HOMEBREW Digest #1772 Tue 04 July 1995

Digest #1771 Digest #1773

		Rob Gardner, Digest Janitor

  Re: #1(3) Homebrew Digest #1770 (July 01, 1995) (RobHaiber)
  Dry Ice Chilling! (Lee Allison)
  First All-Grain, EM, Mill (Glen Hathaway)
  Start up all grain issues (TPuskar)
  Dublin 1 & 2 (A. J. deLange)
  Healthful Drinking (Ray Daniels)
  hop aroma on the vine, blow off liquid (CGEDEN)
  Amber Ale Recipes ()
  Hopity-freeze (Tim_Fields_at_Relay__Tech__Vienna)
  Leaky chiller - am I screwed? ("Colgan, Brian P.")
  Re Laaglander (Tim_Fields_at_Relay__Tech__Vienna)
  Spokane and Kalispell (Frank J Dobner +1 708 979 5124)
  Proper Sanitation (John DeCarlo              )
  Judgement Day (plus miscellany) (Russell Mast)
  Vinegar (Bruce Conner)
  A. J. deLange's Water Saga (Steve Alexander)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Sun, 2 Jul 1995 09:09:52 -0700 From: RobHaiber at eworld.com Subject: Re: #1(3) Homebrew Digest #1770 (July 01, 1995) Martin, Send a message to Daniel Bradford at All About Beer Mag. He is now the importer of CAMRA's Good Beer Guide (retail $18.99). You can reach him at AllAbtBeer at eWorld.com. They stock all CAMRA titles, including the home-brew ones. There are many good pubs in London. In fact, there's a decent one upstairs in Victoria Station. I think it is a Greene King pub. Then, you can walk out of the main Victoria exit (where the buses and taxis stands are, bear off at 11 o'clock toward the big intersection. Cross over and walk along that street c3-4 blocks to The Albert (tall stone building on a corner). You'll pass the catholic cathedral on your right (set back from the street). The Albert is beyond it another block on the opposite side of the street. Then if you cross back over the street opposite the Albert and go down the back lanes, you'll find The Cardinal very near the cathedral. It is sort of posh, but friendly. It is the only pub that has special dispensation from the catholic church to use that name. But, if you want a really killer pub, you must go to the White Horse in Parsons Green, London. Take the District Line (Green) fromVictoria toward Wimbledon, and get off at PG (c7 stops). Come out of the station (right exitway), turn right and walk up the inclined street till you come to the green. You'll come in at the lower right hand corner of it. Look hard left and you will see it c100ft away. They have the best cask-conditioned ales there, and excellent food. The White Horse is a hang-out for many beer scribes (M Jackson, R Protz, et al) when they are in London, and holding court. It is THE place to check out, especially during Great British Beer Festival. Should you go in evening or at weekend, you might very well meet Mark Dorber, the proprietor, a city barrister during the week. Mention my name to him, as we are friends. Cheers, Rob Haiber, Beer & Brewing Central sysop/admin at eWorld. Return to table of contents
Date: Sun, 2 Jul 1995 09:57:23 -0700 From: grandcru at ix.netcom.com (Lee Allison) Subject: Dry Ice Chilling! batches and have run into a problem with chilling that much wort. Of all of the copper tube chillers I decided to use a counterflow, because it would chill the quickest (my timings showed that that's the fastest, but YMMV.) But the counter flow causes a problem with cold break removal. The wort will have to be left sitting for a couple of hours, then racked, and THEN pitched if I want to get most of the cold break out. So how do most of you other counterflow people get rid of the cold break? On the same thread, a local supermarket has dry ice available. Yep, I walked past the sign and thought about the uses IMMEDIATELY! So here's the crux: will dropping a couple of blocks of dry ice into the hot wort affect the flavor? And crux part II: how much cooling will say a 1 pound block of dry ice give me? I think that dry ice is either mostly or completely CO2, in which case it shouldn't hurt too much. Of course I can always run cooling water over the dry ice first and THEN through the chiller. But I think that I might need to put some salt into the cooling water first so that it won't freeze. Hmmm.... Any suggestions? ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ "At what point does a computer stop losing value because it's obsolete, and start gaining value because it's an antique? 'Cuz, I think I'm there!" Lee Allison a.k.a GrandCru at ix.netcom.com San Antonio, Texas vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 03:19:05 -0400 From: Glen Hathaway <glenh at icebox.iceonline.com> Subject: First All-Grain, EM, Mill Hi all... Just finished cooking up my first ever all-grain beer and I must say it was much easier than I thought it would be. If this batch turns out as much better than my consistently poor extract brews as I expect it to, I'm hooked. Did a single infusion mash with a single decoction - even though I overshot every temperature target horribly (I'm working on an electric stove), it seemed to convert well. I hit my target gravity exactly where Suds 4.0 said it should be. One of the reasons it went so well was my newly built & installed "Easymasher". I put a bulkhead fitting in the side of my aluminum pot (10 gallons?), attached an Easymasher screen to it inside the pot and a ball valve to it outside. Works super, both for mashing and for the boil. I use plug hops - with the EM installed, I no longer have to use hop bags for the hops. One less thing to worry about. If I had bought the EM, I'd be a very satisfied customer. Since I built my own from scratch, I'm even more satisfied. I recommend it highly. - --------------------- Anyone know street prices for the various grain mills available? My local supplier only carries the Corona - they want about $60 Canadian (about $43 U.S.) for one. I live in Vancouver, about 2 hours from Seattle. If the deal is good enough, I'd drive down, but I'd really rather mail-order. My pickup gets lousy mileage. Glen Hathaway -- glenh at iceonline.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 09:56:36 -0400 From: TPuskar at aol.com Subject: Start up all grain issues I just made the plunge to all grain and I need some help. I've made two batches so far--the first was a stout and my recent is a rye beer. My problem appears to be low extratction. I'll spare intimate details and focus on what I think are major issues. The stout had a grain bill comprised of: 7# 2-row 1 # roasted barley I grind my own grain and that may be one of the problem. The crushn looked OK, though. I mashed in 14 qts of water and rested at 125F or so and again at 150-155F. Mash out was at 170F. I know one problem is that my sparge (with appx 5 gallons of water) was far too fast and was done in about 15 minutes. Total boil was 90 minutes. My OG turned out to be a very disappointing 1.032. I would have expected somewhere between 45-50 on my first run through. My second batch (the rye) was a bit better but still disappointing. The grain bill was: 7 # 2-row 1 # Belgian light 1 # flaked rye I added all the grains to about 15 qts of water at 130F. Rested between 120-125F for 30 minutes and again at 155F for 45 minutes. The starch rest was actually at about 162F for the first 10 minutes or so. Iodine test showed complete conversion in about 20 minutes. I sparged with about 4 gallons of 175F water after heating mash to 175F. This time the sparge took about 50 minutes. Gravity of final runnings was 1.009 (with no temp conversion). Collected about 6 gallons and boiled for an hour. Final gravity was barely 1.040--better than last time but still lower than expected. One interesting note, I pitched the rye beer with a pint of a German ale starter and it took off in about 2 hours. After 16 hours (overnight) it was blowing out the airlock. I attached a blow off tube and this thing is really going wild! Any ideas why I'm getting low gravities would be appreciated. The stout fermented well and reached a final gravity of 1.009 after a week in the primary and another week in the secondary. It tastes good but is really watery--no mouth feel at all. I brewed the rye yesterday. I'll be looking over previous HBD's (really, I promise I will!!!) but was wondering if anyone has any comments. I'll provide more details (this is long enough as it is) if it will help. Thanks to everyone, Tom Puskar P.S. I do everything in a converted keg with a homemade EasyMasher thingy. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 10:24:25 -0500 From: ajdel at interramp.com (A. J. deLange) Subject: Dublin 1 & 2 Dublin 1 and 2 This is the sixth in a series of posts on the formulation of waters similar to those of famous brewing cities of the world. They are based on ion concentration profiles given by Dave Draper in his post in #1704 (10 April 95). See my post "Water Series" (#1763) for explanatory material (correction: in the Line 3 explanation read 1.8 ml of 1 N sulfuric acid, not 18 ml). Quick reminders: all ion concentrations and salt quantities are in ppm which is the same as mg/l. The water to which the salts are added is assumed to be ION FREE (i.e. it is DISTILLED WATER or REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER). The Dublin 1 profile is from the Wahl-Henius "Handy Book" which I don't have so I can't comment further. The profile is well balanced so that it is readily formulated at pH 7 using simple salts. External acid is required to set the pH: Formulation I pH 7.00; use external acid; Minimum salts n: 890000 Temp: 0.000961 Energy (rms %): 0.075698 Accepted: 0 Rejected:10000 n_sol: 0 n_0: 16 n_hyd: 0 Dublin 1 Desired Cations: 6.789 Anions: 6.837 mEq/L Ratio: 1.007 ION DESIRED REALIZED ERR, % SALTS AMOUNT Ca 119.000 118.910 -0.08 NaCl 29.388 Mg 4.000 4.006 0.14 Na2CO3.10H2O 0.000 Na 12.000 11.992 -0.07 CaCL2 0.000 K 0.000 0.000 0.00 CaSO4.2H2O 66.700 CO3 156.000 155.974 -0.02 CaCO3 258.176 SO4 53.000 53.045 0.08 MgCL2 0.000 Cl 19.000 19.011 0.06 MgCO3 0.000 H 3.081 0.033 -98.91 KCl 0.000 Na2SO4 0.000 MgSO4.7H2O 40.599 H2SO4 0.000 NaHCO3 1.582 HCl 1.222 Carbonic: 0.5025 Bicarbonate: 2.0948 Carbonate: 0.001003 mM Total Required Hydronium: 3.0809 Sulfuric Hydronium: 0.0000 mEq Hydrochloric Hydronium: 0.0335 mEq 3.0474 mEq additional hydronium required to maintain pH 7.00 Solubility Products - CaCO3: 8.70E-09 MgCO3: 2.60E-05 Ion Products - CaCO3: 2.97E-09 MgCO3: 1.65E-10 Alkalinity: 2.07 mEq; 103.49 ppm as CaCO3. Temporary hardness: 5.20 mEq; 259.83 ppm as CaCO3 Permanent hardness: 1.07 mEq; 53.33 ppm as CaCO3 This is an excellent synthesis and there is no point in going to more salts. The synthesis at pH 6.38 is practically identical except that NaHCO3 is at 1.214mg/L, hydrochloric acid at 0.943 mg/L (.0259 mEq) and 3.857 mEq of external acid are required. If carbon dioxide is used as the external acid (see Dortmund 2) the pH at saturation should be about 5.45. Aerating to pH 6.38 would give 474 ppm total carbonate, pH 7 would give 294 and pH 7.4 yields 160 which is closest to the spec of 156 so we suspect that Dublin water would be at about this pH. Only in the pH 7.4 case is saturation reached. The amount of calcium precipitated is insignificant. Dublin 2 differs from Dublin 1 by 1 ppm in calcium (118) and sulfate (54) and is otherwise the same except for carbonate which is at twice the level of Dublin 1 being at 319 ppm. Thus to make water to the Dublin 2 spec we procede as for Dublin 1 except that we aerate to pH 6.84 at which pH the total carbonate will be at about 320. Thus, if this spec is to be believed Dublin water would have a pH of about 6.84. Why do we have discrepancies like this? As long as water remains in the ground the partial pressure of CO2 can be easily maintained. For the Dublin 2 water a partial pressure of CO2 of 31 mm Hg is sufficient to maintain the pH at 6.84. When this water leaves the ground the dissolved CO2 is stays in solution as long as the water is contained i.e. is in a pipe or a nearly full covered container. As soon as it is allowed free contact with the air CO2 will escape the pH will rise and the total carbonate drop with eventual precipitation of some CaCO3. Is it possible that we have these two specs because two workers analyzed samples that were exposed to different levels of aeration? Several people have requested that these posts be collected and put into the Stanford archives. We will certainly do that but not until the series is finished at which time we will go back over the lot and put them together into a coherent package (we are wiser now than when we started) and place that in the archives, on the web pages, etc. A.J. deLange Numquam in dubio, saepe in errore! ajdel at interramp.com Return to table of contents
Date: 03 Jul 95 10:19:03 EDT From: Ray Daniels <71261.705 at compuserve.com> Subject: Healthful Drinking No less an authority than the Wall Street Journal has today (July 3) published a column (Section B, page 1) on the benefits of moderate drinking. Highlights: Key point: "Alcohol -- in moderation -- lowers coronary disease risk." (Some 35 medical studies support this conclusion.) Moderation = one to two drinks per day, no binges. (Some Euro studies put number higher, but those people drink like fish!) Why does it work? "Alcohol gains its place in a healthful lifestyle by virtue of its apparent power to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which removes cholesterol from the arteries." Which beverage is best? "Despite the aura of wine, there's little data proving its superiority to beer or distilled spirits." Does America Drink Enough? In 1992, Americans (over age 14) consumed an average of 2.3 gallons of alcohol. According to the article, that equals 306 12-ounce cans of beer, or about 0.8 beers per day per person. With an upper limit of 2 beers per day for healthful living, I should expect that we will see a tremendous increase in beer consumption in coming years. (grin!) Ain't this a wonderful country? Happy Fourth of July to All! Ray Daniels A (mostly) moderate drinker of beer Free of diagnosed coronary disease Maintainer of a "moderate" beer gut Happy, care free and generally a satisfied guy - ---> Candidate for 1995 "Healthful Benefits of Beer" Poster Guy <--- Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 03 Jul 95 10:52:16 EDT From: CGEDEN at NERVM.NERDC.UFL.EDU Subject: hop aroma on the vine, blow off liquid Rob Lauriston, seeking to identify unknow hop varieties, laments the lack of hop aroma in his growing cones: "all you get is the smell of fresh mowed grass". Perhaps that is a clue in itself. I planted nugget and Cascade hops this year and recently picked a few Cascade cones to check out the aroma- it was unmistakably a Cascade aroma, albeit with vegetal undertones. I was also shocked to discover that many of the cones are infested with fat little green beetle larvae, one to a cone, that are happily eating away at the cones. I was expecting aphids and Japanese beetles, but not these. BTW, isn't it a little early for cone formation? In contrast, the Nugget bines are still only about three feet tall and have not produced any flowers. Oh well, Florida isn't exactly famous as a hop-growing region! Dion Hollenbeck asks what kind of liquid other folks use for their blow off termination vessels. FWIW I've used plain old tap water for the last 12 batches without a problem. The way I see it, the bacteria have to travel a very long distance upwind in a toxic atmosphere to reach the wort. This seems like a pretty minor risk compared with, say, aerating the fresh wort with air from the kitchen. Chris Geden Gainesville, FL Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 11:19:39 -0400 From: palmer at be0962.be.ford.com () Subject: Amber Ale Recipes Hello Brewers! I just made my first-ever batch of homebrew last week (a brown ale) that will be bottled next weekend. Really looking forward to the tasting! Well, I'm looking for your favorite Amber Ale recipes for my next batch (extract please). I saw a few in the Catsmeow II that sounded good, but I thought I would ask the experts here for their favorites. Thanks in advance for your help. Gabrielle Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 03 Jul 95 11:41:50 EST From: Tim_Fields_at_Relay__Tech__Vienna at relay.com Subject: Hopity-freeze While the hop heads are out here discussing the merits of hop form and function, I'd like to pose 2 questions: 1) is freezing better, worse, or samesame as refrigeration for hops (any form). 2) will freezing whole hops burst the lupulin glands? ...oops - make that 3 questions.... Anyone notice a change in the flavor of Tuppers' Hop Pocket Ale? Seems to me it now has much more hop bitterness, with less of what I perceive as "yummy" hop flavor. I [think I] recall reading that the recipe was going to be changed... Tim Fields Vienna, VA, USA, timf at relay.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 03 Jul 95 12:23:17 EST From: "Colgan, Brian P." <bcolgan at sungard.com> Subject: Leaky chiller - am I screwed? <<< insert standard opening grovel from lurker turned newbie "I'm not worthy" etc. etc. >>> I have a feeling I messed up bad yesterday, but I wonder if anyone out there has done the same stupid trick and how it turned out. I cooked up an extract Weisen yesterday, and I was all excited because I would get to try out my new immersion chiller that the kids got me for Father's Day. I worked great, wort chilled from 180f to 80f in about 20 minutes. However, after it was far too late, I noticed that I forgot to TIGHTEN THE CONNECTIONS between the plastic hoses and the copper chiller. You got it - a thin stream of water leaking from my garden hose into the wort. About a quart tops in total. The only plus is that my yeast starter was cookin' and fermentation started in my carboy after only about 8 hours. Should I prepare for the worst, or does this have a chance of not being fertilizer? thanks, private email fine. brian colgan bcolgan at sungard.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 03 Jul 95 12:58:11 EST From: Tim_Fields_at_Relay__Tech__Vienna at relay.com Subject: Re Laaglander In #1771, Pierre Jelenc <pcj1 at columbia.edu> states re Laaglanders: >It is a tool which performs extremely well when used properly... Would you please expand on this? I've not used Laaglanders and would appreciate some insight into what it might contribute to my brews. Tim Fields, Vienna, VA, USA timf at relay.com Return to table of contents
Date: 3 Jul 95 12:02:00 -0500 From: fjdobner at intgp1.att.com (Frank J Dobner +1 708 979 5124) Subject: Spokane and Kalispell CAUTION: Brewpub Request! I will be traveling through Spokane, Washington and Kaplispell, Montana next week. Can someone through private e-mail let me know if there are any brewpubs, good beer bars or microbreweries notable enough to visit? I certainly appreciate in advance your responses. Frank Dobner Aurora, Illinois fjdobner at intgp1.att.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 95 14:35:34 EST From: John DeCarlo <jdecarlo at homebrew.mitre.org> Subject: Proper Sanitation Hmmm, We all (or at least some of us) have probably wondered about the role our own bodies play in sanitation. Should we sanitize our hands and what about loose hairs falling in--hair nets? Your imagination is the limit. Anyway, due to recent summer-time activities, I believe I have the perfect answer: Sanitize yourself by swimming at least 15 minutes in a chlorinated swimming pool! Then you immediately start brewing! Plus, this is the perfect add-on to a brewing video! Have fun! John DeCarlo, MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA--My views are my own Fidonet: 1:109/131 Internet: jdecarlo at mitre.org Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 14:09:59 -0500 From: Russell Mast <rmast at fnbc.com> Subject: Judgement Day (plus miscellany) > From: chemist at io.com (Brian McGovney) > Subject: Bad chile beer - Diagnosis? > > Opened it on May 25, and it tasted .. pickled? Vegetal? Sulfurous? These > words all come to mind, in that order. Sounds like an infection. Acetic bugs, e. coli, funny yeast, in that order. > My sanitary precautions are second to none (my fiance often worrys > about my mental health re: kitchen anality), and I used bleach water on > *everything*. Hmm... Any metalic or plastic flavors? COuld be you didn't rinse well enough. > Does anyone have any suggestions on how to save this very > spicy beer, which I would love were it not being overpowered? Nothing you can do now but wait and hope. > From: reved at ix.netcom.com (RevEd - Ed Blonski) > Subject: Laaglanders malt > So, my question is, what do I do with 12 lbs of this malt? It's worthless, just send it to me for proper disposal. (Well, he's into Rush Limbaugh, I thought maybe, well...) > From: dhvanvalkenburg at CCGATE.HAC.COM > Subject: Sam Piper's rebuttal on Styles & Judging > But not Homebrewers! We can go where they cannot... Hear, hear. > , and we do, but I > don't think that our contests, our judge training, and our style > definitions address these unique qualities of our hobby. I tend to agree, but I don't think there's a whole lot that can be done about that. That is, I think any organized judging will fall miserably short of addressing these unique qualities. > Even more important, > integrate into judge training an expectation for judges that they be > flexible and able to tell a flaw from a successful variation. Not only is this difficult, but I think this is the main roadblock. Shifting categories around and changing criteria is all fine and well, but when you get right down to it, one man's trash is another man's garbage. (No, wait, that's not it...) What I mean is that you get into a realm of unbridled subjectivity almost as soon as you leave the gate. Sure, maybe you mean for your beer to taste that way, but if I'm judging it and I dislike it, you'll lose points from me. Think of it this way. Stouts and Weizens are two very different styles, both with very different expectations. I know many people who greatly prefer one to the other. (Myself, it depends on mood, but there are times where I relish one and am passive to the other.) Imagine if you will (bear with me) that neither of these styles exists today, and some enterprising homebrewer were to create one of these styles in a more open judging scenario. If that homebrewer creates the perfect Weizen, and is able to explain the effect he was aiming for, then his score hinges on whether or not the judge happens to be in a weizen mood that day (or ever). If so, a style is born, or at least someone wins best in show for a well made beer. If not, it's chalked up to a fault (even if the brewer explained what they intended) and they go more or less unrecognized. > [No, that's not easy, and my arguments have never been designed to create a > cop-out but to honor the hobby. ] I assert that it's impossible. I brewed a stout that happened to get a lacto infection early enough (and before yeast pitching) that I was able to rescue it and name it a sour-mash stout. It was damned weird, granted. And several people I knew couldn't stand the stuff. But, I know several people who can't stand certain 'standard' styles of beer. A couple friends of mine, and myself, frankly liked the stuff. I've honestly considered brewing it again, only with a shorter, more controlled latic phase. Just for shits and grins, I entered it into a competetion. Obviously, it's no ordinary stout, so i put it into a specialty category. It got thoroughly panned as being infected. Sure, these judges weren't sensitive at all to whether that infection was a successful variation or a flaw. I say that no amount of training would make this happen. I don't mean to claim I've invented a great new style of beer to rival weizen. However, I did brew something creative, which contained what *I* would call a successful variation, but which someone else would call a flaw. ("completely undrinkable" was one judges comment). I am not trying to cop-out for a bad batch. Every bottle from that batch was finished (except the one Jake couldn't get through) and I have had batches bad enough to dump. Just as I think it's unfair for someone to tell me that this batch was not a successful variation, I think it's also unfair for me to ask someone else, Jake or those judges or anyone else, to appreciate my variation. If you don't like a given style, whether it be recognized or not, you shouldn't be asked to enjoy or appreciate it. > Finally one last thought. Is Jazz musical anarchy? Many would argue > that it is. I don't know much about Jazz, but if it _is_ musical anarchy, is it appropriate to rate it on a 50-point scale? If I'm playing my viola in a jazz band (it's been rumoured to have happened) and you think it's total cacaphony and the guy next to you thinks it's downright brilliant, well, I don't think either one of you should be allowed to call the other's taste invalid. (Actually, this whole scenario has taken place, although our fans didn't go as far as "absolutely brilliant", I think "pretty cool" was about the best review we got.) -R Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 16:37:21 -0400 (EDT) From: Bruce Conner <BConner at max.tiac.net> Subject: Vinegar I've been watching the discussion of vinegar with some interest and it suddenly occured to me that a lot of vinegar is made not by beasts at all, but by synthesis from petrolium products. Of course, this would pretty well preclude any of the nasties being in there. Then again, they could set up hosekeeping if they like that kind of environment... Hope this doesn't muddy the water too much! Bruce Conner BConner at max.tiac.net Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 1995 18:57:43 -0400 From: Steve Alexander <stevea at clv.mcd.mot.com> Subject: A. J. deLange's Water Saga As a recent subscriber apologies if this has already been covered but: >1 N sulfuric acid, not 18 ml). Quick reminders: all ion concentrations and >salt quantities are in ppm which is the same as mg/l. The water to >which the salts are added is assumed to be ION FREE (i.e. it is >DISTILLED WATER or REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER). Reverse Osmosis water is NOT ion free like distilled water. Water from a Reverse Osmosis filter only reduces the ion concentration and the efficiency is inversely related to the ion concentration of the source. My (weak) understanding is that at a given pressure differential you are limited to a fixed ion concentration gradient across the membrane. Some of the figures I saw in a brochure for a commercial RO unit indicated that ion concentrations of 20-35% of the original levels would appear in the resultant water at certain (high) original concentration, for certain ions. The 'typical' case was much better at 90%-95% ion removal - and many ions were virtually eliminated. p.s. The water articles are great Steve Alexander stevea at clv.mcd.mot.com Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #1772, 07/04/95