HOMEBREW Digest #1208 Fri 20 August 1993

Digest #1207 Digest #1209

		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  Re: Recipe formulation (Lynn Kerby)
  RE: FAQ correction 2124 YEAST (Lee=A.=Menegoni)
  Re: Yeast FAQ corrections (Lynn Kerby)
  yeast pitch experiment (Stephen Brent Peters)
  Calcium Chloride/Yeast compilation ("Dennis Lewis" )
  Microbreweries of Oregon (Portland) (Lorne Cheeseman)
  Use of Chilis in Beer (Kevin Schutz)
  Message to Dan L. (chris campanelli)
  Aeration.  What the pros say... (Kinney Baughman)
  Aeration.  What the pros say... (part 2) (Kinney Baughman)
  New (first!) Brewpub in Kansas City ("Bret D. Wortman")
  Sunken Treasure (waltman)
  hop harvest question (Michael T. Lobo)
  Water Analysis (Timothy J. Dalton)
  Barley Water Response ("/R=FDACB/R=A1/U=RIDGELY/O=HFM-400/TN=FTS 402-1521/FFN=Bill Ridgely/")
  Pronunciations (Daniel Roman)
  Boiling (Spencer.W.Thomas)
  Homebrew suppliers, brewpubs in RTP area (Tim Brickman)
  St. Louis Supplier (Tom Leith MIR/ERL 362-6965)
  Info on BrewPubs and BrewStaurants in the Irvine, Ca. area (Chris Sinanian)
  WORT AERATION (Jack Schmidling)
  Proteins (npyle)
  Re: Taxonomy (Dennis J. Tempelton)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Wed, 18 Aug 93 13:11 PDT From: lfk at veritas.com (Lynn Kerby) Subject: Re: Recipe formulation In HBD1206 npyle at n33.stortek.com writes: >John Montgomery asks about formulating his own recipes. He says he has 10 or >11 all grainers behind him and wants to strike out creating his own recipes. > >This brings up an interesting point to me. I wonder how many people with this >much experience have done this little experimenting. I have brewed a total of >16 batches, the last 5 or 6 being all-grainers. I have been trying new things >with recipes since the second batch. Now, maybe I'm taking more creative >credit than I'm due, because I usually start with a recipe. I then adjust it >for my setup, ingredients on hand, ingredients available at the local HB shop, >my whims, etc. Doing this, I've only really screwed up one batch due to poor >recipe formulation, and I used it for boiling brats, etc. so it wasn't a total >loss. I have to second this question, how many people brew solely from someone else's recipe? I have brewed over 20 batches (14 or so that were all grain) and have never intentionally brewed directly from someone else's recipe (not even on that first extract batch). Granted I have made some mistakes, but I think that experimentation leads to a better understanding of the flavor contribution of different grains, hops, and processes. I have won some awards in competitions, but that is not my primary objective when formulating a recipe. I do enjoy reading recipes and have learned a lot about matching style guidelines by reading other's recipes (esp. those in the volumes of the Classic Beer Style series). I look at recipes as guidelines (both in brewing and in cooking) but I never take a recipe and follow it to the letter (not even one of my own!). I too like a little variety in the beers I drink. I suppose that I may be tempted to replicate some of my previous beers if I ever get one that I feel is outstanding, but I suppose that I am just a likely to try it with a different yeast or different hops. Formulating your own recipes really isn't hard, and there has been a lot of good information published in recent Zymurgys and in the HBD on how to hit target OGs and the like. When I look at a recipe, I first compare the OG, IBUS, color, etc. with the guidelines for the style, then look at my inventory (I keep 50-100# of assorted grains, and several pounds of assorted hops around the house at all times) and see what I have that can produce a beer in that style. I break out the calculator and my brewing notebook and get to work! Every brew is different, and I like to think that they are improving as I gain experience. This is not intended to knock anyone that is uncomfortable breaking away from cookbook type brewing. I hope that it will serve to encourage others to experiment and post their results (or better yet, send me some :-). - - Lynn Kerby - {apple,amdahl}!veritas!lfk or lfk at veritas.com Disclaimer: Any and all opinions expressed herein are my own and do not necessarily represent the views of anyone, especially my employer. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 93 15:12:54 EDT From: Lee=A.=Menegoni at nectech.com Subject: RE: FAQ correction 2124 YEAST RE: Yeast FAQ Correction / 2124 yeast In the 2nd Brewing Techniques article on Fest Beir "Dave from Wyeast" is quoted as saying that 2124 is the same as Weinstepen 34/70 is this also a PU strain indicated by Al K? Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 93 13:37 PDT From: lfk at veritas.com (Lynn Kerby) Subject: Re: Yeast FAQ corrections In HBD1206 korz at iepubj.att.com writes: >First off, 3 cheers to Patrick for the effort in compiling all >that yeast information! > Hip-Hip Hooray, Hip-Hip Hooray, Hip-Hip Hooray :-) >> WYeast 1028 London Ale Yeast >> Rich minerally profile, bold woody slight diacetyl >> production. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation >> 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 >> deg. C). Complex, woody, tart, with strong mineral >> notes, this one will bite you horribly if you over-hop or >> if your water is high in carbonates. If you avoid that [ Some descriptive text deleted for brevity ] >This is one of my two favorites (1056 being the other) and I've >brewed some very high IBU ales with it without the overhopping >problems reported here. Just 40 datapoints or so. Also, I'd >like to mention that this yeast was used for the 1992 B.0.S.S. >Challenge 1st place Barleywine, brewed by none other than Brian >and Linda North. > I just tried the 1028 strain on a couple of back to back english style ales. The first was a fairly low gravity Bitter that came out fairly nicely. It was not overly hopped, yet the hop bitterness came through nicely. I did note the woody and mineral flavor notes in this brew. The second brew was a fairly hoppy IPA and I wish that I had chosen a different yeast. I found that the attenuation was a bit much in the IPA, but it is still very young and may turn out fine in another month or so. The IPA currently has a nasty stale veggi character that I believe is due to using some old Cascades (they have been kept in the freezer since I bought them though) for dry hopping. I just replaced the blend of Cascades and Kent Goldings with some fresh Mt Hood in the keg and am hoping for the best. >> WYeast 3056 Bavarian Weissen Yeast >> A 50/50 blend of S. cerevisiae and delbrueckii to produce >> a south German style wheat beer with cloying sweetness >> when the beer is fresh. Medium flocculation, apparent >> attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 56 >> deg. F (13 deg. C). Problematical to get the right >> flavour, often just produces bland beer, without the >> lactic flavour. > >No, no, no. Lactic sourness is the requisite characteristic >of a *Berliner* weiss, not a Bavarian weizen -- Bavarian weizens >are characterized by clove-like aromas/flavors and often some mild >banana esters. What the original poster probably meant was: >"Problematic to get the right flavor, often just produces relatively >unattenuated beer, without the clove-like aroma/flavor." I have >been thinking that perhaps it's the freshness of the Wyeast #3056 >that makes the difference in whether you get the clove-like aroma/flavor >or not. Any other data points? > Right! Bavarian weizens should not have a dominant lactic sourness (though I find that just a little makes them very refreshing)! For some more data points, I have brewed a couple of Bavarian weizens with this strain. One had virtually no clove or banana aromas or flavors and really was a bit under attenuated. The second time I used it (pitched from the slurry in the secondary on the first batch) I got a wonderfully clovey/banana weizen character (this beer took 1st place in the 1993 HWBTA competition in the wheat beer category). I have also made a couple of Bavarian weizens with the bavarian wheat strain from the Yeast Culture Kit Co (don't remember the number but it is supposed to be the Weinstephen?sp? #66 I think) that had much more pronounced weizen character. I certainly believe that the 3056 is a bit unstable based on my experience and the experience of some others and I will probably never use it again. I am looking forward to trying the new bavarian wheat strain that Wyeast is currently testing. Lynn Kerby lfk at veritas.com Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1993 16:59:05 -0400 (EDT) From: Stephen Brent Peters <sp2q+ at andrew.cmu.edu> Subject: yeast pitch experiment With my last batch I wanted to pitch as much yeast as possible with spending as little time as possible playing with it. Here's what I did: 1) I boiled up enough hopped 1.020 wort to fill two 16 oz bottles, and one 32 oz bottle. 2) mixed a packet of wyeast belgian with one of the 16 oz bottles in the bottom of a very sanitized carboy. 3) the next day I added the entire 32 oz bottle to the carboy. 4) at 8am the next day (brew day) I added the last 16 oz bottle to the carboy 5) at 4pm that day I finally added the cooled wort to the carboy, areated by splashing it through the funnel/strainer combination. The wort was 1.063 gravity. 6) when I came home that night at 9pm the beer had an inch and a half of krausen on it. So, about five hours for a very vigorous takeoff. 7) by the next day the krausen had fallen and now only a week later it is almost ready to bottle. This is by far the fastest fermentation I have ever had with liquid yeast. conclusions: I had never used more that 16 oz of starter before because of the hassles pouring from bottle to bottle. I also used to have trouble pitching at high krausen (timing, timing) , but by using the carboy it is possible to get the yeast up to speed by adding more wort a few hours before the brewing will happen. comments? Steve Peters = sp2q at andrew.cmu.edu -* Sing along now, "See you, in C-U-B-A!" *- Return to table of contents
Date: 18 Aug 93 16:07:46 CST From: "Dennis Lewis" <DLEWIS at jscdh6.jsc.nasa.gov> Subject: Calcium Chloride/Yeast compilation I've looked high and low thru all of Houston (where I live) and I can't find a supplier of food-grade CaCl2 anywhere. Does anyone out there in HBDLand have a source for calcium chloride? E-mail is ok. >From NitPickLand: >From: WEIX at swmed.edu > >SECTION I: Yeast Characteristics > <snip> > Saccharomyces. Ale yeast are S. cerevisiae, and lager yeast are S. > uvarum (formerly carlsbergerensis). Weizen yeasts are usually > 50/50 mixtures of cerevesiae and "delbrueckii" (delbrueckii may or ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ <snip> NO, NO, NO!!! The 50/50 mix is a bastardization of the true weissbier style dreamed up by someone at Wyeast. The true weissbier yeasts are a pure strain--delbrueckii, if you will. Wyeast has just started marketing a pure strain weissbier under the number 3068, which if is the Weihenstephan #68 everyone raves about (assuming the numbering scheme holds as it has for Weihenstephan 206 and 308....) Please, oh please correct this before submitting this. I have use both and the 3056 (50/50 crud) PALES in comparison to the 3068. I've tossed every culture of 3056 that I could find. Dennis Lewis <dlewis%jscdh6 at jesnic.jsc.nasa.gov> Homebrew, The Final Frontier. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1993 14:50:06 -0700 (PDT) From: Lorne Cheeseman <lorne at unixg.ubc.ca> Subject: Microbreweries of Oregon (Portland) Hello, I am new to this list so please excuse me if this is a FAQ. I am planning on going down to Oregon within the next couple weeks, Portland to be exact, and am interested in visiting some good microbreweries and brewpubs while I am there. I would really appreciate it if anyone could send me some suggestions and contacts etc. please reply by E-mail to lorne at unixg.ubc.ca. Thanks in advance Lorne Cheeseman Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1993 15:37:12 MDT From: Kevin Schutz <kschutz at atmel.com> Subject: Use of Chilis in Beer Hello everyone, With all of the recent discussion going on about variations of Chili beer's and how to go about imparting chili flavoring to the beer, I just wanted to throw in my 2 cents worth. First of all, let me begin by saying that I have not ever tried to brew a chili beer and I currently have no plans to attempt one (the chili beers I've tried, Mexacali Rogue and Cave Creek, just don't do much for me). That aside, I do consider myself an avid chili lover. As such, one of the first things one quickly learns is that individual chilis vary greatly in flavor and "heat" intensity. This holds not only for different varieties, but also within specific varieties. Unless you know the source of the chilis, it's difficult to judge this variation below using the chilis. You can come pretty close to grouping chilis based on "heat" if you pay attention to the aroma (from the oils in the skins) while roasting/peeling the chilis. Also, when I mention "source" above, I really mean that you need to know the source. I've found that chilis vary dramatically even on different plants within my garden. Chilis can vary greatly (like any other crop) based upon micro-climate conditions, water, soil conditions, growing season, etc. If you get your chilis at a market or grocery store, odds are that you're getting a mix of chilis from various sources. Hint for home growers: I've found that if you like really hot chilis, cut back on the watering once the blossom sets. Don't kill the plants, but cut back on the amount of water they receive. The chilis may be smaller, but they really seem to get hotter. That said, I would have to agree (in principal) with Alan in Austin (HBD#1203) about warning against spicing beers directly using chilis in the bottle. The results, while perhaps good, would be inconsistent (bottle to bottle). I would think that the technique of "dry peppering" or "dry-chiling" as mentioned by Lanny (HBD#1203) and Robin Garr (HBD#1204) would result in much better flavor control. Likewise, adding your chilis to the later stages of the boil could work too. The idea for consistency is to expose the entire batch to the same chili mix. Of course, if you like the idea of not knowing what to expect, keep the mystery behind the beers and spice using individual chilis in the bottles! Kevin Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 93 17:45 CDT From: akcs.chrisc at vpnet.chi.il.us (chris campanelli) Subject: Message to Dan L. This post is to Dan L. (lark at wildcat.mcpc). I can't seem to reach your site. Please send me your phone number or something. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1993 21:21:01 -0400 (EDT) From: Kinney Baughman <BAUGHMANKR at conrad.appstate.edu> Subject: Aeration. What the pros say... The latest in Jack's continuing vigil against the accursed momilies of brewing focuses on aeration. He writes: > There has been a great deal of enthusiastic reporting on the > use of aquarium air pumps to aerate wort prior to pitching > yeast and many rather preposterous claims of shortened time > to the onset of fermentation resulting from the use of same. (snip, snip) > The experiment seems to confirm the author's previous > experience and points to the conclusion that the method of > aeration used has no correlation with or effect on the time > to onset of fermentation. Contrary to frequently stated > anecdotal experience, the un-aerated control samples started > fermenting as soon and with the same vigor as the variously > aerated samples. This was true both in the case of cold > temperature lager yeast and room temperature ale yeast. I'm not sure what Jack's claims are here. But I'll point out several points of interest that may affect his "scientific" experiment. I shall cling to Jack's statement that his experiment "seems" to confirm his experience because his conclusions run counter to what the literature has long accepted as fact. Not wanting to allow another momily into the annals of brewing literature, I'll briefly point out that underaerated wort can have definite deleterious effects on the flavor of the beer (increased ester production, for one) and adverse effects on the speed of fermentation (read increased lag times and the resultant risk of contamination, prolonged fermentation times (speaking from experience here), and the production of several components that do not contribute to the flavor profile of what we normally call "beer". But don't take my word for it. Here is what the pros say about the matter. >From _Malting and Brewing Science_: p.633 "To increase the oxygen content, air is often bubbled into the medium, but this has little or no effect if the bubbles escape rapidly. Small bubbles provide a larger surface area for oxygen transfer, while baffles built onto the walls of the vessel help to arrest the loss of bubbles. Shaking or swirling the medium has the effect of increasing the effective surface area of the liquid presented to the atmosphere. Furthermore, a vortex produced by an agitator has the same effect. The rate at which oxygen passes from atmosphere into solution depends on: (1) the degree to which the medium is saturated with oxygen, (2) the area of the interface between atmosphere and medium and (3) the ease with which oxygen passes through the interface. The rate is expressed by Kla(C*-Cl) where Kl - The ease of passage with which oxygen passes through the interface. a - The area of interface. C* - the oxygen concentration at which atmosphere and medium are in equilibrium. Cl - The actual concentration of oxygen in the medium. They then measured oxygen absorption rates as follow: Vessel Vol. of medium Air flow KlaC* (l/min) (mM-O2/l/min) 18 x 150 mm 10 ml Stationary - 0.03 test tube Erlenmeyer flask 20 ml Stationary - 0.32 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask 20 ml Eccentric shaker - 1.1 500 ml (250 rev/min) Indented 20 ml Eccentric shaker - 2-9.5 Erlenmeyer flasks (250 rev/min) 500 ml 100 ml 50 ml Reciprocal shaker - .78-1.5 (80-100 strokes/min) 1000 ml 200 ml Reciprocal shaker - .22-.78 (80-100 strokes/min) Baffled Tank 1460 ml Stirred: 3.5 l 750 rev/min 5.8 3.6 1100 rev/min 6.1 6.33 I interpret KlaC* as being the amount of O2 absorbed into the beer using the various processes above, though I could be wrong. It comes as no surprise that the different methods achieve different levels of oxygen absorption. It's interesting to note that the surface area of the samples exposed to the air makes a big difference in the rate of oxygen absorption. Perhaps this lends credence to the theory that one of the best things you can do to aerate the wort is let it fan out over the sides of the vessel as one siphons into the fermenter. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1993 21:22:09 -0400 (EDT) From: Kinney Baughman <BAUGHMANKR at conrad.appstate.edu> Subject: Aeration. What the pros say... (part 2) The authors of _Malting and Brewing Science_ also make the following observations concerning the absorption of air into beer: p. 634 "The role of oxygen in brewery fermentations has received study using fermenters of 30 brl capacity. Wort of SG 1.044 was pitched at .2 lb/brl at 64 degrees F and the degree of oxygenation prior to pitching was selected in the range 5-100% saturation. The weight of yeast crop was hyperbolically related to the initial oxygen concentration of the wort. Above about 20% oxygen saturation, little is acieved if the wort is completey saturated with air. Below this level, the yeast crop is greatly influenced by the initial level of oxygen and, with the strain of yeast used, it seemed likely that no growth of yeast would occur in the absence of oxygen...the rate of fermentation was related to oxygen saturation in a manner very similar to that shown (below)." Max. | yeast | yield | (g/l) | | 15 -| | | | * * * * | 10 -| * | | * | | * 5 -| | |__________|__________|__________|__________|__ 25 50 75 100 Oxygen saturation (%) p.635 "It is now well established that different strains of brewing yeast have different requirements for molecular oxygen. Furthermore, most, if not all, of the molecular oxygen consumed by the brewing yeast is used for the production of unsaturated fatty acids and sterols, which are essential constituents of the yeast cell membrane...Where insufficient O2 is available for membrane synthesis, yeast cells fail to grow and loss of membrane integrity results in cell death. These changes are also associated with an increased production of esters...The concentration of oxygen at 100% air saturation is inversely proportional to the specific gravity; thus an air saturated wort of SG 1.040 contains 8.5 mg/l O2, whweras a wort of SG 1.070 contain 7.9 mg/l O2. p.646 "The amount of yeast added to the wort at the time of pitching greatly influenced the speed of fermentation. (Surprise! Surprise! Surprise!-krb) For instance top yeast pitched at 1 lb/brl into wort at 63 degrees F attenuated to 75% in 84 hr. At four times this pitching rate the same attenuation was reached in 44 hr." p. 647 "The effects of rousing or agitating fermentation vessels include aeration and mixing. BOTH TEND TO HASTEN FERMENTATION (emphasis mine), aeration by supplementing the dissolved oxygen supplied by the wort, and mixing by bringing yeast in the head and yeast that has sedimented into suspension. The overall action is to increase yeast crops and speed fermentation. p. 648 "Wort composition greatly influences the speed of fermentation, the extent of fermentation, the amount of yeast produced, and the quality of the beer produced. The wort constituents which play a major role include fermentable carboydrates, assimilable nitrogenous compounds and accessory food factors. Amino acids normally limit growth... p. 664 "With respect to the main fermentation, the control on the speed of attenuating to satisfactory gravities depends on (1) wort composition, especially the level of alpha-amino nitrogen and the spectrum of fermentable sugars, (2) DISSOLVED OXYGEN (emphasis mine), (3) temperature, (4) pressure, and (5) yeast concentration.....With respect to the effect of these variables on flavor, it has been shown that dissolved oxygen content can be important. Reducing the level from 8 to 3 mg )2/l causes significant increases (2-4 fold) in the esters ethyl acetate (winey/lacquer like), isoamyl acetate (banana esters) and ethyl caproate. Acetaldehyde rises seven-fold. Level of zinc ions up to .08 mg/l may be necessary for satisfactory fermentations." Sorry to take up so much space quoting scientific literature but I kept coming up with references that pointed to the importance of a well- oxygenated wort. Besides Jack's experiment, I have been interested in this topic of late because I have become aware that we have not been aerating our worts enough at Tumbleweed and it appears to be a factor in several of the flavor problems we've had. - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kinney Baughman | Beer is my business and baughmankr at conrad.appstate.edu | I'm late for work. - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 1993 22:31:28 CDT From: "Bret D. Wortman" <wortman at centurylub.com> Subject: New (first!) Brewpub in Kansas City I had the thrill of a lifetime this past weekend. Dining and drinking at a restaurant that hadn't officially opened yet. To top it all of, the restaurant in question was Kansas City's first brewpub. I won't dwell on the food (which was wonderful, especially the brewer's bread appetizers made from spent grains) but will get to the *real* reason for visiting The 75th Street Brewery at 75th and Wornall in the Waldo area. The beer. 75th Street currently has three beers on tap that are brewed locally, with a fourth coming in September. "Cow Town Wheat" is a very light, very refreshing wheat ale. It's made from Kansas-grown wheat and Munich malts with Hallertauer and Saaz hops. "Yardbird's Saxy Golden Ale" commemmorates KC's contribution to jazz and bebop. A light, *very* smooth golden ale, this one uses Vienna and Munich malts withy Cascade hops. A pint of this is probably the most refreshing thing the house serves. "Possum Trot Brown Ale" is a nicely nutty, unmistakably malty classic brown ale. It uses cluster and cascade hops and I couldn't pry the malt combination from the Brew Master (who just *loves* showing off the setup to appreciative homebrewers -- maybe others will have more luck. ;-) The September addition is called "Muddy Mo Stout" and is billed as a dry, Irish-style stout. It gives me a good excuse to make sure I go back next month. ;-) In addition to these on-site brews, 75th Street also offers three guest beers. A hometown favorite, Boulevard, has contributed their "Bully! Porter" to this effort. Brewed by Brewmaster John McDonald, it's an outstanding porter. My limited beer vocabulary just ain't up to describing it any more than this. Additionally, there's a pair of brews from Anchor Brewing Company. On tap, we have their "Liberty Ale". 75th Street is the only place in KC where you can get this beer on tap. They also sent some of their "Old Foghorn" barleywine. *Man*, this stuff is absolutely *indescribable*. Again, you can't get it anywhere else in KC on tap, and it's a nice twist to the menu. Anyone coming near KC, give me a holler and I'll help arrange a tour of the place for you, or call them directly at 1-816-523-HOPS. Okay, I'll say it. The service staff was unbelievably friendly. I don't think I *ever* saw someone standing around looking upset. Everyone was smiling. Even when things went wrong for us (hey, the place wasn't officially open yet, and it was "investor's party night"), everyone was pleasant and bent over backwards to make sure we were taken care of and happy. I can't recall the last time I was pampered like that. My waiter's name was Ken. Ask for him. You won't regret it. WortMan Disclaimer: I have nothing to do with The 75th Street Brewery, save as a satisfied customer. I don't own any part of the company, nor do I work there. I know the brewmaster by first name, but he probably wouldn't remember me if I walked up to him in a crowded shopping mall, so who really cares? ;-) +------------------------+------------------------------------------------ | Bret D. Wortman | "Stomach hairballs are nature's little way of | wortman at centurylub.com | saying `Bad puddy cat! Stop licking yourself!'" | wortman at decus.org | --Berke Breathed, "Outland" +------------------------+------------------------------------------------ Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 1993 01:31:22 -0400 (EDT) From: waltman at BIX.com Subject: Sunken Treasure In HBD #1206 carlson at 61.267.ENET.dec.com tells us about beer recovered from a WWII minelayer: About a year ago there was a radio comercial about thousands of bottles of Bass Ale that went down with the Titanic. Probably not in as good of condition, though <grin>. Fred Waltman Marina del Rey, CA waltman at bix.com Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 93 07:38:09 EDT From: mlobo at sentry.foxboro.com (Michael T. Lobo) Subject: hop harvest question Greetings: 2 Questions re: hop harvest.. 1. Do you need to dry the hops before use, or is the drying a method of preservation? 2. How do you tell when the hops are "ripe"? FYI: I planted 3 different types of hops this year. The centennial are the only plant to grow buds so far ~ 30 buds. The hallertau plant grew the fastest & biggest, but no buds. The perle only grew about 6 ft. and stopped growing about 4 weeks ago. regards, Michael _________________________________________________________ Michael T. Lobo Ph: (508) 549 2487 Fax: (508) 549 4379 Foxboro Co. 33 Commercial Street MS C41-1H Foxboro MA. 02035 _________________________________________________________ Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 93 08:13:24 -0400 From: Timothy J. Dalton <dalton at mtl.mit.edu> Subject: Water Analysis Bill Flowers <waflowers at qnx.com> wrote: > Treated Water > mg/L (ppm) unless otherwise stated > > min max avg > --- --- --- > pH 6.8 9.9 8.3 > Total Alkalinity, as CaCO3 17.0 48.0 25.8 > Total Hardness, as CaCO3 26.0 72.0 51.7 > > Chloride, Cl 3.5 8.0 5.3 > > Calcium, Ca 15.00 18.60 16.80 > Magnesium, Mg 1.94 2.43 2.28 > Potassium, K 0.728 0.820 0.776 > Sodium, Na 2.78 3.78 3.12 > Sulphate, SO4 19.60 30.50 24.00 > This water seems to be rather nice for brewing. This sounds very much like the water that I get at home, untreated, straight from the tap. Total hardness and alkalinity are in the 40-80 range. pH is typically 8. (I don't have the #'s with me so I can't quote values). > Although the pH is sometimes high the > buffering capacity (total alkalinity) seems low so the mash water pH should > drop. In fact, the alkalinity might be too low and I may have to add calcium > carbonate. It is always easier to add than to take away. Also, just as > Miller does, I should probably acidify my sparge water. With such soft water, I never get an alkaline mash. Where most people have to do an acid rest, I do not. I frequently have to increase the mash pH as it is too acidic. Calcium carbonate works well for this. (Added to the mash) I acidfy my sparge water using 1/4 teaspoon of acid blend in 5 gallons. That works well, dropping pH to mid 5's. I've found this sort of water great to brew with. Adding desired minerals is much easier than taking them out! Tim - ---- Timothy J. Dalton tjdalton at mit.edu MIT, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Materials Etching Technology Lab Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 1993 08:17:00 EST From: "/R=FDACB/R=A1/U=RIDGELY/O=HFM-400/TN=FTS 402-1521/FFN=Bill Ridgely/" at mr.cber.fda.gov Subject: Barley Water Response Awhile back, someone requested information about a Victorian-era English drink called "barley water". I believe this was several weeks ago, and the reference was to some dialog in the movie "Mary Poppins". I remembered seeing something about this drink in my historical references, but it took awhile to find it. I'll post the information here for general interest. The passage is from the book "Food and Drink in Britain" by C. Anne Wilson (Barnes & Noble, 1974): It [barley water] had a long history as an invalid beverage. In the sixth centruy A.D., Anthimus had recommended a thin drink made of barley with pure warm water as beneficial for fever patients. The later medieval version in France had the name tisane (from the Greek ptisana for barley water), and it was sweetened with sugar and seasoned with licorice and sometimes also figs. Adapted for English use, it more often comprised barley boiled in water with licorice, herbs and raisins. It was still a licorice-flavored drink in the first part of the seventeenth century but soon afterwards was brought up to date by the substitution of lemon juice for licorice. The author went on to mention that there was no longer a barley water tradition in the English-speaking world, but that a popular version called "horchata" was still enjoyed in Spain and parts of Latin America. BTW, Wendy and I very much appreciated the favorable response to the Chicha & Chang presentation at the AHA Conference. It was a lot of fun to do, and we were gratified so many people were willing to expand their horizons beyond the "barley, hops, and yeast" tradition. Sorry the chicha arrived late (shipping problems), but at least a fair amount finally got consumed. Gak & Gerry were seen making a significant dent in the keg following the banquet Thursday night. Bill Ridgely (Brewer, Patriot, Bicyclist) __o ridgely at a1.cber.fda.gov -\<, ridgely at cber.cber.fda.gov ...O/ O... Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 1993 09:01:46 -0400 (EDT) From: roman at tix.timeplex.com (Daniel Roman) Subject: Pronunciations Does there exist either electronically (preferably) or in print a list of common beer terms and their phonetic spelling? I've been brewing for five years and still have friends ask me how to pronounce "Saaz" or "Maerzen" and I can only shrug my shoulders. I did see the Beer Hunter series and alot of the pronunciations may have been given there but I'd like to have a reference of some sort. My college edition American Heritage does not help too much with alot of beer terms which are really proper names. Maybe a German or Czech dictionary is what I need :-) - -- Dan Roman Internet: roman at tix.timeplex.com (prefered address) // ccMail: roman_d at timeplex.com GEnie: D.ROMAN1 at genie.geis.com \X/ Only AMIGA! Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 93 09:58:01 EDT From: Spencer.W.Thomas at med.umich.edu Subject: Boiling We boil our wort for several reasons: 1. To sanitize it -- there are any number of "nasty" organisms that would just love to chomp on the sugars in unfermented wort. If you boil the wort (and any other water that goes into the fermenter), you reduce this risk. 2. To add hop bitterness -- because we started with "all grains", because we used unhopped extract, because we want a bitterer beer than the hopped extract will give us. Extraction of hop bitterness requires boiling for at least 30 minutes, and preferably an hour. 3. To add hop flavor and aroma -- hopped extracts usually have a low level of hop flavors and aromas. Boiling hops from 0 to 20 minutes adds these (the longer the boil, the lower the aroma, but you don't get appreciable flavor with less than 5-10 minutes). 4. When mashing grains to get part or all of the wort, the boil precipitates proteins that would otherwise cloud the beer and potentially produce unpleasant flavors. This requires 60-90 minutes, typically. 5. To reduce the volume and concentrate the wort -- again, when all-grain brewing, you typically get more liquid from the "mash" than you want to make beer, unless you're making a very light beer. But, even if # 2-5 don't apply to you, a 15 minute boil to sanitize the wort is always called for. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 93 09:59:52 EST From: Tim Brickman <Tim_Brickman at rml.niaid.pc.niaid.nih.gov> Subject: Homebrew suppliers, brewpubs in RTP area I'm relocating to the Research Triangle Park area of N. Carolina soon, and would appreciate information on homebrew suppliers, brewpubs, etc. in that region. Thanks! Tim Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 1993 09:08:09 -0500 From: trl at photos.wustl.edu (Tom Leith MIR/ERL 362-6965) Subject: St. Louis Supplier Cary -- An important consideration is the distance between you and the supplier. For instance, I get UPS from Cincinnati in two days, but it takes five or six from either coast. Anyway, here's our local supplier. She's trying to make it a full-time business and we all want her to succeed. She has a large selection of extracts, a growing selection of malt, and all the yeast, hops, books, and gadgets you could want... t St. Louis Wine & Beermaking Koelle B. Paris, Proprietor 251 Lamp & Lantern Village Chesterfield, MO 63017 314/230-8277 Standard disclaimers apply. ============================================================================= Tom Leith InterNet: trl at wuerl.WUstl.EDU 4434 Dewey Ave. CompuServe: 70441,3536 St. Louis, Missouri 63116 "Tho' I could not caution all 314/362-6965 - Office I still might warn a few: 314/362-6971 - Office Fax Don't lend your hand 314/481-2512 - Home + Infernal Machine to raise no flag atop no Ship of Fools" ============================================================================= Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 1993 10:49:31 -0400 (EDT) From: Chris Sinanian <SINANIAN at Eisner.DECUS.Org> Subject: Info on BrewPubs and BrewStaurants in the Irvine, Ca. area howdy folks, i have to be going into the Irvine, Ca. area for a couple of day's. I wouldn't mind going to a few brewpubs in the area while i'm there. Any recommendations would be appreciated. thanks, Chris Sinanian sinanian at eisner.decus.org Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 93 10:38 CDT From: arf at genesis.mcs.com (Jack Schmidling) Subject: WORT AERATION >From: "Rick (R.) Cavasin" <cav at bnr.ca> >Just a little quibble with your experiment. I wonder if there isn't one confounding variable you've overlooked, namely, fermenter geometry. That is one of the problems with any experiment. The number of variables is usually inifnite. One nails down as many as possible and those deemed unrelated to the information being sought are eliminated. It is frequently a subjective choice but that is why the results are published to allow others to ponder. I would suggest that the geometry of a mason jar is very similar to a typical fermenter. The fact that they were half full is a detail but of no consequence in the control sample which turns out to be the most important one in the final analysis. >The surface area/wort volume ratio, and the amount of head space in the quart jar fermenters is radically different than what most people would encounter in normal... That is true but it remains to be proven that reducing the headspace would effect on the final results. It is my opinion that geometry differential increases the oxygenation of the sample using the airstone because it can be aerated longer before the space is filled. This would only serve to exaggerate the difference between it and the control and tend to favor it but the results speak for themslves. > In the case of your lager test, is a starter/wort ratio of 1/10 typical? (don't know, don't do lagers myself) The amount of starter is of no consequence. It is the amount of yeast in the starter that effects the lag time. The 72 hour lag time at 40 F would indicate that, if anything, there was too little yeast. >From: "William A Kitch" <kitchwa at bongo.cc.utexas.edu> > 1) I'm curious about the geometry of your small fermenters. Specifically I'm wondering about the relative amount of wort exposed to air and thereby oxygen. Let's call..... > So all your small scale fermenters have access to a lot more oxygen than my 'full scale' primary fermenter. A valid argument but in this case, it only applies to the control sample as it enhances the aeration of the others. In order to prove YOUR point, you would have to show that the control sample had received enough oxygen to provide a normal fermentation by the minimal handling it received and/or through the mechanism of the fermenter geometry. The experiment proves the former. I leave it to someone else to scale it up to prove the latter. >Having made all these theoretical observations here is my practical experience: I siphon my cool wort into the primary through a aerating tube. The aerating tube is a 6 in long plastic tube w/ 1/32" holes drilled in the tube wall near one end. (This end is near the siphon hose not at the end the wort exits.) It works just like your sink aerator; air is drawn into the tube through the 1/32" holes and the wort exits as a frothy liquid. When the siphoning is done there is 2 to 6" of foam on top of the wort. I think that you have made one of the points I was testing for in my experiment, vis., the aquarium aerator is an unnecessary complication of the home brewing process. Having said that, I will point out that with your approach, you only get one shot at it. With the aerator, one can repeat the foam buildup ad infinitum but the bottom line is, does it really matter? >From: Chris Williams >Subject: Cold plates and wort chilling >With all the recent talk about cooling wort, I started wondering if you could use a cold plate to accomplish this. If the tubing inside the cold plate isn't SS you might get off flavors, or you might clog the thing up with hop particles, but is it a valid idea ? Any thoughts/experiences ? The tubing in the ones I am familiar is ss but the problem is the diameter is so small you would need to pressurize or pump the wort through it. It would be tediously slow by gravity. js Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 93 11:56:52 MDT From: npyle at n33.stortek.com Subject: Proteins My last brew (although wonderfully tasty) had problems with both head retention and chill haze. It was a pale ale, the first all-grain pale ale I've done. The other all-grainers I've done were darker and had no problem with either. Is this coincidence or do dark grains helps these problems somewhat? It seems to me that large proteins in solution link together at low temperatures (that's how they keep warm!) and form the chill haze. I believe the solution for me is to add a protein rest to my mash cycle to help the proteinase enzymes break down these large proteins. Are there other solutions to this problem, i.e. a certain grain bill, etc. I'd rather not depend too much on finings. I've read that head retention is a function of the proteins in solution as well, although I don't know the details. Would this problem be aided by a protein rest, too? Cheers, norm - -- Norm Pyle, Staff Engineer Storage Technology Corporation npyle at n33.stortek.com 2270 South 88th Street "Youth is of course, the problem, as any Louisville, CO 80028-0211 mature man knows." -- Michael Jackson (303) 673-8884 Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 19 Aug 93 14:40:38 -0400 From: djt2 at po.cwru.edu (Dennis J. Tempelton) Subject: Re: Taxonomy Tom... your latest taxonomy post may be a little too much BTW, ATCC has no listing for "Torulospora delbrukii", though it does for "Torulospora delbrueckii" I find this a little confusing, since I know the grandson of the delbru(umlaut)k in question and he has no c in his name. ATCC searches can be reached by Gopher, with this gopher information +INFO: 1ATCC - The American Type Culture Collection 1/Database-local/cultures/atcc merlot.welch.jhu.edu 70 the real wuestion seems to be should we use weihenstephan 68 or wyeast. I (the empiricist) cloned out the wyeast bavarian culture as reported in HBD a year ago and found that only about 1% of the colonies had a variant morphology and created an estery beer. I use this exclusively now. This low percentage might explain why wyeast cultures are criticized as bland. One other question: What source is there for the Weihenstephan 68 strain?? dennis ======================================================================= Dennis J Templeton, M.D., Ph.D. Biomedical Research Building Room 909 Phone (216) 368-1266 Institute of Pathology Fax (216) 368-1300 Case Western Reserve University Email djt2 at po.cwru.edu Cleveland, Ohio 44106 Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #1208, 08/20/93