. Winners must provide a written report on their Siebel experiences to the AHA/AOB/Lallemand/Siebel. Rights to publication of report and photographs of the winner are granted to the AHA/AOB, Siebel and Lallemand. For more information, go to http://www.beertown.org/homebrewing/scholarship.html http://www.siebelinstitute.com/registration/scholar_lallemand.html http://consumer.lallemand.com/danstar-lalvin/danstar.html or contact Rob Moline at lallemand-yeast at mchsi.com Cheers! Rob Moline "The More I Know About Beer, The More I Realize I Need To Know More About Beer!" - --- Outgoing mail is certified Virus Free. Checked by AVG anti-virus system (http://www.grisoft.com). Version: 6.0.593 / Virus Database: 376 - Release Date: 2/20/2004 Return to table of contents
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