HOMEBREW Digest #1204 Mon 16 August 1993

Digest #1203 Digest #1205

		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  Stainless Steel Pot (F. G. Patterson Jr.)
  Re: Chiller Conversion (Bill Szymczak)
  Re: Tabasco pepper question (wegeng.xkeys)
  Re: Water and mineral content (hardness) (smc)
  Mexicali Rogue/chipotles (Robin Garr)
  Re: Zymurgy (card)
  Malta & "Malzbier" (Patrick Sobalvarro)
  Tannic verses (Cisco)
  Lite, Aeration (Jack Schmidling)
  Yeast FAQ (WEIX)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Thu, 12 Aug 1993 22:14:01 -0400 From: patterso at mason1.gmu.edu (F. G. Patterson Jr.) Subject: Stainless Steel Pot Last year (the year before?) there was a discussion of the best place to buy a SS Pot. Has anyone bought one recently of good quality for a good price? I will appreciate a recommendation of a supplier. Pat Patterson Fairfax, Virginia Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 08:25:33 EDT From: bszymcz%ulysses at relay.nswc.navy.mil (Bill Szymczak) Subject: Re: Chiller Conversion In HBD1202 Norm asks > Actually, one of my ideas was to convert to a chiller (I can't come up > with a descriptive name) in which there is one coil sitting in a > bucket of sorts. The bucket contains cold water, maybe ice water, and > the coil contains the wort. The cooling liquid could, probably should > be flowing in/out. The wort would be siphoned through the coil, > cooling it. Stoelting makes something like this for several hundred > dollars, which I refuse to pay. Anyone done this? Anything I should > be aware of? and Drew Lynch responded >Norm, > I did this, and you can have it if you want it. I am building a >true counterflow chiller tonight. I had to run _huge_ amounts of water >through the damn thing to get sufficient cooling, and that's not PC >out here in drought land. I put 50' of 3/8" od? copper tubing in a 5 >gallon bucket, and attached garden hose fittings to the bucket as >well. When I tried to attach a hose to the outflow to use the water >in the garden, the top of the bucket kept popping off, if I used >enough cold water flow to chill the wort enough. A slight modification of Drew's idea can work very well. First, I needed an immersion in ice chiller not because of a small kettle opening but because our tap water in the summer is 80 deg. F. What I use (in the summer) is a large plastic bucket (they sell them at the Price Club for storing toys for about $7 and hold about 20 gallons). Drill a hole near the bottom so that a flexible siphon hose can fit snugly (without leaking too much). This hose will be connected inside the tub to the copper coil carrying the wort and outside to your carboy. Fill the tub with a few gallons of water and you'll need about 5 gallons of ice (about 45 pounds) to chill 5 gallons of boiling wort to about 60 deg F. With a little more ice and stirring the ice water in the tub you can get your wort down to 50 degrees F in 15 - 20 minutes (for lagers). One problem with this procedure is the amount of ice needed. You could use less if you first chilled the wort using an immersion (in hot wort) chiller using tap water and then running it through the immersion in ice chiller. (I've done this for my last two batches and also noticed Rick Garvin has done this when he described his award winning old ale recipe). Another problem with this setup is starting the siphon through the copper coil. I found it was too difficult to begin by simply sucking, which is why I attach the flexible hose coming out of the tub to a small copper racking cane which fits snugly into one of the holes on the carboy cap. Through the other hole I use a hand pump to begin the siphon. (Of course you wouldn't have this problem if you had a spigot at the bottom of your kettle.) Hope this helps. Bill Szymczak bszymcz at ulysses.nswc.navy.mil Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 05:56:44 PDT From: wegeng.xkeys at xerox.com Subject: Re: Tabasco pepper question kj says: >As a fan of *hot* food, I've been enjoying the discussion about >using chili peppers in beer. I love Tabasco(R) sauce, and I was >wondering if anyone knew what kind of pepper is used to make it? We`re getting off the subject of homebrewing, but since someone may want to brew some tabasco beer... Tabasco(tm) sauce is made using tabasco peppers. There are at least two varieties, but I`m not sure which variety is used to make the sauce. The Tabasco Country Store (a mailorder catalog from the Tabasco sauce people) sells a "kit" for growing the peppers. I`ve also seen the seeds in the Tomato Grower`s Supply Co. catalog (and a catalog from a California supplier: the Redwood City Seed Company or something like that). I`ve grown them here in New York state, and they are *very* hot. /Don wegeng.xkeys at xerox.com Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 08:56 EDT From: smc at hotsc.att.com Subject: Re: Water and mineral content (hardness) > Jeff Benjamin <benji at hpfcbug.fc.hp.com> writes: > > Certainly the water is only a small part of what goes into a fine beer, > but the importance of a good water source (especially for large > commercial breweries) can't be underestimated... We are moving into a new house with a well and water softener. The water tastes *slightly* salty, (but it maybe that's because I was expecting it to taste salty), and is clean and clear and free of any bacteria (at least from our lab test). A few questions: 1. Where is the best place to get a water hardness analysis? 2. Given the above info, is there a target for hardness? I understand that different beer styles usually call for different mineral content. 3. Are there better methods for water softening than the standard salt method (sodium/calcium exchange)? I'm an extract brewer (for now), if that helps. Thanks, Steve Casagrande smc at hotsc.att.com Return to table of contents
Date: 13 Aug 93 08:58:45 EDT From: Robin Garr <76702.764 at CompuServe.COM> Subject: Mexicali Rogue/chipotles In HB1203, Alan in Austin (where there's a Tex-Mex restaurant on every corner) asks about the procedure Rogue Brewery uses to make its chipotle-flavored Mexicali Rogue Ale. I asked the Rogue folks that question at last year's GABF and didn't get a totally forthcoming answer, but the short of it is, they "dry pepper" with chipotles in the secondary. How many? "Not too many." How long? "Not very long." It really is great stuff, and goes ever so well with Tex-Mex and other spicy stuff. It's starting to turn up here and there around the U.S. in 22- ounce bottles. I found some at Carlo Russo's World of Wine & Spirits in Fort Lee, N.J., the other day. Say hello to Evita's Salsitas for me, Alan. I love that place ... Robin Garr | "I have enjoyed great health at a great age because Associate Sysop | every day since I can remember I have consumed a bottle CompuServe | of wine except when I have not felt well. Then I have Wine/Beer Forum | consumed two bottles." -- A Bishop of Seville 76702.764 at compuserve.com rgarr at panix.com Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 9:42:03 EDT" From: card at apollo.hp.com Subject: Re: Zymurgy I think we should lighten up a bit here regarding Elizabeth Gold's request for light beer recipe's. Give her a chance and at least read the article before condemning her. Personally, I'm flattered that she respects our opinions. /Mal Card Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 10:21:52 EDT From: pgs at ai.mit.edu (Patrick Sobalvarro) Subject: Malta & "Malzbier" Date: Mon, 9 Aug 1993 14:11:48 -0400 (EDT) From: FARMERM at mcl.saic.com Subject: Prescription for Brew (ref. Domenick Venzia) In response to Domenick Venezia's question about a prescription for beer. Yes, My wife's grandmother, who lives in South America, was prescribed a dark beer w/ a raw egg everyday. The dark beer in South America is different, however. The refer to it as "malta" and has no alcohol in it, its just used for cooking. What the purpose of this is, I'm sorry I can't say. I grew up in Puerto Rico, where "malta" was a popular drink for children, in the way that root beer is here. I never heard of it being used in cooking, though. I'm not sure what the brewing process is, but malta is available here in the Boston area at major supermarkets (like Star Market) in the section where they sell Hispanic foods. I think the ingredients on the variety I bought recently were barley, hops, molasses, and water. I've had it recently, and it's really quite sweet, with just a little hop bitterness and no hop nose. The molasses and malt tastes can be readily distinguished. It is dark brown or black, with a lot of body, and forms a brown head that was not retained very long in the brand I tried. It's drinkable, if you're in the mood for something very sweet. When I was growing up, malta was brewed by a number of major brewers who distributed in Puerto Rico. Two Puerto Rican breweries were "India" and "Corona" (distinct, to my knowledge, from the Mexican brewer of the same name); they both sold undistinguished (and indistinguishable) pilseners, and also Malta India and Malta Corona. But some non-local brewers sold a malta product, as well. In particular, I remember that Rheingold sold a "Malta Rheingold," and there may have been a "Malta Amstel," although I'm not sure; but it must be admitted that there was no "Malta Miller" or "Malta Budweiser" (although both of these beers were popular on the island). Sometimes children would mix malta with milk when drinking it. Some people would even go so far as to mix this already very sweet and heavy drink with sweetened condensed milk (I swear I did not make this up). What I find interesting is that, while malta was popular with some adults, none of the brewers on the island ever seemed to realize that this might mean that there would be a market for a darker, sweeter, heavier beer for adults, in addition to the watery pilseners that they sold. Close to ten years ago, I did have such a beer that was in fact brewed in Latin America. I was doing some consulting in Sao Paulo, where two of the more popular brands of beer were called "Antarctica" and "Brahma." It seemed that most of the beer sold by these brewers was (the ubiquitous and undistinguished) pilsener, but they also sold a black beer that they called "Malzbier," pronounced as it would be in German. These "Malzbiers" were typically sold in 22-ounce bottles, and, if memory serves, tasted sort of like a highly sweetened Doppelbock. The popular claim was that "Malzbier" was rich in vitamins and minerals, and thus this beer was recommended to pregnant women (I suppose fetal alcohol syndrome wasn't so well-documented then as it is now). People would often mix a sort of black and tan from a bottle of "Malzbier" and a pilsener, but I never saw an attempt to keep the layers separate, as seems to be the practice when mixing a stout and an ale. There is a Brazilian beer sold in the United States that is a similar to these beers -- it's called "Xingu," and I'm sure that a lot of people reading the HBD will be familiar with it. However, it is a little different, in that it isn't nearly as sweet as I remember "Malzbier" being. Which brings up a question -- was "Malzbier" indeed what I suspect, a local mutant style derived from Doppelbock by sweetening or possibly brewing with an unattentuative yeast, or is such an extremely sweet black beer known in other parts of the world? I'd be interested in hearing about similar styles. -P. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 09:00:10 -0700 (MST) From: Cisco <FRANCISCO at lan.ccit.arizona.edu> Subject: Tannic verses > From: birkelan at adtaz.sps.mot.com (Joel Birkeland) > Subject: Tannic verses > > > I was wondering if anyone out there can give me some advice > about treating my water for brewing. Our water here in Phoenix is very > hard and very alkaline, (pH ~ 8). As I recall, the hardness number is > about 250 (ppm?) and the alkalinity is about 170. > > I tried my first partial mash a few weeks ago, tasted the results last night, > and it is OK, but had noticeable tannic astringency. I recall hearing that > the pH of the sparge water has a strong effect on tannin extraction during > sparging. I brew all grain English style ales here in Tucson which has almost identical water to Phoenix - it's wonderfull for ales! When I sparge I add one teaspoon of lactic acid to reduce the PH for sparging. I just can't seem to remember what it drops the PH to at the moment but I used the info I got from Miller's book. I noticed that when I started using lactic acid to reduce my PH for sparging that any tannic astringency was now gone and the most importantly my extraction rate improved. Remember not to over sparge because you can still extract tannins even if you adjust the PH. John Francisco at lan.ccit.arizona.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 11:34 CDT From: arf at genesis.mcs.com (Jack Schmidling) Subject: Lite, Aeration >From: "Manning, Martin P" <manning#m#_martin_p at mcst.ae.ge.com> >I was just this morning thinking that no one had responded to the posting by Elizabeth Gold requesting information on amateur-brewed light beer. Today Dick Dunn did the unthinkable - he asked WHY? I suspect most of us who did respond, did so via email for obvious reasons. However, I see no reason not to share my two cents with the Digest so here is what I told her, more or less..... >Subject: Light Beer for zymurgy First of all, please do not dismiss this as a joke. It is serious and in the final analysis, more or less what the commercial brewers do. To make a "lite" beer, one makes ones favorite beer and at bottling time, simply add an appropriate amount of "brewing water", prime and bottle or keg and carbonate as usual. "Brewing water" is defined as boiled and cooled or otherwise de-oxygenated and sterile water. To make a "lite" beer to style, it should be a Pilsner type beer but in the generic notion of a lite beer, i.e., lower calories, lower alcohol and easy drinkability, any beer can be used. I have used as high as a 50:50 ratio of beer to water to produce very nice "lawn mower" beer. I would suggest starting at one gallon in a five gallon batch and working up to one's liking. As outrageous as this seems to homebrewers, there obviously are people out there who like lite and we might as well know how to make it. I would also point out that "lightened" homebrew, if made from a good beer, will out-taste the commercial stuff by a mile. .......... I then pointed out that I developed this process in conjunction with my experiments with NA and included my NA process for her edification. >From: Jason Goldman <jason at gibson.sde.hp.com> >Lag time is controlled by a lot of variables. Pitching volume (and what stage the pitched yeast are in) probably has a greater effect on lag time than the aquarium pump. That is why I designed my experiment to include only one variable; viz., aeration. Should be ready for Monday's Digest. >BTW, I would expect that Miller was almost certainly talking about ale yeast in his 3-8 hours figure. Gotta be as I have not heard anyone yet make any such claims for lager since posting my comments. >From: birkelan at adtaz.sps.mot.com (Joel Birkeland) >Subject: Tannic Verses {cute} >I was wondering if anyone out there can give me some advice about treating my water for brewing. Our water here in Phoenix is very hard and very alkaline, (pH ~ 8). As I recall, the hardness number is about 250 (ppm?) and the alkalinity is about 170. >I tried my first partial mash a few weeks ago, tasted the results last night, and it is OK, but had noticeable tannic astringency. I recall hearing that the pH of the sparge water has a strong effect on tannin extraction during sparging. I think we need to turn the Ayatola loose on those who continue to scare people about the pH of the sparge water. You may indeed have a problem but you can not assume this unless you actually do a mash. My water also has a pH of around 8 but as soon as I dough in the malt, it drops below 6. As you are making extract beer and sparging adjuncts grains this could present different problems but it's worth looking into anyway. In any case, mix some malt into your water and check the pH before and after before concluding that you need to do something about. In an all grain beer, the mash can buffer out the high pH of a lot of sparge water without increasing the pH of the runnoff more than a few tenths of a point. The important thing is to run through your whole process before messing with the water. >For the record, I kept the sparge water at or below 168 deg F, and I had to cut the sparging short because another user needed the kitchen resources. The initial runnings were > 1.080, final > 1.020. You threw away a lot of beer. >From: pacasey at lexmark.com (Patrick Casey) >Subject: fermenting a lager >Is there any way to ferment a lager without using a refridgerator and one of the fancy thermostats? For example, what's wrong with shoving the carboy into the normal fridge? Nothing. Other than the fact that most people can't spare the space in the kitchen fridge for the time it take to make a lager. If you have a spare and a carboy fits, you'er in business. js Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:16:54 -0500 (CDT) From: WEIX at swmed.edu Subject: Yeast FAQ Hi to all in HBD land. I have received several requests both to post the information that I collected on yeast and to make a Yeast FAQ. I will have to divide the information into several chunks to post to the HBD. Almost all of this data was plagerized from somewhere by me or others; however, I have not knowingly used any copyrighted stuff. (I was very careful *not* to check anything for a copyright ;-).) I have altered the focus of some documents to more accurately reflect what I feel to be the interests of the *home*brewer. Some of the information is very basic; some, more technical. I have tried to give a basic introduction to what yeast are, how they affect beer taste, and the proper handling of yeast. Some portions of the following were taken from the Wyeast information circular mailed to me by David Adams; the sections pertaining to yeast culturing are adapted from an upcoming book by Dr. Fix. Dr. Fix also provided the section on the proper method of yeast rehydration. The information on the "reputations" of the many yeast strains was collected from the HBD over the years by Doug O'Brien. Many thanks to David Adams, Dr. George Fix, and Doug O'Brien for providing me with almost all the materials used to write this summary. Others are thanked for their contributions where appropriate. My name is Patrick Weix, and I am a graduate student in the Genetics and Development program at UT Southwestern at Dallas. I hope you find this document useful. I would appreciate any comments and criticisms of a contructive nature before I submit this to the homebrew archives at sierra.stanford.edu. This document is composed of rampant hearsay and rumor. Any attempts to pin anything on me or my co-conspiritors will be resisted. If all else fails I will call your boss and ask him why you are reading the HBD at work instead of grinding out the Fitzsimmons contract. What do they pay you for anyway? Don't you have anything better to do?... ============================================================================ Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:17:24 -0500 (CDT) From: WEIX at swmed.edu Subject: SECTION II: Yeast Profiles Part 1: Dry Ale Yeast Ales (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Coopers Ale Yeast Good to very good reputation. The Coopers is quite fruity fermented at 65F. It's not phenolic at all and all the flavour is a very clean fruitiness. Glenbrew Special Ale Yeast Specially designed for use in "all malt" beers. Contains a special enzyme to obtain extremely low terminal gravities. Doric Ale Yeast Ok to very good reputation. Edme Ale Yeast Starts quick. Produces some fruity esters. Attenuative. Good reputation Lallemand Nottingham Yeast This yeast is remarkable for its high degree of flocculation. It settles out very quickly and firmly. Very good reputation. Very fast to create a krausen and needed blowoff tube 6 hours after pitching hydrated yeast. Quick fermentation at 62F. It's very clean and only very slightly fruity in the keg, but tastes/smells nutty in the bottled version. Nottingham appears to be relatively attenuative (more so than the Coopers). Lallemand Windsor Yeast Produces a beer which is clean and well balanced. This yeast produces an ale which is estery to both palate and nose with a slight fresh yeast flavour. Very good reputation. Not a quick as the Nottingham. Not attenuative. Definite banana smell at racking. Munton-Fison Ale Yeast Starts quick. Produces some fruity esters. Attenuative. Phenolic taste. Fair to good reputation. Red Star Ale Yeast This brand had a very bad reputation in the past, and for a while production was suspended. A different strain (AHY 43391) was selected by the company and is now being sold as Red Star Ale Yeast. The new strain is much improved! Reports from Dr. Fix, a brewer's yeast consultant, suggest that this is an excellent general purpose ale yeast with a clean taste. Apparent attenuation 76-78%. Whitbread Ale Yeast Fast starter. Distribution switch[ed][ing] to Crosby and Baker with [evidently] a change in the yeast. Very good reputation despite past quality problems. Part 2: Liquid Ale Yeast Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:17:45 -0500 (CDT) From: WEIX at swmed.edu Subject: Part 2: Liquid Ale Yeast WYeast 1007 German Ale Yeast Ferments dry and crisp leaving a complex yet mild flavour. Produces an extremely rocky head and ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Flocculation is high and apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 62 deg. F (17 deg. C). A good balance of sweetness and tartness, with a pronounced green-apple note. A very pleasing yeast. WYeast 1024 Belgian Ale Yeast Banana estery flavour. With both clove-like phenolics and alcohol spice, the Belgian will tell you right away that it's no ordinary yeast. Tartness often develops over time. Ferment warm or with inadequate aeration and you're likely to get a bubblegum-like note. Intended for abbey beers, and works very well for that. And, depending on the wort composition, *lots* of banana notes. WYeast 1028 London Ale Yeast Rich minerally profile, bold woody slight diacetyl production. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). Complex, woody, tart, with strong mineral notes, this one will bite you horribly if you over-hop or if your water is high in carbonates. If you avoid that Scylla and Charybdis, it produces ales of marvellous complexity and sophistication. Most of the time you'll wish you'd used 1098 or 1056. Had best results in porters. Over-hopping is especially bad, but if you throttle the hops back, the results are indeed marvellous. Used this yeast in a Kolsch once, and it was *fantastic* The wood and mineral notes fused with the Hallertauer hops (which were used with some restraint), and a couple of months of cool ageing brought out some green apple in the aroma as well as the pallette. It tasted a good bit hoppier than it really was, and overall was well-balanced and smooth. WYeast 1056 American/Chico Ale Yeast Ferments dry, finishes soft, smooth and clean, and is very well balanced. Flocculation is low to medium. Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). The cleanest of the bunch, but mutation-prone. This is Sierra Nevada's yeast. Probably the best available all-around yeast, this strain can be used for anything, without embarrassment. WYeast 1084 Irish Ale Yeast Slight residual diacetyl is great for stouts. It is clean smooth, soft and full bodied. Medium flocculation and apparent attenuation of 71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). Soft, round, malty; the least attenuative of the Wyeast line. Very nice for any cold-weather ale, at its best in stouts and Scots bitters. WYeast 1098 British Ale Yeast Ale yeast from Whitbread. Ferments dry and crisp, slightly tart and well balanced. Ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C). Tart, crisp, clean. Great in pale ales and bitters, good in porters. WYeast 1338 European Ale Yeast Ale yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich. A full bodied complex strain finishes very malty. Produces a dense rocky head during fermentation. High flocculation, apparent attenuation 67-71%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C). It's clean and malty, especially well suited to Altbier. Yeast Lab A01 Australian Ale Yeast This all purpose strain produces a very complex woody and flavourful beer. Australian origin. Medium attenuation, medium flocculation. Great for Brown Ales and Porters. Yeast Lab A02 American Ale Yeast This clean strain produces a very fruity aroma, with soft and smooth flavour when fermented cool. Medium attenuation and low flocculation. This is an all purpose ale yeast. Yeast Lab A03 London Ale Yeast Classic Pale Ale strain, very dry. A powdery yeast with a hint of diacetyl and rich minerally profile, crisp and clean. Medium attenuation and medium flocculation. Yeast Lab A04 British Ale Yeast This strain produces a great light bodied ale, excellent for Pale Ales and Brown Ales, with a complex estery flavour. Ferments dry with a sharp finish. Medium attenuation and medium flocculation. Yeast Lab A05 Irish Ale Yeast This top fermenting strain is ideal for Stouts and Porters. Slightly acidic, with a hint of butterscotch in the finish, soft and full bodied. Medium attenuation, high flocculation. Yeast Lab A06 Dusseldorf Ale Yeast German Altbier yeast strain finishes with full body, complex flavour and spicy sweetness. Medium attenuation, high flocculation. Yeast Lab A07 Canadian Ale Yeast This strain produces a light bodied, clean and flavourful beer, very fruity when fermented cool. High attenuation, medium flocculation. Good for light and cream ales. Yeast Lab A08 Trappist Ale Yeast This is a typical Trappist strain, producing a malty flavour with a balance of fruity, phenolic overtones when fermented warm. Alcohol tolerant, high attenuation and high flocculation. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:17:57 -0500 (CDT) From: WEIX at swmed.edu Subject: Part 3: Lager Yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum) Dry Lager Yeast:(generally not recommend--tend to be inconsistent) Liquid Lager Yeast: Much preferred over dry types! WYeast 2007 Pilsen Lager Yeast Our original Lager Yeast Strain. Specific for pilsner style beers. Known as many things, we call it Pilsen. Ferments dry, crisp, clean and light. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation from 71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 52 deg. F (11 deg. C). WYeast 2035 American Lager Yeast American Lager Yeast. Unlike American pilsner styles. It is bold, complex and woody. Produces slight diacetyl. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 50 deg. F (10 deg. C). WYeast 2042 Danish Lager Yeast Danish Yeast Strain. Rich, yet crisp and dry. Soft, light profile which accentuates hop characteristics. Flocculation is low, apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C). WYeast 2112 California Lager Yeast Warm fermenting bottom cropping strain, ferments well to 62 deg. F (17 deg. C) while keeping lager characteristics. Malty profile, highly flocculant, clears brilliantly. Apparent attenuation 72-76%. WYeast 2124 Bohemian Lager Yeast The traditional saaz yeast from Czechoslovakia. Ferments clean and malty, rich residual maltiness in high gravity pilsners, medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 69-73%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C). WYeast 2206 Bavarian Lager Yeast Lager yeast strain used by many German breweries. Rich flavour, full bodied, malty and clean. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C). WYeast 2308 Munich Lager Yeast Lager yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich #308. One of the first pure yeast available to American home brewers. Sometimes unstable, but smooth soft well rounded and full bodied. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 50 deg.F (10 deg. C). Yeast Lab L31 Pilsner Lager Yeast This classic strain produces a light lager in both flavour and body, fermenting dry and clean. High attenuation and medium flocculation. Yeast Lab L32 Bavarian Lager Yeast Use this classic strain for medium bodied lagers and bocks, as well as Vienna and Marzen styles, rich in flavour with a clean, malty sweetness. Medium attenuation and medium flocculation. Yeast Lab L33 Munich Lager Yeast Wissenschaftliche strain for medium bodied lagers and bocks, subtle and complex flavours, smooth and soft, a hint of sulphur when fresh. Medium attenuation and medium flocculation. Yeast Lab L34 St. Louis Lager Yeast This strain produces a round, very crisp and clean fruity flavour, with medium body. High attenuation and medium flocculation. Good for American style lagers. Yeast Lab L35 California Lager Yeast A California common beer strain, malty with a sweet woody flavour and subtle fruitiness. Medium attenuation and high flocculation. Part 4: Weissen, mead, and barleywine styles. Saccharomyces delbrueckii, S. cerevisiae WYeast 3056 Bavarian Weissen Yeast A 50/50 blend of S. cerevisiae and delbrueckii to produce a south German style wheat beer with cloying sweetness when the beer is fresh. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 56 deg. F (13 deg. C). Problematical to get the right flavour, often just produces bland beer, without the lactic flavour. Yeast Lab W51 Bavarian Weizen This strain produces a classic German style wheat beer, with moderately high, spicy phenolic overtones reminiscent of cloves. Medium attenuation, moderately flocculent. Evidently much more consistent than WYeast at producing a true Weizen flavour. The following are available from Brewtek at (800) 8BREWTE: (P.S. I swiped the following descriptions of the net myself (PW).) CL-90 Belgian Wheat -- A top fermenting yeast which produces a soft, bread like flavor and leaves a sweet, mildly estery finish. CL-92 German Wheat -- A true, top fermenting Weizenbier yeast, Spicy, clovy and estery. High attenuative. CL-94 American Wheat - Offers a smooth, slightly sweet wheat beer, with a full, clean, underattenuated malt flavor. Mead Yeast Yeast Lab M61 Dry Mead Very alcohol tolerant, ferments dry, fruity and clean, yet leaves noticeable honey flavour and aroma. Yeast Lab M62 Sweet Mead This strain has reduced alcohol tolerance, therefore produces a very fruity, sweet mead with tremendous honey aromas. Wine Yeast Lallemand Lalvin Wine Yeast S. Bayanus. Good reputation. Red Star Pasteur Champagne Yeast Very attenuative. Good for mead. Good reputation. WYeast 3021 Prise de mousse Champagne Yeast Institute Pasteur champagne yeast race bayanus. Crisp and dry, ideal for sparkling and still red, white and fruit wines. Also can be used for Barley wines. Optimum fermentation temperature: 58 deg. F (14 deg. C). WYeast 3028 Wine Yeast French wine yeast ideally suited for red and white wines which mature rapidly. Enhances the fruity characteristics of most wines. Optimum fermentation temperature: 72 deg. F (22 deg. C). Malo-lactic Bacteria Leuconostoc oenos WYeast 4007 Wine Yeast Malo-lactic culture blend isolated from western Oregon wineries. Includes strains Ey2d and Er1a. Excellent for high acid wines and low pH. Softens wines by converting harsh malic acid to milder lactic acid. Can be added to juice any time after the onset of yeast fermentation when sulphur dioxide is less than 15 ppm. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:18:08 -0500 (CDT) From: WEIX at swmed.edu Subject: SECTION III: YEAST MANAGEMENT Part 1: Hydration Procedure For Dry Yeast a. Use 14 grams of dry yeast (usually 2 packets) per 5 gallons of brew. ***Rigorously*** sterilize everything used in the hydration procedure. b. Add the dry yeast to 1/2 cup of water at 90F (32C). Leave for 15 mins. c. Combine the hydrated yeast with 1-2 gallons of wort that is as close to the wort to be fermented as possible. You can take samples from the main wort at the end of the mash/sparge and rapidly boil and cool it. d. Aerate the starter as much as possible under sanitary conditions. e. Don't forget to properly oxygenate the main wort once it is *chilled*. (Shaking hot wort is dangerous, but even worse it can cause oxidation and give your beer funny flavors.) f. Pitch the starter into the main wort once the latter has been chilled to the recommended fermentation temperature (65-68F or 18-20C). Yeast with good viability will result in minimal lags. (The longest experienced in test brews using the new Red Star Ale Yeast was 2 hrs.) An alternative but slightly sub-optimal method is to cool the yeast-in-water mix from "b" to room temperature. Once the wort has been chilled and aerated (shaking the carboy works well), pitch the yeast. Stir or invert the carboy to disperse the yeast. Put in the blow-off tube or fermentation lock. The two most essential things are to: 1. Sanitize everything in sight. 2. Aerate your wort to insure rapid initial yeast growth--your best defence against secondary infection. - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Part 2: Propagation of Yeast Strains or How to have your very own yeast ranch! A. General Comments There is no single item as important as the selection of a yeast strain, or if appropriate strains, to be used in commercial brewing. The same applies to homebrewing. Sensory characteristics -- taste and smell --will normally determine the type of yeast that is appropriate to any particular beer formulation. This section contains the necessary procedures for achieving self-sufficiency in pitching yeast. The part treated in this section is often called the Hansen pure culture system. The heart of this system is the so-called "yeast slant". It is a test tube containing a solidified media sloped at an angle. Often Petri dishes are used, but the media is level, and hence the term "slant" is not always appropriate. In any case, yeast cells are streaked on the surface of the solid media. When refrigerated, these slants will keep at least 3-4 months before they have to be recultured. Yeast are taken from the slants, and built up so there is enough to pitch a full batch. The system also contains procedures for doing the exact opposite, i.e., adding yeast to slants for storage and future use. B. Equipment The equipment needs for operating a pure culture system with slants are rather modest. The following are the major items. 1. Refrigerator. This is needed for slant and media storage. 2. Autoclave or pressure cooker. This will be needed to sterilize equipment and media for yeast work. A pressure cooker will do, but it should have a pressure gauge attached so that the conditions during sterilization can be controlled. 3. Media. The preferred media for slants is malt extract and agar. These can be obtained from any scientific outlet. Food grade agar is also available from some oriental markets. The flaked form is easier to work with. 4. Misc. A number of minor items will also be needed. These include inoculation loops, glassware, petri dishes, and test tubes. C. Propagation of Yeast This process consists of transfering some of the yeast on slants to a small flask or jar containing wort, then building this up until there is enough to pitch a full brew. the most delicate steps are the initial ones. Experience has shown that the best results are obtained by using full strength hopped wort for propagating yeast. The ideal situation is when the wort used in propagation is identical to the wort that will be used in brewing. Practical experience has also shown that it is best to pitch yeast freshly harvested from slants at the maximum acceptable rate. Anticipating the results in the next section, this for lager yeast amounts to pitching 1 volume of yeast *SOLIDS* for each 250 volumes of wort. Thus, we need 5gal/250 = 0.02gal*128oz/gal = 2.5oz of yeast solids for a 5 gallon batch. Using the estimation that yeast solids are 1/10 the total volume of a yeast culture, that means that one needs about 25oz or a little more than 3 cups culture. For ale yeast all of these numbers are reduced by a factor of two, so (3/2) to 2 cups of an ale yeast culture would be sufficient. In the procedure described below new wort is added just after the end of the period of high kraeusen, and in particular after the foam starts to recede. The reason for this is to keep the yeast in the aerobic exponential growth mode. This will insure a steady buildup of yeast cells, and thereby minimize the number of wort charges that are required. The importance of taking great care when adding fresh wort can not be overemphasized. To avoid infections not only is it necessary to properly sanitize equipment, but it also important to sterilize necks of vessels and jars by flame or 200 proof alcohol solutions. The easiest way to flame a jar at home is with a lighter (esp. the ones for pipe- smokers!). Be extremely careful, and don't use both alcohol and a lighter. The first four steps described below are done under the cleanest conditions possible using 1000 ml. starter jars. At the end of step (iv) there will invariably be more than enough yeast in each starter jar to pitch a 25 liter brew (about 6gal); i.e., there will be at least 1/10 liter of yeast solids as can be checked by visual inspection. These numbers are based on the requirements of lager yeast. As will be seen below there will be no harm in producing too much yeast in this procedure since at the end only the correct amount will be added to the fermenter. (i) Preparations: a. Carefully inspect all the slants that are to be propagated. Those which have unusual growth patterns and/or discoloration should be discarded. The ideal is thin white yeast layer on top of the solid media. b. Autoclave the starter jars and the rubber stoppers for the airlocks for 5 mins. at 15 psi. Alternatively, use your favorite chemical sanitizing agent. c. Add 250 ml. (about 8 oz) of wort to each starter jar. Wipe their necks with a 200 proof alcohol solution. After this add the airlocks. d. Pasteurize the wort by adding the starter jars to a water bath at 60 C (140 F), and hold this temperature for 20 mins. Cool to 18 C (75 F). e. In a clean room with no air movement (turn off fans and air conditioning for at least 15 min to give the dust a chance to settle) and then place starter jars, yeast slants, inoculation loops, and a 200 proof alcohol solution in a clean, quiet spot (i.e. lock the door after first insuring that Fido, Fluffy, and Junior are on the other side of it :-) !). Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #1204, 08/16/93