HOMEBREW Digest #833 Fri 28 February 1992

Digest #832 Digest #834

		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  wyeast report (dave ballard)
  WYEAST BULLETIN--read this!
  Kolsch (Tony Babinec)
  Great response (artificial carbonation help) (Keith Winter)
  boiler (DAMON_NOEL/HP0800_01)
  HDPE and beer (Bruce Mueller)
  Dry hopping & Blowoff from Micah Millspaw (Bob Jones)
  review of Coors tour (241 lines long) (Bob Devine  26-Feb-1992 1335)
  Sugars (mvalent)
  Some Questions on Procedures, etc. (Michael P Lindner)
  Hi, I missed the HBD that ("KATMAN.WNETS385")
  Xingu 1007 Airlocks (Brian Bliss)
  hypercard stack for beer! (Heather Godsey)
  mead query (walt)
  kettles & hops (Mike Tavis)
  Cider making (tleilax)
  <Concierge NOTICE>  (Stan Schwerin)
  Dry Hopping (Mahan_Stephen)
  Re: ginger in the boil (Brian Davis)
  CP filler review (Bob Jones)
  Wort Chillers References (palladin)
  Taxonomy (Michael T. Daly)
  Hop, propane (Jack Schmidling)
  Miller on Trub, O2, and Fusel Alcohol (joshua.grosse)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: 26 Feb 1992 8:29 EST From: dab at dasher.cc.bellcore.com (dave ballard) Subject: wyeast report hey now- i saw this on r.c.b and just wanted to make sure it made it here... -dab ========================================================================== Newsgroups: rec.crafts.brewing Subject: WYEAST BULLETIN--read this! Summary: Instructions from Wyeast about their package failures. Keywords: Wyeast Yeast Package Failure Date: 25 Feb 92 19:41:18 GMT Organization: TECHbooks of Beaverton Oregon - Public Access Unix Brewers, I've just gotten off the phone with Dave Logsdon, head of WYeast Labs. They have finally managed to determine the cause of their recent packaging failures, and have begun to address the problem. Actually, Dave thought they were addressing the problem all along, but nothing they did seemed to work. After considerably back-tracking through the industrial trail they have determined that the failure could be traced to changes made by the oil company that makes the plastic their new packager is using! The resulting plastic is of an inferior quality and has structural weaknesses that have caused failures of about 10%. WYeast will be going back to its previous package supplier, but in the meantime, they will be packaging yeast WITHOUT STARTERS! The packages will include instructions on how to make a starter. For about one month, however, striking the package as per the old directions will accomplish nothing! Dave has been on the phone with his major retailers, and they feel this is the right way to go: people are interested in getting the yeast, and not having package failures, so the general feeling is that a little inconvenience now is preferable to not having any yeast at all. I will be getting WYeast's starter directions by FAX today so I can put together a new label. If there is interest, I will post them here. - --Jeff Frane Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 9:47:18 CST From: tony at spss.com (Tony Babinec) Subject: Kolsch Here are some comments on the Kolsch style, along with a recipe. My friends who have traveled to Cologne came back raving about the Kolsch style. If you think about it, its appearance is not much different than the light American lager, but its flavor is more interesting, and being an ale, a Kolsch is easily made by homebrewers. First, let's look at the style. A Kolsch has starting gravity of 1.042 to 1.046, IBUs of 20-30, and SRM of 3.5 to 5. The Zymurgy description of a Kolsch is: Pale gold. Low hop flavor and aroma. Medium bitterness. Light to medium body. Slightly dry, winy palate. Malted wheat okay. Lager or ale yeast or combination of yeasts okay. Malts can be U.S. or continental, including a fraction of wheat malt if desired. Hopping should be continental noble hops. The yeast is the tricky part, as to my knowledge there is no available Kolsch yeast. The Goose Island Brewery in Chicago brews a Kolsch using a Kolsch yeast from Germany. The Free State Brewery in Lawrence, Kansas, brews a Kolsch using Wyeast "European" ale. This yeast is suggested by Fred Eckhardt. I've used the yeast from time to time and think it's a great yeast, so use this in preference to any generic ale yeast. Now, for the recipe. I've tried this a few times, never the same twice, but can say that it makes a good beer, and if your process is good, will get you a ribbon in competition! 6 pounds U.S. 2-row malt 1 pound Vienna malt 1 pound wheat malt 0.25 pounds light (10L) crystal malt 1 ounce Hallertauer (a=2.9) 60 minutes until end of boil 1 ounce Hallertauer 30 minutes until end of boil 0.25 ounce Tettnang (a=3.8) 15 minutes until end of boil 0.25 ounce Tettnang 2 minutes until end of boil Wyeast "European" ale yeast Note that your milage may vary, and I'm assuming 80% extraction efficiency. The hop schedule broadly follows the "German" method, and you can substitute Perle or Spalt, and mix and match however you want. Following Fred Eckhardt's description of Widmer's mash sequence, mash in at 122 degrees F and hold for 30 to 45 minutes, and then raise to 158 degrees F for starch conversion. Following conversion, raise to 170 degrees F for mash out and hold for 10 minutes. Primary fermentation should be done in the mid-60s. This beer benefits from cold-conditioning, so rack to secondary and "lager" at 40 degrees for a couple weeks. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 8:21:46 PST From: winter at cirrus.com (Keith Winter) Subject: Great response (artificial carbonation help) Well, once again I have seen what a great bunch of people homebrewers are! I have recieved many, many direct email messages with helpfull information on my first kegging/artificial carbonation project. I really appreciate the input and offer my gratefull thanks to all that responded. I sent personal replies to all but wanted to also let the digest in general know about the level of response. Everyone suggested that I aggitate the heck out of the keg while it was under high (20-30psi) pressure for a few minutes and then reduce pressure to the value I wanted (from the CO2 chart). I tried that last night and tonight will have one to see how it went. Again, thank you all. - ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Keith Winter at Cirrus Logic, Inc. (winter at cirrus.com) Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 09:38:30 -0700 From: DAMON_NOEL/HP0800_01%hpcsee.col.hp.com at col.hp.com Subject: boiler A number of people have had questions about the boiler I mentioned a couple of posts back: 1) The thermostat I used is a garden variety unit used I believe as a replace- ment unit on hot water heaters. It's a small unit about 2x3x2 which mounts to a flat surface with 4 screws and reacts to the surface temperature of its mounting face. There's a small screw adjustment for temperature (like on the back of battery operated clocks). This together with the high amp switch is available at plumbing supply houses. 2) The switch I used has a 20 amp/240volt rating and is a single pole, single throw unit wired in series with one hot leg of the 240 volt pair. The neutral lead of the 240 volt circuit is not needed for power. Be sure to wire a safety ground wire from the 240 volt neutral to the switch and the metal base of the pail/keg. The current rating is not to big a deal on the switch, given the low useage. The 20 amp switch can easily handle one heater element. 3) The heater elements mount to the base of the bucket through a hole bored in the bottom. I used the rubber gasket which came with the element on the exterior of the bucket. The element mounts with four bolts also through the bucket base. I put plastic washer under the heads on the inside of the bucket. 4) A variable resistance switch from a stove top could be used, these are available from appliance repair shops. I found one of these in the yellow pages and have gotten used parts from them dirt cheap. This, like the thermostat would just be wired in series with the elememt and the two hot legs of the 240. Use a drier cord or range cord depending on whether you have a 30 or 50 amp outlet. You can get the cords from either a hardware store or a plumbing supply. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 10:43:06 PST From: Bruce Mueller <mueller at sdd.hp.com> Subject: HDPE and beer Al asks about using polyethylene for long-term storage of beer. Beyond what Cole-Parmer says, I use some of their HDPE tubing for dispensing from my keg. It imparts no flavor to the beer, and it doesn't discolor like the Tygon (vinyl) junk commonly available at HB suppliers. A caveat: polyethylene is notoriously permeable to oxygen, so this might be a concern. It wouldn't worry me, because the Brits have those polypins (sp?) which are made of PE. Knowing Cole-Parmer's quality, I expect that you can use the PE container without fear. Most all PE these days is food-grade, especially labware. Cheers! Bruce Mueller Development Engineer Chemist & Brewer Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 1992 11:14 PDT From: Bob Jones <BJONES at NOVA.llnl.gov> Subject: Dry hopping & Blowoff from Micah Millspaw I have some info on the dry hopping issue. J.X. Guinard did some research a few years back in the sorts of bacteria that live on hops. The results where published last year in the MBAAs newsletter. I had dicussed this issue with Guinard prior to its publication and was told that there is almost no danger of hop-born bacteria being able to infect a beer. The reason being that the hop residing creatures do not compete well in the environment that was created for the yeast. The ph of the wort tends to not allow a population level to be reached that can be detected. JXG's work also indicated that 3 days into a ferment no hop-born beasties would be able to compete at all with the yeast. So wait 3 days if your going to dry hop. This also should remove alot of problems with plugged blow off tubes and fermentation locks. I also would like to point out that the blow off tube and fermentation lock perform the same function in the same way and I do not see that one can have any effect over the other. My own brewing equipment uses both, the half barrel primary has a 1/2 inch copper line that runs into a gallon jug, if I brew 5 gallons or less I use a carboy with a fermentation lock. I've been using this equipment for years and have never been aware of any difference in the quality of beers made with either process. IMHO the quality is always the highest! Micah Millspaw 2/26/92  Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 12:38:15 PST From: Bob Devine 26-Feb-1992 1335 <devine at cookie.enet.dec.com> Subject: review of Coors tour (241 lines long) The "Deep Wort" club took a VIP tour of Coors brewery on February 8th. Since I promised a write-up of the tour, here it is. I tried to record all the info but my pen lost the tiny roller about midway through. If anyone finds it in a glass of Coors, please return it! :-) :-) Coors is located in Golden Colorado. This is a town west of Denver and is right along the foot hills at the base of the Rocky Mountains. The brewery is easy to find since the town is small the brewery is big. Just look for the tavern that advertises "The Freshest Coors Possible" and you are close! Our tour guide was Susan. She conveyed enthusiasm and joy in working for Coors without being a cheerleader. Plus she was full of knowledge. She was good -- not a corporate drone nor someone who just memorized a script. THE FACTS - --------- Coors has the world's largest single-site brewery. It's HUGE! It makes 1.5 million gallons of beer per day. The old definition of a microbrewery being one that makes less in one year than a major brewery spills is definitely true here. All of Coors' beers start with the same basic grains and use the same yeast. The beers are: Coors - a light American lager; their mainline beer. Extra Gold - in the jargon of US beer distributors, this is called a "super premium" beer. This beer has won its category at the Great American Beer Festival a couple of times. Coors Lite - 3rd largest selling brand among all beers; its accounts for 60% of total sales Keystone and Keystone Dry - aimed at the cheap beer crowd (has pictures of NASCAR race cars on the packaging) Coors just went national with Keystone Dry. Cutter - their new low-alcohol beer. Cutter is the only Coors beer that is pasteurized. Killian's - Coors bought the rights to the beer's _name_ 10 years ago when the Irish brewery shopped its name around because of it was near bankruptcy. The recipe was changed from the original... Herman Joseph - this is a premium beer. The name comes from the founder of Coors: Adolph Herman Joseph Coors. All of the beers are made at the Golden Colorado brewery except the Cutter line which is made at their new West Virginia location. Coors also has an agreement with a South Korean brewery named Jinro (Ginrow?) where some production will be done for the Far East markets. All beers are (now) sold nationwide. The Coors Extra Gold is exported to Greece now and will soon be sold across Europe. [This information caused a lot of sniggering from the club, with a few suggesting that Coors will have to label it a "light" beer. -Bob] Coors is structured as a nearly self-contained corporation: - it has agreements with farmers to grow certain strains of barley - it makes its own cans and bottles through a wholly owned subsidiary that is located a few miles away from the brewery - it owns hundreds of insulated rail-cars and trucks to ship its beer - the brewery itself does the grain storage, malting, mashing, fermenting, and lagering all in one connected series of buildings BREWING PROCESS - --------------- The tour was organized to follow the process of making beer. We started with the a description of the grains and adjuncts used and then moved through the malting house, into what the guide called the "production room" and then finished in the packaging area. Ingredients: Barley: Coors supplies the barley seeds to farmers in Colorado, Idaho, and (I think) Wyoming. At the end of the season, grain is bought from those farms where the crop produced barley of sufficiently low nitrogen and protein levels. Any rejected grain is either used by other breweries (no names mentioned...) or sold for cattle feed. If anyone is driving through Colorado's San Luis valley, you will see billboards proclaiming that "this farm grows barley for Coors". There are yearly awards given to the barley farmers who produce most or best grain. The "triumph" and "moravian 3" strains are used now. Others were used in the past and, undoubtedly, others will be used in the future. Adjuncts: This is added to make a lighter bodied beer but with the desired alcohol level. Both rice and corn starch are used in all the beers except the "Herman Joseph" brand. The rice comes from California and Texas. Not much else said. The corn starch is derived from corn grown, for the most part, in the US Midwest "corn belt" of Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, etc. Crystal and other specialty grains: Are made on-site. However, the sample of crystal that is used to make the Killian's Irish Red brand didn't look like the typical crystal that homebrewers buy. It looked less shiny and didn't have the crystalline crunch when bitten [okay, okay I'll repay Coors for the few kernels that I ate -Bob] Water: Water comes from underground springs located around the town of Golden. The guide, when asked how the water is treated, said "nothing is added or removed" from the water. As someone who has lived along the "Front Range" of the Rockies in Colorado, I can tell you that the water is very soft. There is little hardness because the water passes over mainly granite and sandstone as it drains out of the mountains. Hops Coors currently uses the following blends of hops for all beers: 40% imported aroma hops (Perle, Hersbrucker, Hallertauer and Strissol-Spalt) from Germany 40% domestic aroma hops from Washington, Idaho, and Oregon (Cascade?) 20% Chinook hops for bittering All you hop heads would have drooled over the hops ready to go into the boil. There were 3 containers (should I call them "hoppers"?) near the boilers, each the size of large garbage cans, that were filled with loose, whole hops. Everyone wanted "samples" ;-). Malting: Steeping The grain undergoes a 48 hour steep in water. We walked into the area were this is done. I didn't count but there must have been about 25 tanks on the 6th floor. Each circular tank is 24 feet deep and 16 feet in diameter. Grain is dumped in wet from a spout located in the ceiling. When the steeping tank is filled, it holds about 78,000 pounds of grain! When our tour was there, several tanks were being filled. There is something amazing to watch as nearly a _railroad car_ load of grain is dumped into one steeping tank. There is considerable out-gassing of the grain as it steeps. I asked the guide if the water was treated in any way. She said that it wasn't and what I was smelling was just the effect of that much raw grain added to water. It smelled like "eau de barnyard" when a blast of water hit the grain while one was sniffing. Germination After the steeping is over, the grain is allowed to germinate. This occurs on the 4th floor. The wet grain is dumped in rows that are about 5 feet deep, 15 feet wide, and approximately 70 feet long. I counted about 16 such rows. In the germination room, the temp is kept at 53 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity is at 100%. As you can probably guess with such a huge amount of grain, all grain is moved mechanically. An intricate series of augers and pushers will move the grain after it is finished germinating. Kilning The germinated grain is kilned for 14 hours. The temperature used in kilning determines the color of the grain (ie, pale or amber). As example of getting every little bit of worth from the grain, all of the rootlets that were formed during the germination but are broken off during the kilning are sold as cattle feed. Mashing and Boiling: Coors has 50 gorgeous copper brew kettles in their "production room" on the third floor of the main building. Some of the kettles are for mashing and some are for boiling. The boil kettles had a larger exhaust "chimney". When we went to the floor beneath the kettles, I could see that each kettle is wrapped with an insulating blanket. Because we toured on a Saturday, there wasn't anyone present in the room even though several kettles were in use. I don't know what the normal weekday operations would look like but I'd guess that only one or two people would be working per shift because everything is highly automated. A large control panel is on one wall that was festooned with lights and digital read-outs. To make the Coors Lite or Keystone Dry beer, a proprietary process is used. Details are scant but one Coors representative said that the mash is 4 hours longer for for the Coors Lite brand a more complete starch conversion. The new Dry beers undergo a "double chilling" process after fermentation [sorry, I could not find out the full details - Bob]. The alcohol level is higher in the Dry beer because its starting starch level has been nearly all converted to fermentable sugar. After the mash, a huge press is used to get the most out of the grains I didn't see it in operation but it appears that the spent grains are loaded and then a hydraulic press squeezes to get a final running. Fermenting: The beer is fermented at 8 degrees Celsius (~46 degrees Fahrenheit) for 7 days. Coors does a high gravity fermentation and adds water afterwards to get the desired gravity and alcohol levels. Filtering: While lots of breweries use diatonamous earth to filter beer, Coors uses a series of huge cotton pads. I didn't count the number of cotton filters used in sequence but I'd guess about a dozen stages. After the filter has been used, the pads are ripped apart, cleaned, and then reformed into new pads. We sampled the beer as it left the filtering line. It was better tasting than any Coors I've had. The beer didn't have the crispness that lagering gives but it had a maltier flavor. In fact, the beer we tasted was Coors Lite which surprised a lot of us. Lagering: Since Coors cranks out 1.5 million gallons a beer a day and they lager all of it, that means a LOT of lagering tanks. There is a building devoted to holding at least several weeks production. (quick math: 1.5 million gals/day * 21 days ~= 30 million gallons and since a gallon weighs approx 8 lbs, this is 1/4 billion pounds!) Packaging: We saw a can line in operation. Coors was the first to use aluminum cans and also first to use seamless cans. The latest trend is to minimize the can cost by reducing the size of the can top [hmmm, I vaguely remember a calculus test question just like that! -Bob]. Each can is x-rayed twice to check for fill level and can problems. FINAL COMMENTS - -------------- The tour ended in the visitor sampling area where everyone could have up to two beers. We all hit that quota! I left Coors with an very high appreciation for their production facility. If doubt if there is a better run large brewery. Everything was clean and there is a lot of attention to detail and efficiency. However, seeing the majestic facility then points out some drawbacks. First, one immediately understands that this is an _American_ brewery that is extremely aware of marketing battles and current tastes. That is, the primary goal is to please the most people so as to capture the largest market. This thinking dominates. Second is a feeling best expressed by Dave Resch: "with a place like this, they have the ability to produce a really fine beer, but choose not to...". In the past, Coors made a bock beer. Coors' production of a special Christmas beer each year is to be commended and encouraged. I wish that there would be more special beers made, not just beer intended for the widest possible market. Finally, there are certain times when a camera is desperately needed; this was one of those times. The sight of a dozen homebrewers all wearing hairnets, safety glasses, and earplugs was worth preserving! Return to table of contents
Date: Wed Feb 26 12:36:24 PST 1992 From: mvalent at calstatela.edu Subject: Sugars A friend of mine has to give an oral report for a particular basic Microbiology class and he wanted to discuss the effects of fermenting different sugars such as sucrose vs. glucose vs. maltose. Mind you- he wants to know what's going on chemically especially with respect to side reactions. Therefore, if any of you out there knows any thing about this subject or knows a good source of information on it I would appreciate a response. Naturally, due to procrastination, time is a factor so any information I receive after Thursday the 26th (Oh dear, that's probably today!!) will be interesting, but also probably too late... Thanks in advance, Mike Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 25 Feb 92 16:11:37 EST From: mikel at attmail.att.com (Michael P Lindner) Subject: Some Questions on Procedures, etc. I am (almost) new to homebrewing, and have some questions. So far I have made (from a kit) an India Pale Ale, which my friends and I much enjoyed, and would like to try some other brews soon. 1) I'd like to try brewing with grain (rather than extracts), and have read some on the subject. I have no problem with cooking at various temps for various lengths of time, but books (and HBD) mention "sparging" the grain. The best definition I can find is "spray the grain with 160 oF water. How is this normally done? Do I put the grain in a strainer and pour water through it, or leave it in the pot and spray the water on it? Should I use heated tap water, or some of the water the rgain has been cooking in? Should I stir the grain while I spray? Do I need a sprayer, or is pouring adequate? Well, you get ther idea. 2) I recently discovered I should get a license to brew in NJ. I'd like to abide by the law, but I'm unsure of where to apply. Does anyone know how to go about this, or should I start calling people in Trenton? 3) Is there a good source of bottles by mail or something? I went to my (fairly) local homebrew supply store (The Wine Rack), and they gave me a case of returned-returnables for $1.20. OK, but these bottles were gross and labelled, and I spent quite a while cleaning and sterilizing them. Yes, I know I can reuse these, but friends sometimes throw them out by mistake, and a couple broke when capping them, and I find I'm a few bottles short for my next batch (and I don't want to clean another case of bottles with labels and inhabitants). Anyway, I'd like, while I'm at it, to thanks the contributers to HBD. I've learned a lot so far, and I'm still learning a lot. M. Lindner mikel at attmail.att.com Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 20:34 GMT From: "KATMAN.WNETS385" <6790753%356_WEST_58TH_5TH_FL%NEW_YORK_NY%WNET_6790753 at mcimail.com> Subject: Hi, I missed the HBD that Date: 26-Feb-92 Time: 03:32 PM Msg: EXT02944 Hi, I missed the HBD that came out (or would have come out) Wed. Feb. 26. Can someone mail it to me at katman.wnets385%wnet_6790753 at mcimai l.com? Thanks Lee Katman - Thirteen/WNET - NY, NY Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 19:16:28 CST From: bliss at csrd.uiuc.edu (Brian Bliss) Subject: Xingu 1007 Airlocks > > Has anybody tried Xingu beer from Brazil? Xingu calls it a "black" > beer. It tastes somewhere between an imperial stout and an Irish stout > with about 1/2 the hops of either. If you haven't yet, give it a taste! > If you have, how would *you* classify it? > I would say that It's much more of a porter than a stout. I would use ~3/4 lb black patent in a 5 gal. batch, and no chocolate malt or roasted barley. I can't remember the hop character. +++++++++++++ > I just put up a real high gravity (1.088 !!) stout: 12.5 lb grain for 2 > gal of wort (ok, I wasn't aiming that high but the boiling time got away > from me :-). I pitched #1007 Wyeast -- I'm expecting a FG of 1.022 (?). > I used 2oz of Cascade .5 alpha. > > The qustion is this: should I dilute the wort some or should I expect > reasonably good results as is? (or maybe a better question would be: > am I correct to expect a FG of 1.022 given the above decription?) by all means, don't dilute it! I've made 3 decently-strong stouts with Wyeast 1007 german ale yeast, and totally love the results. It finishes more malty than creamy (like irish ale yeast), but I prefer the maltiness. The hops are leaf unless otherwise noted: Batch 17: 3 cans extract, variety of grains, 6 gal O.G. 1.065 1.5 oz bullion (boil), 1/2 oz hallertau (finish). My english ale starter had soured, so I popped the german ale packet, and only let it sit a few hours before pitching (at 95F). it took 4 whole weeks to ferment at room temperature, FG 1.017. bottled with 6 oz corn sugar - either too much, or it still wasn't done fermenting. Batch 18: (oops - not a stout) 10 lb pale ale malt, 2 lbs munich malt, 2 lbs wheat malt, 1 lb brown sugar. 42g hallertau (75 min) 19.5g fuggle pellets (75 min) 17g hallertau (45 min) 14g fuggle pellets (45 minA) 7g hallertau (finish) OG 1.065 - pitched at 80F with german ale slurry from batch 17. racked 8 hrs later off of lots of hot break. (it think it was almost exactly 5 gal after siphoning). It took 3 weeks to ferment out, FG 1.021 bottled with 4 oz corn sugar, and was tasty (and hoppy) - similar to bass. Batch 20: 10 lbs various light malts 1/2 each of chocolate malt, roasted barley, and black patent. 2 lb flaked barley. 14g bullion, (110 min) 16g cascase(110 min), 10g bullion (60 min) 14g cascase (60 min) 4g hallertau (5 min). 5.5 gal, OG 1.068 pitched slurry from batch 18. very little hot break, so I didn't siphon off the trub. I think most of the hot break came out in the (too-hot) sparge, then I let the wort settle afterwards and racked. It was ready in < 2 weeks, FG 1.027. My best stout ever. I put the hallertau finishing hops in to help keep the strainer from clogging when I transfer to the carboy (esp. when I use pellets), but in my last batch or stout, I put an entire 7g of fresh hallertau in the finish, and it ruined the stout character. Anyway, the more you re-use your 1007 german ale yeast, the less attenuative it gets. I doubt the SG will get down to 1.022, but it might come close. If it doesn't, all the better malt character! +++++++++++++ > Why is it important to replace the hose with a fermentation lock > after the bulk of fermentation? I am assuming that the other end > of the hose is sitting in a jar of clean, probably sanitized water. > Is this not enough "lock"? > I`ve never had any problems with this method yet anyway. If the temperature of the wort drops too low after most of the yeast activity has subsided, it can potentially pull sanitizing solution back through the hose into the beer. Of course, this can happen with the 3 peice airlocks, too, so I'm a fan of the S shaped ones. I've had it happen to a lager that was in the bottom of my fridge (too cold, really), but only a little got sucked back in, and the beer was fine. cheers! bb Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 22:49:22 EST From: Heather Godsey <GODSEYHM%DUVM.BITNET at pucc.Princeton.EDU> Subject: hypercard stack for beer! Many months ago I downloaded a hypercard stack on beer/brewing. Unfortunately the disk went bad before I got a chance to uncompress & use it. Does anyone out there know where I could get a copy? Please e-mail it directly if possible! Thanks in advance. Joe Uknalis Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 92 21:51:52 EST From: walt <ST101656 at brownvm.brown.edu> Subject: mead query Our first attempt at homebrewing has been a batch of mead. We followed a recipe from AMATEUR WINE MAKING by S.M. Tritton pp. 152-58. We used 3 pounds of honey to a gallon of water and sedimentary wine yeast. We forgot, however, to add critic acid initailly and added it only after fermentation had already started. About two weeks latter the alcohol percentage has fallen to about 11% and fermentation has stopped completly. The mead is still quite sweet and bit too thick. What so we do? Is adding more yeast advisible? Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 92 09:34:20 est From: mtavis at saturn.hyperdesk.com (Mike Tavis) Subject: kettles & hops I'm finally going to dump my enamelled canning pot and buy a real SS brew kettle. I have talked to a friend of mine who owns a restaurant about getting it through her supplier (and using her discount). However, there are about 150 different choices so I could use some help on the parameters. What size do most people get? Assuming I make 5 gallon batches is 24-30 quarts about right? What gauge SS? I will probably use it on my electric stove until I get a King Kooker (or some other prpose stove). What dimemsions? Should I get a tall, skinny pot or fat, short pot? Is a cooper bottom important? About a year ago I found a hop called "Pride of Ringwood" at my local supplier. I used it in an IPA and loved the result. I have been looking for them ever since and have yet to find them. Has any one seen these elusive hops. A mail order place that had them would be great. Thanks. - -- Mike o o| Michael Tavis, HyperDesk Corporation o o| Suite 300, 2000 West Park Dr., Westboro, MA 01581 ---+ E-mail: mike_t at hyperdesk.com (508) 366-5050 Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 92 09:00:42 EST From: tcm at moscom.com (tleilax) Subject: Cider making I've made hard cider two years running, both times in the Fall, during the apple harvest. I used the same method both times and had a fair amount of success. Both batches consisted of: 3 Gallons Preservative-free apple cider 1 Pkg Champagne (First batch) or Whitbread Ale (Second batch) Yeast Place cider in sanitized carboy, add yeast, and fix airlock. It may take upwards of 7 days to ferment out, depending on yeast chosen. Bottle with corn sugar as you would with beer, if you want a sparkling cider, or without for still. I can almost hear the howls of protest now, "what, no boil, no sulfites to kill wild yeasts", but this has worked for me. One important caveat, champagne yeasts cause a COMPLETE fermentation of the available sugars in the cider. My first batch smelled like cider but was the dryest tasting beverage you could imagine. Hydrometer reading indicated a F.G. of 1.001. This batch was more like an apple wine than anything else. The batch using ale yeast was much sweeter, much lower in alcohol content but not as clear. My advice is experiment, and enjoy the mistakes. Tom - ----- Tom Maszerowski tcm at moscom.com {rit,tropix,ur-valhalla}!moscom!tcm Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 1992 7:04:18 PST From: schwerin at mailhost.hsas.washington.edu (Stan Schwerin) Subject: <Concierge NOTICE> Date 2/27/92 Subject <Concierge NOTICE> From Stan Schwerin To CHANGE THIS IF NECESSARY >From QMCONCIERGE <Concierge NOTICE> Your mail in reference to "Homebrew Digest #832 (Febru" has been received. [ ] I am on Vacation. [X] I have Moved. [ ] I am Away. I will read your mail when I return. Hi, I'm skiing at Mt. Bachelor right now. When I return on Monday, Feb 2, I will read your mail. If this is an emergency, please contact Chris Kilbourn. -Stan Schwerin Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 92 07:28:00 CST From: Mahan_Stephen at lanmail.ncsc.navy.mil Subject: Dry Hopping To the gentleman who wanted to know the timing of dry hopping: I just throw hop pellets in a hop bag and drop them in the carboy at pitching time. I have done this for the last three batches with no problems. The last has been sitting in the fermenter for about 3 weeks, as my wife decided to redecorate the kitchen and I have been reluctant to bottle in the middle of the current disaster area. Also, to the gentleman making hard cider -- Don't Boil It. The cider ferments quite nicely by itself. If you can get fresh squeezed cider, it will start fermenting by itself from the natural wild yeasts already included with the (chopped/compressed) fruit. steve Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 92 08:50:28 pst From: Brian Davis <brian%mbf.uucp at ics.uci.edu> Subject: Re: ginger in the boil In HBD 832, Tom Dimock recommends adding grated ginger to the boil. I'd recommend that you slice it instead of grating it. Very thin slices will allow lots of contact area. And the slices will be much easier to strain out after the boil. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 1992 12:05 PDT From: Bob Jones <BJONES at NOVA.llnl.gov> Subject: CP filler review I recently obtained a counter pressure bottle filler and thought I would pass along my experiences with this unit. For the uninitiated a CP filler is used to fill bottles from a keg under counter pressure to prevent foaming. You must have a source of CO2 and a keg of beer to use one of these gadgets. The CP filler's body is made of food grade plastic, brass liquid in valve and two hand triggered needle valves for CO2 input and foam output. The CP filler fills any size bottle, although I have only used it for 12 oz bottles. The unit worked as advertised, ie it CP filled bottles. The foam out valve, with a hose attached, really cuts down on the mess when using one of these gadgets. You just direct the hose into a bottle or down the sink drain as I did. The unit is made of high quality parts and manufactured to a very high standard. I have seen other CP fillers that cost much, much more and don't work as well. It is advertised in the back of Zymurgy and soon to be reviewed in an upcoming issue of Zymurgy. I was very satisfied with the unit. It can be obtained from Benjamin Machine Products, 1121 Doker Unit #7, Modesto, Ca. 95351 for $49.95 + $5 shipping and handling. The unit comes without hoses and Tee for hookup to CO2 tank. I have no interest in this company, only a satisfied user of their product. Bob Jones Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 92 15:11:58 EST From: palladin at muscle.trincoll.edu Subject: Wort Chillers References Any good references on wort chillers? i.e. immersion vs. counter-flow. I would especially like those that go into detail on the heat transfer issues involved (read: the geekier the better). Thanks in advance, Joe Palladino Trinity College Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 92 15:16:42 CST From: ssi!mtd at uunet.UU.NET (Michael T. Daly) Subject: Taxonomy A proposed taxonomy for breweries: Brewery BudMiolob, Coors, etc. Milli-Brewery Schells, Leinenkugles, etc. -- small regional breweries Micro-Brewery Under 3000 bbls (legal definition?) Nano-Brewery Non-comercial brewery making more than 200 gal/year (These shouldn't really exist right?) Pico-Brewery Brewery making between 31 and 200 gal/year Femto-Brewery Less than 1 bbl (31 gal)/year production So, where do the brewpubs fit? Micros? How about Sierra Nevada? Milli? Mike (Black Swan Femto-brewery, Eau Claire, WI.) Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 92 13:39 CST From: arf at ddsw1.mcs.com (Jack Schmidling) Subject: Hop, propane To: Homebrew Digest Fm: Jack Schmidling ------------------------------ Date: Tue, 25 Feb 92 09:25:22 EST From: tix!roman at uunet.UU.NET (Daniel Roman) Subject: Hop growing >I had a terrible experience last year attempting to grow hops. I bought some cuttings from an outfit in Oregon and when they arrived by UPS ground I immediately opened the box and stuck them in the ground. They looked kind of dried out and I was not relaxing. I waited weeks and nothing. I finally dug them up and all four were dead. Alternate Garden Supply sells hops plants growing in peat pots. They are about $6 ea but leave no doubt as to their vigor. I bought two Chinooks a couple of months ago and they grew so vigorously on the windowsill that I started pruning them and sprouting the cut ends. I now have about 10 plants ready for planting in Spring. For more info... AGS (708) 885 8282 (near Chicago) From: akcs.chrisc at vpnet.chi.il.us (chris campanelli) Subject: Electric Stoves & Propane >Hate 'em! I'd throw mine in Lake Michigan if I could lift the damn thing. I experienced similar problems: waiting for boils, discolored stainless pots, scorched wort rings. I purchased a Bruheat Boiler and found it was slower than my stove and the heating element kept encrusting itself due to my hard water. I finally decided to bite the bullet and go propane. I do not understand the binary logic here. Why does everyone who takes brewing out of the kitchen plunge into propane? A few pipe fittings and some plastic hose will bring NG just about anywhere. One can make a burner for next to nothing out of pipe fitting and fire bricks. I am not much at ascii drawings so let me try describing one in words. Start with two, 10 in lengths of 2 in pipe with a T between them. The side of the T gets reducers, a shutoff valve and a barb fitting to the gas line. On one end of the 2 in section, mount a small muffin fan any way convenient. The other end is the "burner" that is poked into a little "house" made from fire bricks. Getting it to work is simply a process of finding the proper air/gas mixture. That is the LCD with lots of refinements possible. > Eventually I will get around to using the house gas line to eliminate tank exchanges. Oops. You see the light but I do not understand why you didn't start there in the first place. From: eisen at Kopf.HQ.Ileaf.COM(Carl West > What causes a hop plant to set blossoms? Is it : The length of the vine? There are many factors that cause plants to flower. In the case of hops, it is most likely, the photoperiod, assuming a reasonable amouunt of vigorous vegative growth. Most people think that apples, for example, don't do well in the tropics because of the heat but it is simply that, the daylight hours must exceed the night time hours by a very specific amount to trigger flowering and this does not happen near the equator. As hops is a perennial, there is no magic point when it can be considered to be mature and further considering that it flowers every year at the same time in the seasons, I vote for photoperiod. Simulate the photoperiod of Fall, and it might just flower. js Return to table of contents
Date: Thursday, 27 February 1992 8:51pm ET From: joshua.grosse at amail.amdahl.com Subject: Miller on Trub, O2, and Fusel Alcohol I went back to my Miller to try to figure out WHY he recommends leaving trub behind, and what it had to do with oxygen, and what caused fusel production. For brevity, I'll paraphase from his chapter on fermentation. 1) Oxygen is used during respiration to synthesize sterols and other complex fatty substances that make up the cell wall and other structures. The limiting factor in yeast growth is either amino acid or oxygen, usually the latter. Yeast can grow without oxygen if the wort is rich in sterols and unsaturated fatty compounds. Trub contains a lot of these. 2) Fusels are formed when amino acids are are broken down into keto acids, then aldehydes and then alcohols. High temperature fermentations encourage this. Esters are formed by combining these alcohols with fatty acids, which is why warmer temperatures encourage esters. More fusels to combine with fatty acids mean more esters. Esters will only be formed after all the oxygen is used up, because if oxygen is present the fatty acids build up sterols instead. The more aeration, the less esters. - ---- In his section on procedural practices, he differentiates between commercial and home procedures. But in re-reading this, I now understand a little more. He recommends: Pitching yeast as soon as the wort is at pitching temperature. Then, he suggests racking within about 8 hours to get the wort off the trub. The reasoning is that during respiration, the trub is good for helping to build cell walls and other cell material. After that, the excess protein content of the trub will build fusel alcohols by the breakdown of the amino acids. If you remove the trub before pitching, you lose out on good yeast cell building material. And, if you wait a few hours (like *I* do) for the trub to settle before pitching, you also risk infection. I'm going to change my procedure to match his recommendation on my next batch. - ----------------------------------------------------------------- Josh Grosse jdg00 at amail.amdahl.com Amdahl Corp. 313-358-4440 Southfield, Michigan Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #833, 02/28/92