HOMEBREW Digest #3982 Sat 06 July 2002

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  cleaners and sanitizers (Marc Sedam)
  cereal mash (Marc Sedam)
  St Pats Chiiller ("the freeman's")
  Cleaners ("Rick Theiner ")
  Re: PVC pipe as pressure vessel (Jeff Renner)
  PVC as a pressure vessel... (Pat Babcock)
  Re: lager virgin (Jeff Renner)
  Offering Stuff (KMDruey)
  "For Sale" and the HBD (Pat Babcock)
  re: SG & Alcohol -- oops! ("Steve Alexander")
  Re: PVC pipe as pressure vessel (Jay Pfaffman)
  FYI- Hops and Sperm??? (Steve Funk)
  Re: Electric Element (David Towson)
  Re: Electric element (Kent Fletcher)
  RE:  Electric Element (Bill Tobler)
  Re: RIMS heater threads (Dion Hollenbeck)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 09:14:36 -0400 From: Marc Sedam <marc_sedam at unc.edu> Subject: cleaners and sanitizers Having used many, MANY, cleaners and sanitizers over the years I can say without question that Five Star's PBW for cleaning and StarSan for sanitizing are the best products I've ever tried for these purposes. There isn't a single bit of gunk that hot PBW can't take care of in fewer than five minutes. Once a year (or twice if I'm brewing a lot) I take all of my equipment out and create 10 gallons of hot PBW solution. Every piece of equipment gets a 20 minute bath in the PBW and a boiling water rinse. I am always *stunned* at how clean my "I thought it was already clean" equipment is after this. The 10 gallons of PBW is plenty to clean 6 cornies, 10 buckets and carboys, and various and sundry pieces of small equipment. Running some hot PBW through beer lines really can scare the hell out of you when you see how much gunk builds up in a short amount of time. On occasion I even use some PBW in my dishwasher. I've used it to wash beer bottles, my beer glass collection, and even some dishes (if we've had a particularly greasy BBQ or something). As for StarSan, I also have not encountered an infected batch since I started using this stuff five years ago. I make up a gallon at a time and use that to sanitize any carboys, kegs, or other stuff. Since even the foam sanitizes, a gallon shook up in a carboy is plenty to sanitize effectively. Some people worry about the foam. I've found that if you fill the carboy/keg from the bottom, the StarSan foam will come out of the vessel by itself (displaced by the liquid) and that I can scoop it off into another bucket. Whatever remains is too small for me to worry about. The best way I've found to employ StarSan is to put some in a heavy-duty spray bottle. I just spray it on whatever I'm using and don't worry about it. Open a carboy? Spray the lip. Need to top up an airlock? Spray some in. Once I found that Beer, Beer, and More Beer sells this stuff in bulk, I was golden. A four pound jar of PBW is $20 and a 32oz bottle of StarSan (which you dilute something like 1:50 with water) is $14. I've never looked for anything else. I bought this stuff about two years ago. I brew about once a month and haven't come close to getting to the halfway point of either chemical. I'm not affiliated with BBMB [although I lust after their True kegerator and would be happy to accept a free one :-) ] or Five Star. Just love both places and their products. Cheers! Marc - -- Marc Sedam Chapel Hill, NC Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 09:48:40 -0400 From: Marc Sedam <marc_sedam at unc.edu> Subject: cereal mash Time for my bi-annual description of starch gelatinization, and why it's important to brewing. Jeff writes.. ***You've got the idea. This pre-mashing isn't to convert the starch in the cornmeal for the yeast, it's for ease of handling the cereal mash. For the most part, the starch isn't gelatinized - that's the purpose of boiling. Most of the it is converted in the main mash by the balance of the malt. But there is some available starch in the cornmeal from starch bodies that were damaged by the milling process, and this starch can make the whole thing set up like stiff porridge. Mashing this before boiling keeps it liquid. I've tried the process both with and without the premalt, and the difference is remarkable. This is more important in commercial scale brewing where the cereal mash has to be pumped. I suspect there is also some breakdown of protein in the premash, but I don't know. When this process was developed in the 1870s or 80s, it made a big difference in the handling of corn and rice in beer and in the quality of the final beer.*** All starches created in cereal grains are contained in microscopic packets called "starch granules." Think of a starch granule as a tightly packed collection of long starch molecules balled up. In order to access the starch inside the granule, you have to provide three things: heat, water, and shear (stirring). Providing a combination of these three things will rupture/burst the starch granule and allow the starch molecules inside to be available for whatever you have in store for them. An analogy would be a water balloon, where the starch is the water. The balloon (granule) explodes and the water (starch) goes everywhere. Same same. Different starches have different "gelatinization temperatures." Back in the day, I used to have all of these different temps in my head. Now I can only remember that corn is in the mid-70s (Celsius), wheat is in the 50s (why you don't need to do a cereal mash with wheat, even if it's unmalted), and rice is in the 70-80s. Barley starches are already broken down during the malting process and are available without having to do a cereal mash. Unmalted barley should be treated just like any other adjunct. Do a cereal mash unless it's in the flaked, rolled, or puffed form. OK. So why do you care? This all becomes important in the cereal mash. Assume that we're going to make a delicious Classic American Pilsner (CAP). I use yellow corn grits as I live in the South and they are very readily available. But the explanation will hold true if you use polenta or even corn flour (if you had to). Add your grits to the cold water (I use a 1:5 ratio) and start heating. As you heat the grits/water mixture it will start to thicken. This is because the starch granules are starting to swell up as they take on water. The mixture will get thicker and thicker. If you do not stir the grits mixture it will turn into some kind of corn cement and burn like mad. This would be bad. Again, without shear (stirring) the granules won't break. So at some point with regular stirring (usually around 70C) the mixture will all the sudden get thinner. This is the point when the starch granules have started to break down. They release the water they took up and the starches, reducing the thickness (viscosity) of the mixture. After this happens, the mixture will stay a reasonable thickness UNTIL you remove it from the heat. Once you remove the mix from heat, the starch molecules will automatically start to "retrograde," or curl up on themselves. Starch is a long-chain polysaccharide, meaning that it's made up of hundreds of sugar molecules connected to each other. When starch in solution starts to cool, the long chains start to crystallize (last I knew they actually formed helices). They bind water and the mixture will be akin to a corn brick. An interesting side note is that some of the starch will crystallize so well that it is no longer available for fermentation or digestion. OK...back to brewing. The addition of some barley malt significantly changes the dynamic in the cereal mash. The barley malt has alpha- and beta-amylases which are used to break down starches into simple, fermentable sugars. So a few unique things happen in the corn/barley/water mixture, which are very beneficial to brewing with cereal grains. 1) There are proteases and some lipases in the barley malt which will help break down fats and proteins in the corn grits. But this is pretty insignificant. 2) As the grits are heated and the granules swell, they do leach out some starch molecules. The barley enzymes will break down these starches as soon as they escape the granule. This keeps the viscosity (thickness) down. 3) The swollen granule is also susceptible to being degraded via amylases. So many of the granules are being broken down before they have a chance to burst. This further decreases the viscosity of the mixture. 4) Finally, when the starch granules start to break *en masse*, the amylases are there to break them down into the fermentable sugars. Combined with #s 2 and 3, the overall result is a very manageable cereal mash in terms of thickness. 5) Whatever starch granules the barley malt cannot degrade before the heat denatures its enzymes is burst during the long boiling of the cereal mash. 6) Since the starches are well broken down they do not retrograde when you add the boiling cereal mash back to the much cooler main mash. Had the starches not been broken down, you would get tiny clumps of unfermentable corn starch in the mash. In one CAP I brewed, I didn't boil the cereals long enough and wound up with lots of these clumps, as well as a lot of starch haze in the ferment. So I've taken several hundred words to come to this conclusion: Do what Jeff says. It works great. Cheers! Marc - -- Marc Sedam Chapel Hill, NC "From the land of the free, yet home of a 6%abv limit on beer." Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 08:50:44 -0500 From: "the freeman's" <potsus at bellsouth.net> Subject: St Pats Chiiller RHAHB... The St Pats counterflow appears to be the same as the old Maxichiller from Precision Brewing. That chiller was the forerunner of the Chillzilla - where the outlet position was changed to avoid conflict. Convoluted tubing was used in both of these chillers - probably because the same manufacturer is involved. There is no more difficulty in sanitizing the St Pats unit than there is with the other two. Flush immediately after use and occasionally flush with PBW. Store with iodophor solution inside. Flush with 3-4 gallons of boiling water just prior to using and you are good to go. Air can be eliminated by taking the obvious precaution of making sure the fittings are tight in the first place. Occasionally there will be bubbles in the line if the wort is not allowed to cool a bit after the boil before starting the flow through the chiller. These are the bubbles that would ordinarily rise to the top during a rolling boil, but are evident in the outflow due to the reduced pressure low in the boiler during the chilling process. Hope this helps. Bill Freeman aka Elder Rat K P Brewing - home of "the perfesser" Birmingham, AL Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 2002 09:55:14 -0400 From: "Rick Theiner " <Logic at mail.skantech.com> Subject: Cleaners I'm hoping that this is not considered a commercial post because I'm answering a question regarding what people are using. I use Straight-A for cleaning. (I also make the stuff and sell it through distributors in the U.S. and Canada.) Other than the obvious reason as to why I use it, I'll also add that I formulated it myself in accords with what I liked and didn't like about B-Brite (which was the only thing available to me in '93). Did I mention that I'm a cleaning formulations chemist? Rick Theiner Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 09:56:10 -0400 From: Jeff Renner <JeffRenner at comcast.net> Subject: Re: PVC pipe as pressure vessel Richard T. Perry <perryrt at hotmail.com> wrote: >Anyway, about a gazillion years ago when I was in college, I was working >as > >a "lab assistant" in the Aviation Maintenance section (read: very low >paid scum-sucking manual laborer) > >at the University I went to. One task I was given was building a system >to allow a full class of 24 students > >to use air-tools (riveters, drills, etc) at several large tables. I put >in a PVC pipe system as a manifold - ran > >a main 6" pipe down the center of each table, then sockets off each side >with the standard air hoses attached. I am impressed. An informative answer would be enough for most people, but not not for Richard. He formed it in free verse. Neat! A first for HBD, I think. Hope everyone had a great Fourth and drank lots of American beer (July is American Beer Month http://www.americanbeermonth.org/). Jeff - -- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan USA, JeffRenner at comcast.net "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943 Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 2002 10:45:01 -0400 (EDT) From: Pat Babcock <pbabcock at hbd.org> Subject: PVC as a pressure vessel... Greetings, Beerlings! Take me to your lager... I have installed a central compressor in my humble adobe to serve my workroom and my garage. It is piped entirely of 1/2" Schedule 40 PVC. The only airleak in the system is the plugged passthrough port of the regulator in the garage - something you would think to be air-tight. I keep the source pressure at a nominal 110 psig and step it down at teh point of use, so the PVC sees the entire 110. Anyway, PVC is typically joined by a chemical welding process (they call it "cement", but we know better...). The idea is to get a complete ring of cement on the female tube before joining it with the male tube, and then give the pipe or fitting a 1/4 turn twist once seated. The twist helps to ensure you've left no air paths through the joint. - -- - God bless America! Pat Babcock in SE Michigan pbabcock at hbd.org Home Brew Digest Janitor janitor@hbd.org HBD Web Site http://hbd.org The Home Brew Page http://hbd.org/pbabcock [18, 92.1] Rennerian "I don't want a pickle. I just wanna ride on my motorsickle" - Arlo Guthrie Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 10:49:44 -0400 From: Jeff Renner <JeffRenner at comcast.net> Subject: Re: lager virgin Peter Collins <sarapete at sympatico.ca> writes: >I am just in the midst of primary fermentation of my very first batch of >pilsener and had some questions regarding the process etc.: > >1. It has been in the primary since June 26 but didn't start to really >take off until the following day or more. It has sat at 50F for the >whole time (in a spare fridge). High krauesen seems to have come and >gone but the activity is still pretty active (about 1 bubble in the blow >off tube every second or so, if this makes sense). I am going away on >July 6th for two weeks and thought that I would have it in the secondary >by then but am not sure if I should rack it now or not. Advice? I don't think there are any hard and fast rules here. I find that the first fermentation with new yeast, which is generally an underpitch, the beer isn't finished fermenting for about two weeks. When I repitch a lot of healthy yeast (~30cc or 1 fl. oz. of thick, pasty yeast solids per US gallon), I get a faster, more vigorous fermentation that is done in 7-10 days. I used to rack my lagers when there was still a little fermentation going on, but I never have any trouble with diacetyl so I can get away with this. If there is no diacetyl in your beer now, you should be safe racking it now. If there is, I'd leave it until you return. You could even let the temperature rise to 65F (18C) today (Friday) and let it finish a little more and maybe reduce diacetyl, and rack it tomorrow before you leave. But you probably don't have quite enough time for this. Diacetyl is produced by the yeast, which then metabolize it later. I've left a lager on the yeast for four weeks (~two weeks after it finished) at 50F/10C with no problem, even though it's probably not ideal. I also just racked a lager after two weeks but don't have lagering space available yet, so it's in a sealed keg for waiting for cold lagering but at 50F. When my CAP finishes, I'll rack it and drop the temperature of the chest freezer with both of them to 32F/0C. >2. Suggested temperature for the secondary? > >3. Suggested duration for the secondary? > >4. Technically, is the secondary the lagering stage or once it is >bottled is that the lagering stage? It's lagering as far as I'm concerned. The rule of thumb is a week at 32F/0C for every 8-10 degrees of OG. In other words, about six weeks for a 1.048 OG beer. I never bottle anymore, but when I did bottle lagers, I bulk lagered, then bottled. You can also bottle green beer, let it sit at cellar temps for a week or ten days for carbonation, then later in bottles. BTW, I found that even with yeast that had settled out in the lagering vessel and sat for eight weeks, it was always in good enough shape for bottle fermentation. I always made sure to pick up just a little with the racking wand when racking to the priming vessel. Hope you can get everything done before vacation. Jeff - -- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan USA, JeffRenner at comcast.net "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943 Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 2002 01:15:52 EDT From: KMDruey at aol.com Subject: Offering Stuff HBD, I've got a few things I'm offering for sale including: RIMS system, 10 gallon cornie, 10 gallon kettle, planispiral chiller, and a few other itmes. Go to the following URL to get more information and links to pictures. http://members.aol.com/kmdruey/list2.html Thanks, Kyle Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 2002 11:29:43 -0400 (EDT) From: Pat Babcock <pbabcock at hbd.org> Subject: "For Sale" and the HBD Greetings, Beerlings! Take me to your lager... A recent rash of "stuff for sale ads" causes me to gently suggest to you that the HBD is not the proper vehicle for this type of post. Typically, they are seen as no less offensive than a commercial post. Though, to our current policies, I will not refuse your post (my apologies to any I may have - I need to reread the polices every once in a while - they tend to mutate in the noggin over time...), you'd probably be better served to post an ad on the Homebrew Fleamarket (http://www.homebrewfleamarket.com). The Fleamarket is always free for non-commercial posting and allows you to add PICTURES of the item(s) you wish to sell. You can also return and edit or kill your ad when conditions change (not selling fast enough) or the item is sold. - -- - God bless America! Pat Babcock in SE Michigan pbabcock at hbd.org Home Brew Digest Janitor janitor@hbd.org HBD Web Site http://hbd.org The Home Brew Page http://hbd.org/pbabcock [18, 92.1] Rennerian "I don't want a pickle. I just wanna ride on my motorsickle" - Arlo Guthrie Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 5 Jul 2001 14:09:28 -0400 From: "Steve Alexander" <steve-alexander at worldnet.att.net> Subject: re: SG & Alcohol -- oops! Louis Bonham writes... >Oops, just noticed a mistake in my post . . > >I gave an example of a Plato measurement as "equivalent to a 4% w/w >solution of sucrose in pure water." Wrongo. I should have said >"equivalent to 4 g of sucrose in 100ml of solution." > >Sorry for the error. Wait a minute, Louis. All the pro lit performs calculations as tho' Plato is wt/wt extract. If it's not then they have some 'splaining to do around here. The 'Brewing Calculations' chapter of Hardwick's "HB of Brewing" states that ..... "The Plato unit is defined as the as the extract in percent weight of the wort, beer or other solution." and refer to Plato as "weight percentage". They do note that fiction about sucrose vs wort&beer differences and so call this apparent extract at several points. Most telling the calculation given is ... Extract weight = wort_SG * weight_of_same_volume_of_water * Plato / 100 The water weight times the wort SG is clearly the weight of the wort so they are calculating .... Extract weight = (weight_of_wort) * P/100. as tho Plato a was a wt/wt %. - -------- A 100 Plato solution has (by Lincoln Eqn) an SG of 1.586 and this is almost exactly the density(SG) of sucrose. That is 100P 'solution' has the same SG as pure sucrose. This is a much higher calculated SG than if you took 100gm of sugar and added the (~37ml) water necessary to make 100ml volume solution. It shows that 100P SG is the same as a 100% wt/wt block of sugar and much heavier than a 100% wt/vol [100gm of sugar in a 100ml] solution. - -------- It sure looks like your first definition was correct (Plato is %weight/wt) but I must admit your second definition (Plato is wt/vol) rings familiar too. Can you shed any light on this discrepancy, Louis ? I believe that Plato represents weight/weight % [kg of extract per kg of wort as %] and that (Plato * SG) represents wt/vol % [kg of extract per liter of wort as %]. Nicht wahr ? -Steve Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 2002 11:19:16 -0700 From: Jay Pfaffman <pfaffman at relaxpc.com> Subject: Re: PVC pipe as pressure vessel On Thu, 4 Jul 2002 21:23:56 +1200, "perryrt" <perryrt at hotmail.com> said: >> Does anyone have experience using run of the mill Schedule 40 PVC >> Pipe (~4inch dia) as a pressure vessel? I'm having a vision of >> using it as > a low-pressure (20-40PSI) reservoir of CO2 to >> dispense (at regulated pressure) the two cornies in my >> brand-spankin' new undercounter fridge (Sanyo 4.9ft^3, thanks for >> all of the input!) Any caveats - cycle > life, catastrophic >> failure reports, decreased virility, etc.? I've been scheming for a while to use 2 or 3 liter PET soda bottles for a CO2 reservoir. My idea was just to find something more portable than a 20 pound CO2 tank. I regularly pump these things up to 70 pounds, although that's with liquid in them. One person told me authoritatively that they were rated at 40 pounds, but another told me that soda was pressurized at 80 pounds. I know that even at 70 pounds the bottle isn't as hard as it is with soda in it. I found some info about how much pressure it takes to make PET bottles, but not to break them; apparently they hold enough for soda and that's all that most people really care about. This guy did an informal pressure test & got a 3 liter PET bottle to 125 pounds before it exploded. http://users.telerama.com/~mcguire/burst/Burst.htm This guy did a couple tests too. A .5 liter Sprite bottle took 200 psi before breaking. Another soda bottle went to 138. http://home.t-online.de/home/u.hornstein/wr_lr010101.htm When I've over-pressurized PET bottles (carbonating a single 16oz beer with the 12g CO2 cartridge that came with my PhilTap) the bottles would expand before they broke (I never broke one). If you can work out the fittings, a 2 or 3 liter bottle seems cheaper, easier, and safer than PVC. As someone else suggested, using another keg seems easier, but you could easily fit a couple 2Liter bottles in the door. You'll want to use all the keg space for kegs of beer. - -- Jay Pfaffman pfaffman at relaxpc.com +1-415-821-7507 (H) +1-415-810-2238 (M) http://relax.ltc.vanderbilt.edu/~pfaffman/ Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 12:14:31 -0700 From: Steve Funk <steve at hheco.com> Subject: FYI- Hops and Sperm??? Hops make the news again, this time in not such a good light. ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS MAKE SPERM PEAK TOO FAST VIENNA, Austria, July 3, 2002 (ENS) - An estrogen found in synthetic cleaners, paints, herbicides, and pesticides, as well as other estrogens found in soy and hops, may reduce the fertilizing ability of sperm, a British research team has found. For full text and graphics visit: http://ens-news.com/ens/jul2002/2002-07-03-04.asp - -- Steve Funk Brewing in the beautiful Columbia River Gorge Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 15:51:20 -0400 From: David Towson <dtowson at comcast.net> Subject: Re: Electric Element In HBD 3981, Mark Ellis asked whether a 2400 watt element would be sufficient to boil 40 liters of wort. The English "Electrim Bin" holds 20 liters and has a 2400 watt heater. It will get a full charge of water up to a good rolling boil in a little less than an hour. I will not try to predict what such a heater will do with twice that volume, but I would like to warn you to be prepared for a lot of burned-on crud to form on the element. After one attempt to use my Electrim Bin with wort, I decided it was not a good idea. I use the thing now only to pre-boil water for making beer and coffee. Dave in Bel Air, Maryland Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 2002 16:24:34 -0700 (PDT) From: Kent Fletcher <fletcherhomebrew at yahoo.com> Subject: Re: Electric element In HBD #3981, Mark Ellis asked: >I bought a element today to fit to my lauter tun to >hopefully be used as a efficient heat source for >boiling the wort. My lauter tun is a converted 50 >litre ss keg. You want to boil in your lauter tun? >Do you think that a 2400watt element will be >sufficient for boiling temp on 40 litre batches? Not really, or at least not very quickly. Your 2400 watt element is good for about 7,400 btu/hr. With a 40 liter batch, it will take at least 45 minutes to get from 70 C. to 100 C. If you're going to use electric heat for a kettle, you'd be better off using a 4500 watt element, and plenty of insulation. Kent Fletcher brewing in So Cal Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2002 19:14:22 -0500 From: Bill Tobler <wctobler at sbcglobal.net> Subject: RE: Electric Element Mark from the land of OZ wants to know about electric elements. My brewery is all electric and I have experimented with all types of elements. I also make 10 gallon batches (I think that is what 40 L is all about) and have found that 4500 watts will bring the wort up to a boil in a reasonable time, but is too much heat to maintain the boil without boil overs. My first electric kettle had two elements, one 4500 watt element and one 3500 watt element. I would use the 4500 watt to bring the wort up to a boil, and then the 3500 watt element to maintain the boil. Both had just an on/off switch. Everything is 240 volts. I've gotten better in my old age. Copying Ron LaBoarde's design on a 555 timer circuit, I am able to control the boil using only the 4500 watt element with no problems. The timer works like a stove-top controller, only better. I tried a stove top controller and it just didn't get it. http://hbd.org/rlaborde/controll.htm I can send you some pictures and drawings of my electric brewery if you would like. Cheers... Bill Tobler Lake Jackson, TX (1129.7, 219.9) Apparent Rennerian Return to table of contents
Date: 05 Jul 2002 19:18:57 -0700 From: Dion Hollenbeck <hollen at woodsprite.com> Subject: Re: RIMS heater threads >> C D Pritchard writes: CDP> Putting teflon tape on the element threads before assembly also CDP> helps with later disassembly. I don't do this, mainly because I take my heater element out of the chamber after every brew. I found out the hard way many years ago that there is a biege fuzz that accumulates on the heater element during a mash. If you leave it on there and in your heater chamber and it also stays damp, it can actually rot. Believe me, I would have rather found this out theoretically. Went to brew one day and I could smell the stench as I picked up the heater chamber and removed the protective caps. That is when I bought my first replacement element. B-{ I strongly suggest to everyone to remove the heater element after every brew and scrub it thoroughly with a scotchbrite pad or short stiff bristle brush while it is still hot. Then set it in a dish drainer to dry. If you also brush out the chamber with a straightened out carboy brush, and rinse with hot water while it is still hot from the mash, they will both dry very quickly and thoroughly. After they have dried and cooled down, usually the next day for me, then I put them back together and have airtight caps that go on the quick disconnect fittings. This keeps creepy crawlies out of the heater chamber. Never did really care for the idea of scrumpy, much less spider scrumpy. B-} dion - -- Dion Hollenbeck Email: hollen at woodsprite.com Home Page: http://www.woodsprite.com Brewing Page: http://hbd.org/hollen Return to table of contents
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