HOMEBREW Digest #742 Thu 17 October 1991

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		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  Lost Articles (Rob, Digest Digester)
  Yeast and Spec. Grav's. (Daniel L. Krus)
  Boston Ale (hersh)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Tuesday From: Rob, Digest Digester Subject: Lost Articles If you sent in an article recently that has not appeared in the digest (including this one), please re-send it. A file with incorrect permissions caused all incoming articles since last Wednesday to be silently devnullified (ie, thrown away without a trace.) Also, for all those who are worried about missing digests, there have been *no* digests sent out since last week. The last one was #741, dated October 9. If you sent me a message asking about what happened, I probably ignored it. Sorry, but it's impossible to reply personally to everyone. You'll also probably notice that I've stopped sending replies for most requests, though I do act on them. Subscription requests are still replied to automatically. Requests for back issues are, unfortunately, completely ignored. Rob Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 7 Oct 1991 22:58:02 -0400 (EDT) From: D_KRUS at UNHH.UNH.EDU (Daniel L. Krus) Subject: Yeast and Spec. Grav's. There's been a few questions lately about yeast and characteristics associated with them. Here is a retype of some information I received from Wyeast relative to their yeast. This information was obtained a while ago and supposedly this was to be updated and expanded. If anyone has the latest update I would appreciate a copy of it from you since Wyeast wasn't too tickled that I contacted them directly. Sorry if there are any typos. YEAST CHARACTERISTICS Some yeast strains are more active and vigorous than others. Lager strains in particular do not show as much activity on the surface as many of the Ale strains. We provide an adequate quantity of yeast to complete fermen- tation with varying amounts of lag time depending on strain, freshness, handling, and temperature. If you find it too slow, make a starter as recommended on the package. In any event, a closed fermenter with an airlock is recommended. TEMPERATURE The slow onset of visible signs of fermentation can be improved by starting fermentation at 75 deg. F (24 deg. C) until activity is evident, then moving to your desired fermentation temperature. A few degrees does make a significant difference without adversely affecting flavor. The normal temperature for Ale yeast range from 60-75 deg. F (16-24 deg. C) A few strains ferment well down to 55 deg. F (13 deg. C). 68 deg. F (20 deg. C) is a good average. Lager strains normally ferment from 32-75 deg. F (0-24 deg. C). 50-55 deg. F (10-12 deg. C) is customary for primary fermentation. A slow steady reduction to 32 deg. F (0 deg. C) during secondary fermentation typically works well. The fermentation rate is directly related to temperature. The lower the temperature, the slower fermentation commences. Fluctuations in tempera- ture such as cooling and warming from night to day can adversely affect yeast performance. ATTENUATION Apparent attenuation of yeast normally ranges from 67-77%. The attenuation is determined by the composition of the wort or juice and the yeast strain used. Each yeast strain ferments different sugars to varying degrees, resulting in higher or lower final gravities. This will affect the resid- ual sweetness and body. FLOCCULATION All brewing yeast flocculate. The degree and type of flocculation varies for different yeast. Some strains clump into very lary flocculate. Some floc very little into a more granular consistency. Most yeast strains clump and flocculate to a moderate degree. pH RANGES Typical pH range for yeast fermentations begins at about 5.1 and optimally 4.8. During the course of fermentation the pH reduces to typically 3.9- 4.1 and as low as 3.1 in some wines. ALCOHOL TOLERANCES The alcohol tolerance for most brewing yeast is as least to 8%. Barley wines to 12% can be produced by most Ale strains. Pitching rates need to be increased proportionally to higher gravities. Alternately, Champagne and Wine yeast can be used for high gravities sometimes reaching alcohols to 18%. YEAST PROFILES Ales (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 1007. Our original Ale Yeast of German origin. Ferments dry and crisp leaving a complex yet mild flavor. Produces an extremely rocky head and ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Flocculation is high and apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 62 deg. F (17 deg. C). 1028. British #2 (London Ale previously British Ale). Rich minerally profile, bold woody slight diacetyl production. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). 1056. American Ale Yeast. Ferments dry, finishes soft, smooth and clean, and is very well balanced. Flocculation is low to medium. Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). 1084. First considered just British, but now more specifically Irish. Slight residual diacetyl is great for stouts. It is clean smooth, soft and full bodied. Medium flocculation and apparent attenuation of 71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). 1098. British Ale Yeast from Whitbread. Ferments dry and crisp, slightly tart and well balanced. Ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C). 1338. European yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich. A full bodied complex strain finishes very malty. Produces a dense rocky head during fermentation. High flocculation, apparent attenuation 67-71%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C). Lager (Saccharomyces uvarum) 2007. Our original Lager Yeast Strain. Specific for pilsner style beers. Known as many things, we call it Pilsen. Ferments dry, crisp, clean and light. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation from 71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 52 deg. F (11 deg. C). 2035. American Lager Yeast. Unlike American pilsner styles. It is bold, complex and woody. Produces slight diacetyl. Medium floccu- lation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 50 deg. F (10 deg. C). 2042. Danish Yeast Strain. Rich, yet crisp and dry. Soft, light profile which accentuates hop characteristics. Flocculation is low, apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C). 2124. Bohemian Lager Yeast. The traditional sazz yeast from Czechoslo- vakia. Ferments clean and malty, rich residual maltiness in high gravity pilsners, medium flocculation, apperent attenuation 69-73%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C). 2206. Bavarian Yeast Strain used by many German breweries. Rich flavor, full bodied, malty and clean. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C). 2308. Munich Yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich #308. One of the first pure yeast available to American homebrewers. Sometimes unstable, but smooth soft well rounded and full bodied. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 50 deg. F (10 deg. C). Saccharomyces delbrueckii, S. cerevisac 3056. Bavarian Weissen. A 50/50 blend of S. cerevisiae and Delbrueckii to produce a south German style wheat beer with cloying sweetness when the beer is fresh. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 56 deg. F (13 deg. C). Wine Yeast 3021. Prise de mousse, Institute Pasteur champagne yeast race bayanus. Crisp and dry, ideal for sparkling and still red, white and fruit wines. Also can be used for Barley wines. Optimum fermentation temperature: 58 deg. F (14 deg. C). 3028. French wine yeast ideally suited for red and white wines which mature rapidly. Enhances the fruity characteristics of most wines. Optimum fermentation temperature: 72 deg. F (22 deg. C). Malo-lactic Bacteria Leuconostoc oenos 4007. Malo-lactic culture blend isolated from western Oregon wineries. Includes strains Ey2d and Er1a. Excellent for high acid wines and low pH. Softens wines by converting harsh malic acid to milder lactic acid. Can be added to juice any time after the onset of yeast fermentation when sulfur dioxide is less than 15 ppm. - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ There have also been some questions about Spec. Grav's. and conversion to 60 deg. F (15.6 deg. C). The following is the information that came with my hydrometer. TEMPERATURE CONVERSION This hydrometer gives an accurate reading when the temperature of the liquid is 60 deg. F (15.6 deg. C). The following tables show how to correct for temperature difference. Temperature --------------- Spec. Grav. deg. F deg. C Correction ------ ------ ---------- 50 10.0 - 0.5 60 15.6 0 70 21.1 + 1 77 25.0 + 2 84 28.9 + 3 95 35.0 + 5 105 40.6 + 7 Example: Specific Gravity is: 1.100 at 84 deg. F. Correction figure is: + 3 to correct to 60 deg. F. ----- Corrected Spec. Grav. is: 1.103 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ I plot Correction vs. Temperature and keep this plot in the back of my brewing note book for quick and handy visual reference. This data does not yield a linear relationship thus a graph is quicker to work with than some polynomial equation. I hope some of this information helps. Dan |**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:| | Internet: D_KRUS at unhh.unh.edu | Daniel L. Krus | | Compuserve: 71601,365 | Parsons Hall | |-----------------------------------------------| Department of Chemistry | | "A good word is an easy obligation, but not | U of New Hampshire | | to speak ill, requires only our | Durham, New Hampshire 03824 | | silence, which costs us nothing." Tillotson | (603) 862-2521 | |**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:**:| Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 16 Oct 91 16:26:16 EDT From: hersh at expo.lcs.mit.edu Subject: Boston Ale The Boston Ale is brewed in 2 places. A lot of the draft Ale, particularly for local consumption is brewed here in Boston in the Jamaica Plain brewery using what used to be Bill Newman's Albany Amber brewing setup. I am told that the bottling line there is fully functional and that from time to time they do bottle some of the Boston Ale brewed there. However most of the Boston Ale found in the bottles is brewed at the F.X. Matt's brewing company in Utica, N.Y. under contract. Also some of the keg beer found outside the Boston market is brewed there as well. The Lager product, both bottle and draft is produced by the Pittsburgh Brewing Co. of Pittsburgh. Pa. under contract. This information is correvt as of sometime earlier this summer when I was at the brewery, though these arrangements are fluid (get the pun :-), and of course may have changed. - Jay - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Hopfen und Malz, Gott erhalts Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #742, 10/17/91 ************************************* -------
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