HOMEBREW Digest #1549 Tue 11 October 1994

Digest #1548 Digest #1550

		Rob Gardner, Digest Janitor

  Premise Disinfectant (Greg Demkowicz)
  Re: Yeast head contact with air / Irish Ale yeast (Patrick Weix)
  open fermenting (RONALD DWELLE)
  The immorality of shipping ("Rich Scotty")
  UPS shipping of alcohol (Phil Duclos)
  Brewpubs in Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, & Appleton, WI (Jan Holloway)
  temperature equations (Steve Robinson)
  Shipping Beer (npyle)
  holiday beer recipe (Russell Fusco)
  small bottles (Gary Bell)
  Re: Refrigeration Unit (Dion Hollenbeck)
  Re: specialty malts (Patrick Casey)
  BJCP $$$ ("Rad Equipment")
  wholesale grain ("Warren G. Schaibbe")
  Mash  water calculation additions (George Danz x632)
  clean air (George Danz x632)
  Yeast culture question (Dan Strahs)
  filtration/when to rack (Algis R Korzonas +1 708 979 8583)
  yeast slowdown after racking (Algis R Korzonas +1 708 979 8583)
  re: semi-open fermentation (10-Oct-1994 1552 -0400)
  Going to Belgium - need info about everything (10-Oct-1994 1715 -0400)
  what do BCI kegs look like? (Joe Boardman)
  HBD 1548 (BrewerLee)
  Hop Moisture Content ("David Sapsis")
  Wort Chilling Questions ("Morton, Mike")
  Shipping Beer ("Rebecca S. Myers")

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 08:18:47 -0400 (EDT) From: Greg Demkowicz <demkowg at iia.org> Subject: Premise Disinfectant Not to rehash the Iodophor discussion in HB1522/3, but I just came across a product by Westagro, called Premise Disinfectant. It's labeled as a "concentrated broad spectrum iodophor for use as a one-step cleaner- disinfectant and no-rinse sanitizer". As a disinfectant, (with a 1 minute contact time) it goes on to state a dilution table of 1oz Premise to 5 gallon water, yielding a titratable iodine of 25 ppm. Per the "Federal Food Additive Regulation 178.1010", a rinse with potable water is not required. However, as a cleaner and disinfectant, 3 oz per 5 gallon, and a 10 minute contact time is recommended, and ALL food surfaces must be thoroughly rinsed before reuse. As I have never used BTF or BEST Iodophors, is the above consistent with these products? I did not see any reference to "air drying" of the 25 ppm solution, for it to not require a rinse, as Al K. mentioned in HB1522. Has anyone used this product? This stuff does foam and is used in the food industry, just curious if it is/can be used for cleaning brewing equipment. Greg demkowg at iia.org Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 05:31:34 -0700 From: weix at netcom.com (Patrick Weix) Subject: Re: Yeast head contact with air / Irish Ale yeast homebrew at hpfcmi.fc.hp.com (Posting Address Only - No Requests) writes: >Yeast head contact with air >- --------------------------- >In the Brewery Planner, put out by the IBS, one of the articles disucusses the >advantages and disadvantages of open and closed fermentation. One of the >advantages for open fermentation is (and I paraphrase, 'cause I ain't got the >book here at work...) > Yeast head contact with air is important because it makes the > yeast cells more virile for re-pitching into another batch. > >Makes sense to me, since yeast need oxygen to reproduce. I can get the actual >quote tomorrow... Note that CO2 is heavier that air. Thus, unless the brew is being aerated or stirred (generally not recommended once fermentation has begun), the CO2 will make a blanket excluding O2. Yeast DO NOT require oxygen for growth. They do however grow faster and better with O2 around. Yeast + food + oxygen = more yeast + CO2 Yeast + food = more yeast + CO2 + Ethanol Patrick > -Steve >+-------------------------------+ >| Stephen P. Veillette | >| Information Systems | Ya know, I can't remember >| Western CT State University | *not* knowing how to brew. >| VEILLETTE at WCSU.CTSTATEU.EDU | >+-------------------------------+ Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 09:24:26 EST From: dweller at GVSU.EDU (RONALD DWELLE) Subject: open fermenting I gave up open fermenting after my cat fell in for the second time (she does like her brew!). Ron Dwelle (dweller at gvsu.edu) Return to table of contents
Date: 10 Oct 1994 07:53:16 U From: "Rich Scotty" <rscotty at denitqm.ecte.uswc.uswest.com> Subject: The immorality of shipping Subject: Time: 7:55 AM OFFICE MEMO The immorality of shipping beer Date: 10/10/94 Ken Harralson of UPS lectures on the law: > They know it is illegal, but somehow they justify doing it. I suppose > each of us must decide which laws we choose to obey and which laws >we choose to break. Yes Ken, and I'm sure that each and every one of your drivers strictly obey the posted speed limit too (not in *THIS* state). People and glass houses you know... Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 08:16:23 MDT From: pjd at craycos.com (Phil Duclos) Subject: UPS shipping of alcohol >Date: Fri, 07 Oct 94 17:39:52 EST >From: kwh at roadnet.ups.com (Harralson, Kirk) >Subject: Shipping beer > >This subject has come up several times in the HBD in the last few > years, and I have purposely avoided getting involved. I realize that > people are going to ship beer by common carrier, with little regard to > what is legal and what is not. There is a big temptation to just > mislabel the package, as Craig suggests, and let it go through the > system. We handle in excess of 22 million packages/day, so > enforcement is next to impossible. Contributors to the HBD have, for > the most part, frowned upon other blatant illegal subjects in the > past, such as home distillation, using marijuana in brewing, stealing > breweries kegs for tun conversions, etc.. However, from the posts I > have read over the past few years, the majority of people seem to > think that shipping beer is some sort of gray area; that it is > "technically illegal, but...". This attitude is similar to people who > make illegal copies of software. They know it is illegal, but somehow > they justify doing it. I suppose each of us must decide which laws we > choose to obey and which laws we choose to break. > > It is a federal regulation that we (United Parcel Service) cannot > accept any alcoholic beverages in our system. This can be confirmed > by calling our main information number at (800) 346-0106. > > Kirk Harralson > kwh at roadnet.ups.com Kirk - It is NOT a federal regualtion that UPS cannot accept any alcoholic beverages in your system. I too inquired about the legalities of shipping alcohol through UPS. Since a number of places do it already, Wine of the Month Club, Beer Across America, etc, I wondered why I could not also. After two hours on the phone with UPS what I got was: "You can if you set it up WAY ahead of time." UPS has a number of forms for you to fill out to insure that you have complied with all the Federal tax regulations and the regulations of each state involved as well. Some states do not allow the interstate shipment of alcohol to individuals. Since the interstate shipper could be found liable for breaking this law they want to cover their asses. UPS is also in the BUSINESS of shipping packages. If you ship a lot of stuff they are more willing to spend the time to fill out the paperwork than if you ship 5 boxes at Christmas only. Also the standard answer from the customer service reps is "No way!" To be perfectly clear about it UPS has a rather large binder with ALL their rules in it. Getting someone to find the particular section can be difficult, they all have better things to do. I had hoped that someone like the AHA would smooth this process out with UPS so that all homebrewers could ship their homebrew without hassle. Alas, AHA is in the business of printing magazines not assisting homwbrewers. Federal regulations allow interstate shippers to refuse any shipment containing alcohol if they desire. The choice is therefore company policy. USPS is federally prevented from shipping alcohol. Perhaps, Kirk, you can post a copy of the page from the UPS "big book" and the forms necessary to make UPS happy? phil duclos pjd at craycos.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 09:29:33 -0600 From: holloway at ezmail.ucs.indiana.edu (Jan Holloway) Subject: Brewpubs in Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, & Appleton, WI Greetings, HBD readers. We're heading for a conference in Ypsilanti and a trip to Ann Arbor, and would love to take with us your recommendations for brewpubs or interesting pubs in those areas. Please reply to the Digest or to holloway at indiana.edu. Many thanks in advance. --Jan Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 10:44:11 EDT From: Steve Robinson <Steve.Robinson at analog.com> Subject: temperature equations The rewrites of the Beverly Hills 90210 episodes have been assigned a 1994 charging/tracking number . . . <slap> Tim <LAATSCH at kbs.msu.edu> asks about Charlie's numbers for step mashing. While I have not tried his numbers personally, I would not be surprised if this were the case. I suspect many of Charlie's procedures stem from being rushed when he's brewing. There was an article in the Spring '94 Zymurgy on calculating heat capacities for mashing. To paraphrase (without permission), if you have a mash at temp. T1 and you want to raise it to temp. T2, you can calculate the heat you need to add by: CPG * LBG * (T2 - T1) + CPW * LBW * (T2 - T1) = heat (in BTU) where CPW = heat capacity of water = 1.0 CPG = heat capacity of grain = 0.4 LBG = pounds of grain in the mash LBW = pounds of water in the mash (density of water = 2.08 pounds/quart at room temp) If you are going to raise the temperature of the mash by infusing water at a higher temperature T3 (ie 212F for boiling water), then the heat added is CPW * LBW * (T3 - T2) = heat added. Equate the left sides of these equations and solve for pounds of water at T3. Remember that some fudge factor will still be needed to account for heating your mash tun, losses through evaporation, etc. Only experience with your particular setup will give this factor. As far as mash tuns, I have previously used a Gott cooler with an EasyMasher(tm) as my mash-tun for straight infusion and decoction mashing, and a pot-on-the- stove mash-tun (also with EM(tm) installed) for step mashing. In a recent Brewing Techniques, Kelly Jones outlined a method for bubbling steam into the mash for step mashing. Over the next month I am going to build one of these for my picnic cooler mash-tun. This will eliminate the one serious drawback to the Gott cooler (not being able to heat it directly). Stay tuned for a summary. As far as mash schedules go, there has been some recent discussion to the effect that protein rests should be done closer to 132 than 122. This causes long protein chains to break down into shorter chains, as opposed to breaking short chains down into their constituent amino acids. The net effect is to reduce chill haze and improve head retention. There was also a schedule published by Dr. Fix back in August sometime for highly modified malts. This consisted of 30 minutes each at 104F/140F/158F. The 104F rest can be achieved by doughing in with 5/8 quarts water per pound of grain at room temp, then infusing 3/8 quarts per pound of boiling water (a la Noonan). The rise to 140F is achieved by infusing additional boiling water and the rise to 158 by direct heating. Superior yields were claimed for this schedule. Again, I have not yet tried this personally but I intend to as soon as I get the steam bubbler working. Anyway, I hope this helps. Steve R. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 9:04:29 MDT From: npyle at hp7013.ecae.StorTek.COM Subject: Shipping Beer Kirk Harralson (kwh at roadnet.ups.com) writes, regarding shipping beer: > enforcement is next to impossible. Contributors to the HBD have, for > the most part, frowned upon other blatant illegal subjects in the > past, such as home distillation, using marijuana in brewing, stealing > breweries kegs for tun conversions, etc.. However, from the posts I > have read over the past few years, the majority of people seem to > think that shipping beer is some sort of gray area; that it is > "technically illegal, but...". This attitude is similar to people who > make illegal copies of software. They know it is illegal, but somehow > they justify doing it. I suppose each of us must decide which laws we > choose to obey and which laws we choose to break. This is exactly true, Kirk. I think most people obey laws for two reasons: 1) they don't want to risk the penalty, or 2) they believe it to be morally wrong. They break laws in the case where neither of these seem to be an issue. Speaking for myself only, distillation and using marijuana fall into the first category. Stealing kegs or pirating software falls into the second category. Shipping beer falls into the first category, but frankly, the risk is so low as to be ignored by most homebrewers. OTOH, someone is going to get caught one day and I don't want to be that person, not with Janet Reno as our AG. I hate the thought of tanks demolishing my beautiful homebrewery over a couple "Mailed Pale Ales"! What are we to do? I wish the AHA would help us out here; has anyone heard from them on this issue? Norm npyle at hp7013.ecae.stortek.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 11:17:41 -0400 (EDT) From: Russell Fusco <fusco at acpub.duke.edu> Subject: holiday beer recipe Does anyone have a really nice holiday beer recipe? I'm thinking something with cinammon or pine needles, or something like that. Russ Fusco Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 09:14:01 -0700 From: gbell at ix.netcom.com (Gary Bell) Subject: small bottles Jim Blue (blue at cam.nist.gov) asked about a source for small bottles for his Imperial Stout. I just bought a couple of cases of 6.4 oz bottles for Barleywine from California Glass Co in Oakland at (510) 635-7700 [ask for Perry]. They are the same bottles used by Rogue for Ol' Crustacean and by Anchor for Foghorn. If you're not in (or close to) California try your nearest glass bottle supply company. By the way, they weren't particularly cheap - $6.50 or so for a case of 24. G. "Quis dolor cui dolium?!" Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 09:18:47 PDT From: hollen at megatek.com (Dion Hollenbeck) Subject: Re: Refrigeration Unit Please excuse posting since Diane is no longer on Email. > Mini Refrigeration Unit > Item 1-1302 $47.50 If you buy one of these, could you please post results vs. your understanding of the description in catalog. I have been looking at this catalog entry for 6 months or more wondering whether to buy it or not and would appreciate hearing if it really is suitable. dion Dion Hollenbeck (619)675-4000x2814 Email: hollen at megatek.com Staff Software Engineer Megatek Corporation, San Diego, California Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 12:44:53 EDT From: pacasey at lexmark.com (Patrick Casey) Subject: Re: specialty malts >>>>> "Domenick" == Domenick Venezia <venezia at zgi.com> writes Domenick> misleading. I will lend my voice to the inevitable Domenick> cacophony as I haven't participated in a good cacophony Domenick> in weeks! Ah ... it brings back fond memories of fine Domenick> cacophonies past, but that's another story ... I feel like cacophing (pardon me) some, too! Domenick> Crystal has no enzyme level. It is fully modified Domenick> (converted) in the husk and then kiln dried creating a Domenick> little crystal of malt sugar. It does NOT need to be Domenick> mashed. However, some people include it in the mash, Domenick> others add it just before mashout or sparge, and still Domenick> others steep it in the sparge water. The issue with Domenick> mashing crystal is NOT conversion of starch to sugar Domenick> (there is no starch left) it is ease of process and Domenick> possible breakdown of dextrins during the mash, and Domenick> hence loss of some of the crystal character and Domenick> contribution. Are all the starches really pre-converted? Or just most? Or only some? Seems like Miller says to mash it because it contains some residual starches that need to be converted. Then again, I've never gotten a decent Crystal "character" in my beers where it undergoes the full mash with the rest of the malt, so there you go... For my next batch, I think I'll try adding it just before sparging (no mash-out due to a previous cacophony!). Out of curiosity, if ALL (or pretty much all) the starches are indeed converted during kilning, how does it work? I thought all the enzymes were in the outer layer (can't think of the name now without my books), so how do they get to the starches deep inside the grain? Even with the grain wet, it seems unlikely that all the inner starches would get converted... Just picking nits. ;-) - Patrick Return to table of contents
Date: 10 Oct 1994 09:53:31 U From: "Rad Equipment" <rad_equipment at rad-mac1.ucsf.edu> Subject: BJCP $$$ Subject: BJCP $$$ Time:7:38 AM Date:10/10/94 -Lee Bussy (lee.bussy at twsubbs.twsu.edu) says: >Russ Wigglesworth stated: >> Fees are $55 for first time takers and $40 for retakers. This fee >> includes an assessment to help defer the cost of the exam site. >I posted this already in The Homebrew Digest as this was posted there as well. >I feel that raising the price from an already high $50 to $55 is just milking things. >We are homebrewers, not bankers and this price puts the BJCP way out of reach for some otherwise qualified judges. >It was unclear in the HBD post (or maybe I didn't pay close enough attention) who was hosting and who was proctoring. I still believe that the 10% of the fees going to the host and 10% going to the proctor ought to be plenty without adding an additional 10% for the exam site. >The exam could be held in a member's house or garage (as we have done) or a local business would probably be glad to help (one of our beer distributors is hosting out upcoming competition). >I was against the price increase (as were many of you probably) and we should do all we can to try to keep the test financially feasible to all prospective judges. >I won't even go into how the re-exam costs $30 and you are getting an additional $10 off of those who wish to better their scores. >Sorry if this sounds inflammatory, but I am a little peeved at the way people expect these things to pay for themselves or even worse, generate a profit. Here, the BJCP exists to support the competition, (which is held exclusive of any club) and the competition to support the BJCP, with any extra monies going to give a local judge or two the opportunity to take the test, which he may not have been able to do otherwise. >I'm interested to hear what you all feel about this. And Andrew Patrick writes: >In an era when the general inflation rate is running around 3%, how does the AHA justify a 25% increase in the exam fee?? First, there is an error in my original post as far as the fees are concerned. The re-take fee is $30 (with an additional $5 for this specific exam). So, $55 and $35 respectively. Second, while the BJCP is jointly sponsored by the AHA and the HWBTA it is independently run. The AHA serves as co-sponsor and mailing address. Therefore the AHA can not be held accountable for BJCP changes. Contact the BJCC with complaints and praise. Concerning this issue of tacking on fees to cover expenses. I will not presume to speak for Byron since this is his exam. If you wish to interrogate him as to the specific costs call him at The Beverage People. However, since I posted the news of this exam to the InterNet I will respond as much as I can. Byron cleared the added fees in advance with Alberta Rager when he scheduled the exam. The additional $5 is unique to this exam date and location. Apparently there is no suitable facility available on a volunteer basis. There have been multiple enquiries made concerning the holding of an exam in northern California recently. I have tried to schedule several over the past few months without success due to the lack of a site. I was about to rent space for a February exam in San Francisco when Byron made his arrangements. Rather than hold two exams back to back it made sense to combine our efforts into one. Since there is so much interest I expect there will be a fairly large group of takers. Byron's calculation for the additional fees were based on his needing a minimum of 10 takers to cover the cost of the hall (with the additional fee). Since we are now promoting this as the only exam in the area for the foreseeable future I expect the attendance will be much higher than Byron anticipated when he announced it. The additional fees are there to insure that the facility is paid for and if excess money is collected (as I suspect it will be) refunds will be made. (This was stated in my original post.) A word about exam fees in general. Speaking as member of the BJCC (the committee which oversees the BJCP) I can say that we have debated the funding of the program at great length. The exam fees serve to cover the cost of the exam itself as well as help to cover the operating costs of the program overall. There are very few areas where the BJCP can get revenue and the program is intended to be self sufficient. The committee has decided that the exam fees are not excessive (confirmed by the ever increasing number of takers) and that funding via the fees is preferable to either outside sponsorship or imposing dues on the participating judges. That leaves exams and competitions as primary income sources. I assure you the issue of finance is constantly under consideration by the committee. The combined 20% of the fee which goes to the Exam Administrator and the Exam Sponsor pays for the material expenses they incur in their effort to put on the exam. In addition to possibly purchasing beer for the exam there are the costs of the exam booklets, photocopying, bread, cups, return postage and such to be covered. The cost of the space is also intended to be paid from this portion of the fees, however it may not always work that way (especially if there are only a minimum number of examinees). I also know of occasions when the Sponsor has declined his 10% either because no expenses were incurred or because he wished to donate them. In any event I promise, NO ONE IS MAKING A PROFIT FROM BJCP EXAMS! It is laudable that some competitions exist to support the BJCP. Unfortunately I know of no competition in California which makes a profit. Most local competitions are sponsored by the county fairs (and they handle all the money) and those that are not put all of their income back into the event in the form of publicity, operating costs, awards, and lunch for the judges and stewards. And even these are frequently supplemented by donations from outside sponsors. I hope this has helped to clarify things. RW... Russ Wigglesworth (INTERNET: Rad_Equipment at radmac1.ucsf.edu - CI$: 72300,61) UCSF Dept. of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (415) 476-3668 / Home (707) 769-0425 Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 13:37:54 -500 (EDT) From: "Warren G. Schaibbe" <wschaibb at eagle.lhup.edu> Subject: wholesale grain Hyaa folks! I have been lurking here for a couple of weeks now, and have really learned A LOT about a subject I thought I knew pretty well. I am really glad I signed onto the HBD! I recently moved up to central Pennsylvania (Williamsport Area) from Florida, and I am having trouble finding quality homebrew supplies at reasonable prices. In Florida, I could purchase six - row for $ .89 per pound, and 55# for $35. The best price I could find here so far is $1.50/lb, and no quantity prices. Soo, I was wondering if anyone out there knew of any local and/or mail-order suppliers for grain. email is fine, and I'll post a summary if the responce warrants it. Thanks a bunch, Warren G. Schnibbe wschaibb at eagle.lhup.edu "A new weapon reaches its zenith the moment it is introduced." General George Patton. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 13:50:02 EDT From: danz at edasich.rtp.semi.harris.com (George Danz x632) Subject: Mash water calculation additions There is a great formula you can use to determine how much water to add and how hot it should be to raise mash temps. 2.083*Q1*(TH-TF)=(2.083*Q0-0.41*G)*(TF-T0) Q1 = quarts of hot water to be added to raise the temperatrue as desired Q0 = quarts of water initially in the mash (this is zero for the first infusion). TH = The temperature of the Hot addition (in deg. F) TF = The temperature of the mash after addition (deg. F) T0 = The initial temperature of the grain/ mash prior to hot water addition G = The number of pounds of grain making up the mash (dry pounds of grain) Assumptions: That it takes 0.41 BTUs per pound of dry grain to raise the temp. of the grain 1.0 deg. F. That it takes 2.083 BTUs to raise a quart of water 1.0 deg. F. The info I used to formulate the above came from an article in a back issue of either Zymergy or Brewing Techniques, but I can't remember when. The good news is that it works and I've had very little droop in temperature in a 60 quart ice chest when brewing 10 gallon batches. This size creates a mass that is difficult to cool off in under several hours. One caution: don't make the mistake I did. Once I mistook the number of quarts to use in my equation with gallons. Needless to say I added one hell of a lot of ice real quick. I'll not do that again. If you'd rather use gallons for the water measure, change the 2.083 to 4 times greater, since there are 4 quarts to one gallon. Happy mashing, George Danz Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 13:58:37 EDT From: danz at edasich.rtp.semi.harris.com (George Danz x632) Subject: clean air Why not just gett a small length of copper tubing to which you've added the pump and some plastic tubing to connect ot the airstone and heat the livin beejesus out of a small lenght of the tubing? The heat from the tubing would super heat the air and kill anything in the air stream, especially if you jammed some copper brillo pad material down the section which would be heated. If you thought you'd be heating the wort too much, you could put some more cu brillow downstream of the heated part and run it through an ice bath. George Danz danz at rtp.semi.harris.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 15:10:29 -0500 (EST) From: Dan Strahs <STRAHS at msvax.mssm.edu> Subject: Yeast culture question I've recently moved from experimental work to all theoretical work, so I can't casually propagate yeast cultures in the lab anymore. In particular, I don't feel like begging Bacto-Agar from other labs, so I was hoping to find other retail substitutes. Has anyone used unflavored gelatin? I tried ~7 grams in 400 mls of media, but that came out as a very weak gel. How high will I have to go? What about agar-agar from a Chinese grocery? Has anyone tried that and with what results? Return to table of contents
Date: 10 Oct 94 19:14:00 GMT From: korz at iepubj.att.com (Algis R Korzonas +1 708 979 8583) Subject: filtration/when to rack Ray writes: >1: Use a small plastic jar (like a pill bottle), with nipples at either end, >packed with cotton balls > slightly damped with grain alcohol. Good idea, but don't bother with the alcohol -- air doesn't travel well at all through wet cotton. There was another post suggesting wetting the cotton -- I really think that this is counterproductive. Dry cotton should trap most of the airborne nasties and wet cotton is just an invitation for moulds and fungi to take up residence in your filter -- Ick! >2: Medical filter for oxygenating blood. (I assume this would be for >something like dialysis; > I've been in the medical field 10 years and am unaware if such a filter >exists.) Look for "syringe filters." I'm quite sure they are not for oxygenating blood. >3: The "Bubble Jar" method; a sealable jar with an in & out tube attatched. > The filter pushes > the air through the in tube and bubbles through a solution of sterilant >(dilute bleach, alcohol, > hydrogen peroxide, etc.) I've already recently explained why this will not work. >4: And the winning entry, submitted by Christopher Sack: >The filter for the aquarium pump is very simply a 1" OD x ~6" long glass >or copper tube that is filled with aquarium activated charcoal to remove >any smells/chemicals. Each end is fitted with a plug or sterile cotton to >keep the charcoal in place and to serve as a filter for particles/nasties. Indeed, this is a good idea. ******* Barry writes: >I brewed my first all-grain two weeks ago. I even made a starter for my >yeast this time (Wyeast 1338). It fermented in the primary for 5 days. >When I racked it, there were yeast(?) chunkies floating on top and stuck to Those were partly yeast, but mostly cold break. >the bottom. I'm pretty sure this was after the krausen. While in the >secondary, it took a day or two for the yeasties to get started again. >I thought I had racked too early. When I racked my previous extract batches, >they seemed to take off immediately. I worried a little. Then it went into a >"normal" secondary fermentation. End worrying. > >Does this just reinforce the previous discussion that 1338 is a mixed strain >and is slow to finish? Or is there such a thing as racking too early? Well, if you rack during high kraeusen, you could have trouble keeping the siphon going, but increasing the height difference between the fermentors helps somewhat. There are two (alleged) reasons for racking to a secondary: 1. remove the beer from any cold break that made it into the primary, and 2. remove the yeast from dead yeast. Now, while I think that more research needs to be done in this area, I know that great ale can be made without using a secondary. Flavor benefits from using secondaries have been debated here and elsewhere. I personally think that if you don't let the finished beer sit too long (more than I week or two, I would venture to guess) on the break and dead yeast, there should be little benefit from using a secondary. Obviously this means that when doing lagers, I personaly do use a secondary. I rack after about a week or 10 days when making lagers. Think about it: the yeast certainly would much rather eat glucose, maltose and other sugars than their departed cousins or trub. I'm no biologist, but my assumption is based on the fact that smaller sugars like glucose and maltose can be absorbed directly by the yeast. Larger sugars like sucrose must be first broken into their components (a glucose and a fructose molecule) OUTSIDE the yeast body and then ingested. Yeast expel an enzyme called invertase to do this. Since the protein molecules in break material are considerably larger than even sucrose, I suspect that the yeast would have to do something to them to get any nourishment from the break. Same is true for the enzymes the yeast expel for breaking down their dead cousins. So, I theorise that there is no need to even think about worrying about racking until the yeast have consumed most of the easy-to-eat sugars. Any biologists care to comment? Any non-biologists care to further speculate? Al. Return to table of contents
Date: 10 Oct 94 19:25:00 GMT From: korz at iepubj.att.com (Algis R Korzonas +1 708 979 8583) Subject: yeast slowdown after racking Barry writes: >When I racked it, there were yeast(?) chunkies floating on top and stuck to Those were partly yeast, but mostly cold break. >the bottom. I'm pretty sure this was after the krausen. While in the >secondary, it took a day or two for the yeasties to get started again. >I thought I had racked too early. When I racked my previous extract batches, >they seemed to take off immediately. I worried a little. Then it went into a >"normal" secondary fermentation. End worrying. Oops. I forgot to answer the second question. When you racked, the lower pressure on the beer at the top of the rackikng tube caused some of the CO2 that had been dissolved in your beer to come out of solution. Once you finished racking, the yeast needed to saturate the beer with CO2 again before you saw activity in your airlock. I'll bet there was some increased airlock activity just after racking (CO2 coming out of solution) followed by a slowdown while the CO2 got resaturated and then restart of "normal" activity. Al. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 15:57:23 EDT From: 10-Oct-1994 1552 -0400 <ferguson at zendia.enet.dec.com> Subject: re: semi-open fermentation >Date: Wed, 28 Sep 94 09:13:40 EDT >From: Allan Rubinoff <rubinoff at BBN.COM> >Subject: Semi-open fermentation [...] >So, I'm thinking of using the following procedure: > > - After pitching the yeast, attach stopper and airlock. > > - When krausen starts to build up, remove stopper and airlock, leaving > carboy open. > > - After krausen begins to die down, reattach stopper and airlock. i see no problem in doing this. i do things even 'worse' than this. i brew, chill, _and_ ferment in my 15.5 gal SS boiler. open fermentation with a loose SS cover on the top of the bioler-fermenter. i pitch about 3-4 cups of yeast slurry and ferments are going less than 9 hrs later. have not had an infection yet. when the fermentation dies down, about 36-60 hrs later, i rack to soda kegs for cask-conditioning. jc Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 17:20:38 EDT From: 10-Oct-1994 1715 -0400 <ferguson at zendia.enet.dec.com> Subject: Going to Belgium - need info about everything i'm pondering a trip to belgium to savour the taste of belgium beers in their home turf. has anyone in HB land been there? i'm looking for info in the following areas. email would be best to ferguson at zendia.enet.dec.com. time period is thanksgiving week. - getting money in belgium. can i use my ATM card? i did in england with no problem. - where to stay. B&Bs would be the best bet. we'd like to make our own agenda once there, kinda roam around, stay whereever. do they have these? are they plentiful? how much do they cost (in USD)? what forms of payment to they accept? reservations required? do most of the hosts speak english? - brew tours. yes! i'd love to do 3-4 while i'm there. where to tour? also, are the tours in english? i only speak english and some pretty broken up german! i plan to rent a car; i've driven in ireland/england/germany/austria/etc so i'm confortable dealing with it. any pointers would be MOST appreciated. regards, jc ferguson Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 15:45:59 MDT From: Joe Boardman <boardman at amber.Colorado.EDU> Subject: what do BCI kegs look like? Greetings HBD'ers, I have a few questions for those of you who have purchased the cut-off half-barrels from BCI. 1) Are they Sankey and Firestone type kegs? i.e. straight-sided 2) How are they cutoff, completely without a top, just a hole in the crown or some other method that leaves handles? 3) What sort of shape are they in? Smashed bottom rings? Scuffed sides or ultra-pretty? Your in beer, Joe Boardman boardman at amber.colorado.edu (sorry no USWest memos or 90201 discussion from me) Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 15:35:31 EDT From: BrewerLee at aol.com Subject: HBD 1548 Maybe it's just me but I think one or two things were _way_ off topic! >Why do I watch 90210? It's not me is it? Kirk Harralson stated: > It is a federal regulation that we (United Parcel Service) cannot > accept any alcoholic beverages in our system. This can be confirmed > by calling our main information number at (800) 346-0106. Actually, according to the BATF (as I stated in a previous post that probably never made it out), it is only illegal to ship alcoholic beverages via the USPS. The shipment of alcoholic beverages for analytical purposes via a private carrier is specifically permitted. Whether or not UPS allows it is another thing. This one must also have been posted wrong: > FROM: Gina Eckert > Project Administrator > Program Office > 541-6634 > >RE: Project activation Oh well, my mailer at the U is scr*wed up too. Steve Bliss writes: > I think I may have come up with a better (different at least) way to > raise the temperature of the mash. My idea is this -- First make an > immersion heating coil of copper tubing (just like an immersion cooler). > And then use the controls, pump, and electric heating element/enclosure > of an existing RIMS setup to recirculate heated *WATER* thru the > immersion heating coil placed in the mash tun. Someone on C$erve came up with a similar device and if I remember correctly it worked well. They used steam but hot water would be safer I think. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 16:43:00 CST From: "David Sapsis" <dbsapsis at nature.Berkeley.EDU> Subject: Hop Moisture Content I'd like to follow up my earlier posts and some responses concerning reported differences in hop moisture content. Although I know I prefaced my posts with "this relates only to my experience..." I believe that my findings of moistures ranging from 80-160% were so much lower than the reported 400%, that I instantly thought that these measures were based on wet weight, not the dry weight standard generally use (In fact, if I would have thought it over, I would have realized that weight weight standards always result in lower, not higher, comparisons). In fact, in over ten years of sampling plant materials for fire behavior analysis, I had never measured any live fuel moistures greater than 360%. However, it appears that after consulting with Glenn Tinseth and another grower, hops can in fact range upward of 400%, and I stand corrected. As Glen pointed out in his e-mail to me, the point of concern is not so much what is the moisture level appropriate for harvest; rather, if you are going to use wet hops in your beer, you must dry some to have some knowledge of the equivelent amount you are using. At least part of the the reported difference in moistures can be attributed to environmental conditions at harvest. If you pick in the early morning or late evening and then air temperature is below dew-point, then there is likely some free water condensed on the outside of the hop. Additionally, hop cones, like all organic materials, are hygroscopic -- they adsorb and loose water to the atmosphere depending on the partial pressure of water vapor in the air. An additional point that might be reponsible for my hops having significantly lowere MC's relates to horticultural practice. There is a large body of scientific evidence related to stress-induced flowering, water stress just being one of the many types of physiological stresses that can occur. I have always stopped watering my plants 2-3 weeks prior to expected harvest. As hops are not exceptionally proficient at extracting water from dry soils, the effect is to reduce water status in the plants given that they still are actively involved in photosynthesis, and are thus transpiring internal water. Growers of the other member of this plants family have employed this practice to stimulate resin production for years, and I do the same. I was under the assumption that commercial hop growers did it as well, but apparently many do not. In any event, during this no-water phase, I notice significant loss in leaf turgor to the point of partial wilting, and this may in fact result in very substantial losses of free water from the plant. Next year I plan on harvesting some cones prior to stopping irrigation to see if my hops are also something near 80% water. One more note regarding use and measurements of hops. If you are using mass to measure the amount of hop additions (and I assume that you are) be cautious to weigh them without significant exposure to a humid invironment. I have witnessed homebrewers take their hops out of the freezer, open the bag up, and go about their buisness looking for their scale or whatever, all the while in a closed kitchen with gallons of wort boiling away. As stated, hops readily adsorb or desorb moisture from the environment. I conducted an experiment to investigate the rate at which dry hops pick up moisture in such conditions. I found that I could take a sample of hops at 8-10%MC out of the bag, and get it to 25%MC in twenty minutes. This amounts to an error of 15%. As boils often last 20-30 minutes prior to the first hop addition, it seems likely that others may be doing likewise. The same goes for the use of damp malt. Chances are if malt has become soft, you will be overestimating your grain bill if measuring the malt by weight. Although these errors are likely to be relatively small, if you are serching to really hone in on a particular flavor, or repeat something, this is one (of many!) sources of variability. I have found that good note-keeping goes a long way to explain flavor profiles. Although I personally believe that there are so many sources of variability in determining actual hop utilization rates that comparisons of *estimated* IBU's to be meaningless, the relative (percieved) effect as you change hop schedules within your own brewery are a great source of information on hop effects. Cheers, dave ********************************************************************** David Sapsis dbsapsis at nature.berkeley.edu Wildland Fire Research Laboratory Dept. Environmental Science, Policy, and Management U C Berkeley voice: (510)642-8053 fax:(510) 643-5438 "From fire everything is created, and in fire everything ends up." --Heracleitus (502 B.C.) ************************************************************************ Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 94 17:10:00 PDT From: "Morton, Mike" <STGPMPM at geological.unocal.com> Subject: Wort Chilling Questions I am a fairly new home-brewer (or fairly new to home-brewing) and am going to try a wort chiller of sorts. I have about fifteen feet of copper tubing (3/8" od 3/16" id) and am proposing to immerse it in a bucket of ice water (in the racking tube 'chain') on the way to one of my carboys. The carboy will have some cold water in it (to reduce thermal shock) and will be immersed in a cold water bath. After racking through the chiller to the carboy I will add some ice to the carboy bath to bring it down to a reasonable pitching temp. I will let this sit for a few hours and then rack to my fermenter (6-1/2 gal carboy) to separate from the trub. Having said that, I have a couple of questions. Is there a more efficient use of the copper tubing without going to the trouble to make a counterflow system? I worry (oops, didn't mean to use the 'W' word <g>) about infection with an immersion chiller. Does the trub collect in the copper tubing during cold break? If so, how can I clean the tubing efficiently? Thanks in advance for any help given. Any suggestions or comments are appreciated. Mike Morton stgpmpm at geological.unocal.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Oct 1994 19:46:51 -0700 (PDT) From: "Rebecca S. Myers" <rmyers at netcom.com> Subject: Shipping Beer Kirk Harralson makes some interesting points in his post regarding the shipping beer, but, speaking from experience, shipping alcohol (at least in 1988, when my small ad agency sent out its holiday gifts) was legal within the state of California via UPS. And granted the members of the HBD seem a fairly legal bunch. However, is it not a protest against the mass-produced, lowest common denominator *beer* that we brew our own? The restrictions of interstate personal shipment of alcoholic substances should be protested. It is not an indictment of UPS, but of the very fabric of our country that we are told, yes, but don't share. Forget the blue laws and dry counties! Beer for all! *** And as for comparing shipping alcohol to pirating software: Kirk, get a life. Becky Myers ___________________________________________________________ If you want it done right... well, you know the rest. ___________________________________________________________ Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #1549, 10/11/94