HOMEBREW Digest #5519 Thu 05 March 2009

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  Re: Carbonation saturation (Fred L Johnson)
  Carbonation ("A.J deLange")
  German Brewing between 1850 and 1900 (Kai Troester)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Thu, 5 Mar 2009 07:30:04 -0500 From: Fred L Johnson <FLJohnson52 at nc.rr.com> Subject: Re: Carbonation saturation I think Joe wants to carbonate his beer by pumping in a known VOLUME of CO2 into his tank and waiting for it to dissolve into the beer so that at equilibrium he has achieved the desired amount of CO2 in his beer at the storage temperature. I love this idea and would like to give it a shot on paper. I hesitate to post this to the Digest, as I don't quite trust my reasoning and knowledge. But here goes anyway. I just remember that God loves me even if I'm dead wrong. Joe: I think you meant to say that you wanted to achieve 2.5 volumes (not atmospheres) of CO2 in your beer. That means for every gallon of beer you want to achieve 2.5 gallons of CO2 dissolved in the beer. So if you can measure the volume of CO2 you push into the tank, then the volume you need to put in will depend on the volume of beer in the tank and the amount of headspace in the tank. It would be a simple answer if the tank were completely filled with beer, but then you wouldn't be able to quickly push the volume of CO2 you need into the beer, as it takes time for the CO2 to dissolve in the beer. So you are stuck with pushing CO2 into the headspace and waiting for it to dissolve into the beer. If you can actually measure the volume of CO2 that you push into the tank, then the total volume needed will depend on the volume of beer, the volume of headspace, and the temperature. I think I know where you are going with this. You would like to put all the CO2 you need into the tank at the end of the day so that when it has equilibrated between the headspace and the beer the next morning, the beer will have the 2.5 volumes of CO2 dissolved in it. I love this idea, but as you said, you are limited to 15 psi of pressure, which precludes you from putting enough CO2 into the headspace to fully carbonate the beer, assuming most of the tank is filled with beer rather than headspace. I haven't done the math, but I think you could do this with a tank that has much more headspace. The final pressure at equilibrium at 34 degrees F will be about 14.7 psi using the calculator I made for you for your tank (depending on the volume of beer you put in the tank), so I think that means the volume of CO2 you would need to put in (after purging the headspace) is on the order of 14.7 x the volume of the headspace plus 2.5 times the volume of the beer. For example (not your specific tank), for a tank of 1000 gallons of beer and 100 gallons of headspace that would be (100 gal * 14.7) + (1000 gal * 2.5) = 3970 gallons (15,026 liters) of CO2. That much volume of CO2 confined to the head space initially would produce a pressure of 39.7 psi if my reasoning and math are correct. That pressure would gradually drop until equilibrium is achieved at 14.7 psi at 34 degrees F and your beer would have 2.5 volumes of CO2 in it. I'm sure many will correct me if I've missed something. Fred L Johnson Apex, North Carolina, USA Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 5 Mar 2009 09:01:10 -0500 From: "A.J deLange" <ajdel at cox.net> Subject: Carbonation I think you probably mean you want 2.5 volumes of CO2 as that's a sort of nominal number but it depends on the style - Irish stouts, for example, should be closer to 1.2 volumes and wheat beers 3 or more. If you really do mean atmospheres then it is a simple matter of subtracting 1, multiplying by 14.7 (i.e. (2.5 - 1)*14.7 = 22.05), setting your CO2 regulator to that value and either waiting or shaking. When everything equilibrates the partial pressure of CO2 in the beer will be 2.5 atmospheres absolute (1.5 gauge). The amount of CO2 dissolved under these conditions will depend on the temperature. The formula V=3.2694 + .076221*P - 0.042274*T gives the number of volumes (as released to the atmosphere at sea level on a standard day) dissolved as a function of the gauge pressure (in psi) and Fahrenheit temperature. V = 3.4821 + 0.14562*P - 0.07437*T - 6.6194e-05 *P*P - 0.0012952*P*T + 0.00053484*T*T gives a more accurate result but given the accuracy of most CO2 gauges it probably isn't necessary to do the extra math. Of course, if you put it in a spreadsheet, the spreadsheet does the math, not you, and you might as well have the better result. These formulas represent fits to the ASBC table (from the MOAs) and you can, of course, also consult those (there's a copy attached to my cooler door). The approximations are valid from 32 to 60F and 5 to 30 psig. In the more usual approach the brewer would decide that he wants, e.g. 2.5 volumes and wants to serve the beer at say 40 F. He then goes to the ASBC table or plugs numbers into the formula until he finds the pressure (about 12 psig) that gives 2.5 volumes at 40 F. To illustrate a little further suppose this same brewer plans to lager/condition this beer at 34 F. He will then want to know what pressure to set for 2.5 volumes at the lower temperature. The tables or formula show this to be 9 psig so his plan would be to put it in ruh storage at 34 with the regulator set to 9 and then when he moves it to his serving fridge at 40F raise the pressure to 12. A.J. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 05 Mar 2009 10:39:44 -0500 From: Kai Troester <kai at braukaiser.com> Subject: German Brewing between 1850 and 1900 Last year, when browsing Google Books I came across a number of old German books that contained a surprisingly detailed description of the brewing process and I was fascinated reading about how they brewed beer in the latter half of the 19th century and what they knew about it and what they didn't. Earlier that year I also visited Germany and took a number of pictures in two brewing museums in Bavaria. I then realized that a commented translation of excerpts from one of the books augmented with these pictures and various diagrams and tables from other book would make a great article for braukaiser.com. After working on it for a few weeks I'm finally done: German Brewing between 1850 and 1900 * Part I: Malting and Wort Production [1] * Part II: Fermentation and Beer [2] Grab a beer and get ready to learn about brewing back then, get amused by what they didn't know and how much different these beers must have been (especially when they had cats in the malthouse). Kai Links (remove the line breaks in the links. HBD doesn't like lines longer than 80 characters): - ------ [1] http://braukaiser.com/wiki/index.php? title=German_Brewing_between_1850_and_1900_:_Malting_and_Wort_Production [2] http://braukaiser.com/wiki/index.php? title=German_Brewing_between_1850_and_1900:_Fermentation_and_Beer Return to table of contents
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