HOMEBREW Digest #943 Fri 07 August 1992

Digest #942 Digest #944

		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  Re : Cold Break Temperature (Conn Copas)
  Re : British v Other pale malted grains (Conn Copas)
  Re : MASHOUT v.s. SPARGING (Conn Copas)
  Scottish Beers (Diarmuid Quinn)
  Re : Carbonation (Conn Copas)
  lots of things (Russ Gelinas)
  whats best for storing homegrown hops? ("John L. Isenhour")
  cold break temperature (mcnally)
  Harvesting hops (Ed Westemeier)
  Re: Why Mash Out? (Norm Pyle)
  Blue copper flakes in California homes (BOB JONES)
  Styrofoam rumors (Jacob Galley)
  Priming with DME (sbsgrad)
  comments on the maltmill (Sheridan J. Adams)
  vienna and munich (towns, not malts!) (Tony Babinec)
  Re: Why mash out?/Zapap lauter tun (korz)
  london-area pubs (Tony Babinec)
  AutoMash(tm) (John E. Greene)
  Yeast growth rates (Bob_Konigsberg)
  Re: Sparging (korz)
  Prime Beer Head (Guy D. McConnell)
  Let's get our data straight! (Jeff Frane)
  Yeast Reproduction ("CMD 2NDLT ALBERT W. TAYLOR ")

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 11:56:33 BST From: Conn Copas <C.V.Copas at lut.ac.uk> Subject: Re : Cold Break Temperature My experience is that rapid cooling from 70C down to 35C is most crucial for achieving a cold break. Caveat : I don't serve any brew colder than 13C. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 12:59:19 BST From: Conn Copas <C.V.Copas at lut.ac.uk> Subject: Re : British v Other pale malted grains > So what does the HBD think? My contention is that Australian (and US, as > far as I can tell) pale malted grains are not suitable for making authentic > British ales, unless they can be slightly darkened somehow. I worry, though, > what this may do to their ability to supply fermentable sugars. Last time I was brewing in Australia (about 2 1/2 years ago), I had the opposite experience. The malt available from homebrew shops was of anonymous origin and not even labelled as 'pale' or 'lager'. It's extract value was standard, around 30/gall, but it seemed to me to be more kilned than British pale malt. On both taste and colour grounds, I used to limit the contribution of the malt to an SG of around 40 when attempting to replicate (in my misguided fashion) the local brew. Using higher proportions of malt used to result in something resembling a Scotch heavy, which I find hard to replicate here. I suspect this accounts for the frequent classifying of Australian commercial brews as 'sweet lagers' (these have no resemblance to the products brewed under licence in Britain). I found the malt to be temperamental regarding chill haze and astringency, so it probably resembles US 6 row in that respect. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 12:29:49 BST From: Conn Copas <C.V.Copas at lut.ac.uk> Subject: Re : MASHOUT v.s. SPARGING > Other than the publicity from a very popular book for the bucket approach, it > is hard to understand why so many brewers have opted away from kettle > mashing. You need a kettle anyway and in this simple and (in my opinion) > superior approach, the transition from extract to all-grain becomes learning > the process instead of collecting a bunch of equipment. > > js Couldn't agree more that the facility for step mashing is useful if one wishes to make a wide variety of brews and/or wishes to mash out. However, I have reservations about systems in which heat is applied directly to the mash, and that includes stove-top mashing and buckets with heating elements. My experience is that these systems give some of the character of a decoction mash and thus result in a relatively dextrinous wort, presumably because beta amylase doesn't survive the direct heating very well. Most of the time I brew bitters and stouts and so this situation is fine, but there are exceptions. Eg, when brewing barley wine or belgian ale I usually want the terminal gravity to be less than 1/4 of the original. I also make an old ale which consists of about 1/3 crystal malt, which once again requires special treatment. IMHO, the ultimate in versatility is the "mash tun in a hot water bath" system. My tun consists of a stainless steel milk urn, sitting on blocks in a plastic bin fixed with a heating element. Oddly enough, I'd gladly swap the tun for something made of a lighter weight, more conductive metal. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 10:55:17 GMT From: Diarmuid Quinn <diarmuid at s3dub.ie> Subject: Scottish Beers I am planning a trip to Scotland soon, during which I expect to drink a few pints! In order to do it properly I will need recommendations. Can anybody out there supply me with a list of Scottish beers, particularly the good ones. Ta. Diarmuid Quinn (diarmuid at s3dub.ie) Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 9:58:55 EDT From: Joe Rolfe <jdr at wang.com> Subject: FLAVOUR/ODOR IN ORINGS hi all, all this talk about orings is making me hungry :} seriously thou, i have a bunch of kegs, bought used. the rings are not new (but i bought new one anyway). i scrubbed the hell out of the kegs with an acid (Diversey - Attitude - standard disclaimer) which usually takes everything off stainless. replaced one oring and left a coke oring on another, sealed added CO2 (mainly for pressure check) and left them for weeks side by side. when i went to filling them up the coke can had a distinct odor the other can did not. tried this experiment again with other cans that seemingly smelled different (different soda in'em). the ones i did not change the orings on had a sweet odor others were generally odor free. for what it is worth - i have a friend who has probably 30 times the amount of kegs i have, he never did any changing, but after one use the oring has a beer smell to it. he turns his kegs over fairly regular. so to make a point - if the orings smell, i feel it will get into the beer. if this bothers you - try soaking the orings in cheap beer (BUD) for a couple of weeks or more. i had tried boiling, B_BRITE, other Diversey products, bleach, tsp, iodine, nothing seems to remove the odor. just a couple of cents worth - no flaming directed at anyone :} joe rolfe Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 14:44:51 BST From: Conn Copas <C.V.Copas at lut.ac.uk> Subject: Re : Carbonation > I just thought of another situation: the size of the bubbles, however > I haven't quite figured out how to control bubble size. Some have > said (here in the HBD) that priming with malt extract in stead of > corn sugar gives finer carbonation (smaller bubbles), but I can't > see how this could be (does someone have an explanation?). I suspect > that the bubble size has to do with surface tension and the body of the > beer (this may be where the mouthfeel brings it all together). Comments? > > Al. There was some intersting traffic on this issue in RCB prior to and on 21 Feb 92. Here's an extract : >From "The Winemaker's Dictionary": "Ethyl Pyrocarbonate is an unstable compound formed when bottle fermentation ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^ occures. It is formed by the joining of alcohol and carbon dioxide. On opening the bottle the rate of loss of carbon dioxide (or the rate of bubble formation) is inversely proportional to the concentration of ethyl pyrocarbonate. Thus a good sparkling wine retains its 'fizz' for a long time because the bubbles can only form as the decomposition of ethyl pyrocarbonate > takes place." > This was basically an argument for natural conditioning over forced conditioning. FWIW, I can't detect any differences between priming with sucrose, extract or wort, at least with ales matured at cellar temperature. I can detect large differences between bottle conditioned beers and those draught brews which have been dispensed through an agitator. The latter are typically milky at first and take around 1 minute to clear, and have a characteristic creamy mouthfeel which bites much less on the tongue. This can also be simulated successfully using nitrogen as an artificial conditioning gas. I arrived in the home town of Bellhaven beers, in Scotland, recently, and was disappointed that there wasn't a handpump in sight. I was about ready to inform the local publicans that I had idealogical objections to keg beer, but it turns out that Bellhaven have gone down the Guinness route and are experimenting with nitrogen. These brews were vastly superior to their keg beers in terms of head retention, mouthfeel, and general freshness. Whether they were pasteurised or filtered, I couldn't determine. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 1992 11:03:02 -0400 (EDT) From: R_GELINAS at UNHH.UNH.EDU (Russ Gelinas) Subject: lots of things For Alan E: I understand there to be *2* temps of major cold break production. The one at 65 degF produces more than the one at the higher temp (not sure just what that temp is.). The two temps are not magic numbers though, they are just the approximate temps of maximum break production along a range of temps at which break production occurs. Re. mash-out: mashing is a continuum, with the mash reacting differently at the various temps. Starches/sugars will be converted at a range of temps, from the 140's (or lower?) right up to the temp at which the conversion enzymes are denatured, that is, until they are chemically (physically?) changed so that they cannot do the conversion anymore. A rest of 10-15 minutes at 170+ degF is usually considered sufficient to denature the majority of the enzymes and "stop the conversion". I'll leave it to the chemists to tell us just what happens at that temp., but suffice it to say that a few degrees *can* make a difference with what's happening with the mash. Depending on your mashing temp. and time schedule, not mashing-out can result in a dry (as in not sweet) beer. I'd suggest reading Papazian/Miller/Noonan/Fix for a full description of the chemistry, but basically, mashing involves not only starch->sugar, but also big sugars->smaller sugars. Mashing-out can help retain some of the larger sugars, usually to the benefit of the final beer(drinker). Another (the main?) benefit of mashing out is to help the sparge run smoothly. Phil: Contrary to what your friend might have said, there is quite a bit of possibly beer-spoiling life in tap water. My wife is an aquatic biologist; I've seen the numbers. It varies considerably, depending on source, season, time of day,..... If you are on a reasonably good city water supply and are pitching a good supply of yeast, I doubt your infection problems are coming from the tap water rinse, but it is possible. A way to check, I suppose, is to pour boiling tap water into a clean bucket and use that for rinsing. You said you added distilled water. Are you sure that it's *distilled*? Plain *bottled* water can still contain bacteria. Truly distilled should be ok. If you're filling your own bottle, the water may get infected at that time. Other places to check are your bottles, and any tubing. Jack: the Zapap (from Papazian, backwards) is a bucket with a zillion holes inside another bucket with just one outflow hole. The mash goes into the holey bucket, as does the sparge water, and the wort flows into the second bucket underneath, and out the outflow hole. It works, but it's tedious. I'm pretty pleased with my cooler/sparge setup. Finally, D oringC, if you've got a beef with Kinney, take if off the list. Russ Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 06 Aug 1992 09:02:15 CDT From: "John L. Isenhour" <isenhour at lambic.fnal.gov> Subject: whats best for storing homegrown hops? Whats the best way to store homegrown hops? Should I press them into a brick? For storage of freshhops I have been using the thick shiny (mylar?) plastic bags that had laser cartridges in them, I air them out for a few days and wire tie the regular gallon ziplock bag inside it. -The Hopdevil (making lambic-style this weekend!) Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 06 Aug 92 08:19:08 -0700 From: mcnally at wsl.dec.com Subject: cold break temperature In Dave Miller's book, it is pointed out that break material forms as you chill the beer all the way down to freezing. Indeed, "chill haze" is cold break. Thus, if you chill the beer as much as possible before fermentation, you cause the break proteins to coagulate and drop out before the beer gets to the bottle. If I had a good refrigerator for brewing, I'd rack into a carboy after as good a chill as I could get with my immersion chiller, then stick it in the fridge and drop the temperature as much as possible overnight. After pitching, I'd of course let it warm up; the yeast will get going before any undesirable organisms. _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- Mike McNally mcnally at wsl.dec.com Digital Equipment Corporation Western Software Lab Return to table of contents
Date: 06 Aug 1992 10:00:48 -0400 (EDT) From: homebrew at tso.uc.EDU (Ed Westemeier) Subject: Harvesting hops In response to recent questions, here are my thoughts on harvesting hops (I live in Cincinnati, about 39 degrees latitude): I started harvesting my Cascade about ten days ago, and will continue harvesting for another month at least. I started harvesting Hallertauer just a few days ago, and will continue for another month. Nothing to harvest yet on the Northern Brewer or Saaz vines (they don't get as much sun as the others). I judge readiness to pick by the feel of the cones. When they begin to feel papery and springy, they are ready to pick. Before that, they feel moister and compress more readily. Whatever you do, don't wait for them to turn brown. If you're still not sure after feeling them, grab one and manipulate the leaves to look inside. If you see an abundance of yellow lupulin glands, it's ready to pick. Size is really variable. The first clue to readiness is probably the elongation of cones. I have found that even when adjacent cones are very different (one long and pointed, the next small and rounded), they can both be ready. If one or two cones is ready, you can safely assume that all the cones on that lateral and the opposing lateral are also ready. After harvesting, I spread the cones out on a piece of nylon screening (the kind you use to repair window screens) in the basement. After a week or two, they are fully dried. Then I weigh them and put them in plastic sandwich bags, half an ounce to the bag. These bags are then put in on-gallon size ziplock bags. I fill the big bags with CO2, close them tightly and store them in the freezer. The main advantage of drying hops before using them is to standardize the alpha acid content in a given quantity. Some major brewers claim that storage improves hops (especially the noble ones), but I doubt if the homebrewer would find it worthwhile unless you're brewing lambics. - --Ed Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 08:19:34 MDT From: pyle at intellistor.com (Norm Pyle) Subject: Re: Why Mash Out? rush at xanadu.llnl.gov (Alan Edwards) writes: >Steve Hamburg writes (in HBD #941): >| Simply put, mash-out is the final act of mashing. By boosting the heat of >| your mash to 170-175F and holding for about five minutes, you effectively end >| starch conversion. > >NOVICE ALERT! > >I have a question. If the goal of mashing is to convert all starch into >sugar, then why do you need to halt this process? If mashing is complete, >and there is no starch left, aren't the enzymes just sitting there doing >nothing anyway? Is there something else going on? > I think what Steve meant to say was, "you effectively end enzyme activity." Presumably, starch conversion is already done at this point. Enzymes are still converting non-fermentable sugars (dextrins) into fermentable sugars (maltose), though. Both types of sugar are desirable in the wort, the relative amounts depending on the desired style. Mash-out stops this enzyme activity at the (presumably) desired point in time. Norm Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 1992 08:40 PDT From: BOB JONES <BJONES at NOVAX.llnl.gov> Subject: Blue copper flakes in California homes I live close to a community of new homes that has mysteriously had problems with blue water. All these homes have copper pipes. The builder, water supply company and MANY experts have been stumped on what causes this problem. They all agree that these people should not drink their water. Now these people gave approx. $350-$400k for these homes (it is Calif). They are VERY upset! The builder has been supplying them with bootled water for drinking and cooking for at least 2 years now. All sorts of explanations have been proposed. Some say the water is TOO pure, not having enough calcium to coat the copper. Some say its a reaction with the residue of the flux used to solder the pipes together. Some say its electric currents flowing in improperly grounding mains causing electrolysis. At any rate, the blue water causes the people to feel very ill if they drink the water. I would suggest brewers with blue flakes in their coolers should take steps to prevent them. The discussions on the WHYs can continue. Bob Jones Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 11:08:22 CDT From: Jacob Galley <gal2 at midway.uchicago.edu> Subject: Styrofoam rumors > From: jlf at palm.cray.com (John Freeman) > Subject: mashing in styrofoam > > I'm not a chemist, but I don't think styrofoam reacts with water > in any way. Me either, but I thought it was pretty certain that when a styrofoam container contained hot liquid, it releases some carcinogen into the liquid. (Disclaimer: this is hearsay.) Jake. Reinheitsgebot <-- "Keep your laws off my beer!" <-- gal2 at midway.uchicago.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 16:17:31 GMT From: sbsgrad%sdph.span at Sdsc.Edu Subject: Priming with DME From: Steve Slade <sslade at ucsd.edu> Date sent: 6-AUG-1992 08:56:56 PT Sam Israelit writes: >I just opened the first bottle of my version of the TCJoHB Maerzen and it >has almost no head!!! I get about an 1/8 of an inch, but this rapidly >disappears. Bummer . . . I believe the culprit is the way I primed. In the >past I have used corn sugar. Armed with my new HBD knowledge, I decided to >prime with dry malt extract. I used 1.25 cups of boiled in about 2 cups of >water. I think the problem is that I didn't pack the DME into the measuring >cup. I treated it kindof like flour when I am making bread (which also >occaisionally doesn't work!) so don't thin that I got enough DME for a >proper prime. My question is, does anyone know the weight of DME that they >use for priming? Is this a completely wrong idea? Is there something else I >am doing wrong (related to this topic since there are probably numerous >things that would cause a purist to cringe)? The maerzen tastes great, but >there just isn't much head to it at all. Any comments would be appreciated Sounds to me like you used enough DME for priming a 5 gallon batch. My experience is that the size of the bubbles and head retention in general are greatly influenced by the degree of maturity of the beer. Since this beer is a Maerzen, I assume it's been lagered for some period of time. The relevant questions are 1) Did you leave it at room temp for a week after priming to let the yeast go to it before they go dormant during lagering? and 2) How long has it been aged? Ales primed with DME may take 4-5 weeks to develop proper carbonation at room temp. Having no experience with making lagers I can't say whether this extended room temp "rest" is also required before cold-aging a lager primed with DME. Anyone else know? On the general question of DME vs. corn sugar, Dave Miller says corn sugar ferments quickly, so that the CO2 first goes into the head space in the bottle, then is forced into the beer by presure. With DME or wort priming, the fermentation is much slower, and the CO2 stays in solution as it is produced. However, once the CO2 is in solution (say 2 weeks for corn sugar, 4 weeks for DME) it knows not from whence it came. The size of the bubbles and the head retention from properly aged batches differing only in their priming should be the same. For better head retention try the famous "heading agent" or 1/4 cup flaked barley. Steve Slade reply to: sbsgrad%sdph.span at sdsc.edu "Jesus can't watch out for everyone, so you'd best watch out for yourself. And the devil can make friends with everyone, so you'd best be like'n yourself." - The Rave Ups - Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 1992 11:23:43 -0500 From: sja at snoid.cray.com (Sheridan J. Adams) Subject: comments on the maltmill Greetings, True to his word, Jack sent the MALTMILL. I received it this past Friday and was able to try it out Sunday. As I told Jack, I was an extract brewer exclusively until this spring when I started using specialty grains. The only comment I will make to the digest is that it beats the pants off of a rolling pin. If anyone wants other comments send me email. About a year ago there was some talk about using a pressure cooker to brew beer in. I asked if the higher temperature could hurt the beer and not hearing any answer either way I tried it. I have not seen any problems that I can pin on the temperature. It does have a couple of advantages, for one I don't get any boilovers. Also I am able to cool it off by putting the kettle in a sink of cold water and since it is still relatively well sealed I needn't worry about an airborne infection invading it. There is the problem of adding ingredients once the pressure is on. One can find a way around that if they realy want to. - -- The leading cause of cancer in laboratory rats is research. Sheridan J. Adams sja at grog.cray.com (612) 683-3030 Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 11:45:16 CDT From: tony at spss.com (Tony Babinec) Subject: vienna and munich (towns, not malts!) I tried sending this to doug and it bounced, so here it is. Douglas: I had the good fortune to visit Vienna & Munich in 1984. While my "beer consciousness" then was not what it is now, I did try the beer. Aside from beer, you and your wife are visiting two great cities and a beautiful part of Europe. Central Vienna is ringed by the RingStrasse. You'll find all sorts of museums and municipal buildings along that street, and I highly recommend walking. The central landmark in Vienna is St. Stephan's. Near the church is the intersection of Kartnerstrasse and Graben. Karntnerstrasse is one of the great commercial streets in the world, so be sure to do some window-shopping as well as stops for coffee and pastry. You might see whether there will be any musical performances at the Staatsoper or Volksoper, although depending on the timing, the musical action might be at Salzburg. Armed with a few guidebooks, you should be able to find dwellings where Mozart, Haydn, Brahms, Schubert, etc., lived. So far as beer goes, seek out the Reichenberger Griechenbeisl at Fleischmarkt 11. This is a very old house with bay windows, several storeys, many small vaulted rooms, and "the well-known famous pilsner beer" (meaning Pilsner Urquell). Aside from that, you'll spot many restaurants and "cellars" at which you can eat and drink. Also, look for this season's newly released young wine, termed "sturm." You might see signs in the windows of restaurants and bars announcing "Sturm ist das!" A trip by car or tram to the nearby Vienna Woods and hills will lead you to the wine country. You'll find restaurants where you can sit, eat, and have the wine. You'll also find walking trails if you are so inclined. The wine village of Heiligenstadt (sp?) has the home at which Beethoven stayed when he began his great creative period in the early 1800s. Munich, of course, is home to a half-dozen brewers, and you'll also spot other beers in the town. Each brewery runs a beer hall and a separate restaurant at which their beer is served. Central Munich is closed to car traffic and is a large pedestrian mall. It's easy to find the Hofbrauhaus in one of the plazas. I also recall a bar call the Bier Museum that had a good selection of beers. As reported in HBD, you'll see the way the Germans serve pilsner, namely, squirt some in the glass, let it sit, squirt some more, etc. Evidently, the pilsner pour gives the beer the desired mouthfeel. Also, you must have Weisswurst, mustard, pretzel, and beer before Noon. The Munich beers are: Augustiner, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbrau, Lowenbrau, Paulaner, and Spaten. You might also spot Ayinger. I don't have it with me, but Michael Jackson's Pocket Guide to Beers is a good reference to Munich, and you really ought to carry it on your trip. Aside from beer, Munich has fine churches and museums, and an outdoor market in the town center. Lastly, take notes and tell us about the trip when you return! Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 11:43 CDT From: korz at ihpubj.att.com Subject: Re: Why mash out?/Zapap lauter tun Alan writes: >Steve Hamburg writes (in HBD #941): > >| Simply put, mash-out is the final act of mashing. By boosting the heat of >| your mash to 170-175F and holding for about five minutes, you effectively end >| starch conversion. > >I have a question. If the goal of mashing is to convert all starch into >sugar, then why do you need to halt this process? If mashing is complete, >and there is no starch left, aren't the enzymes just sitting there doing >nothing anyway? Is there something else going on? I'm pretty sure that Steve meant "conversion" in general. Hopefully, when you begin the mash-out, all your starch has been converted at least to dextrines. If you want a dextrinous wort, you want to stop the conversion of dextrines to simple sugars. You're right about the starch, though, you really do want to convert all the starch, but not always do you want all your wort's sugars to be glucose (that, by the way would be a wort destined to be dry beer). Then js writes: >The other, and probably more popular method among homebrewers, is the (for >lack of a better term) plastic bucket system. I really don't know what this >is called but have seen numerous references to zapp and would like someone >else to help here. I have never used this system but understand it to be >adding hot water to grain in a bucket and after a prescribed period of time, >it is transferred to another bucket with a false bottom or grain bag and hot >water is run through this for sparging. Some calculation and planning must >be done to assure that the mash arrives at the right tempereature when the >water and grain are mixed and substantial insulation is required to maintian >the temperature through the process. Little can be done to adjust it once >underway. The Zapap Lauter Tun is just that, a lauter tun and has no ties to whatever method of mashing you use. The Zapap tun is from Charlie's book (those familiar with Harry Caray will realize the source of the name sooner) in which Charlie describes several mashing methods. I've built a Zapap and have purchased a sparging bag, but have not done a direct comparison yet. I plan to first build a slotted-tube-in-cooler lauter tun and then compare all three. >>How could it take 2 hr to run water sparge water through your grain bed >>unless the sparge was stuck (set mash?). >In most cases, it is by choice. The ghurus claim that the longer it takes, >the better the extract efficiency. This is another debatable point but I >suspect that in some systems, such as the grain bag approach, there is no way >to rush the job. In the kettle, it will run off as fast as it can get >through the spigot. I have to adjust the spigot to get the appropriate flow >rate. I also sparge with boiling water to assure that the temperature >remains in an acceptable range. I believe that noone has said that "the longer [the sparge] takes, the better the extract efficiency." Rather, all experts agree that *TOO FAST* a sparge will lower efficiency. There is a happy medium, which can be reduced by keeping the grain as close to 170F as possible, throughout the sparge. >Other than the publicity from a very popular book for the bucket approach, it >is hard to understand why so many brewers have opted away from kettle >mashing. You need a kettle anyway and in this simple and (in my opinion) >superior approach, the transition from extract to all-grain becomes learning >the process instead of collecting a bunch of equipment. As I've noted earlier, Charlie's book, "The New Complete Joy of Home Brewing," describes both single-step infusion and step ("temperature-controlled" or "upward-infusion") mashing. He also very-basically describes decoction mashing and refers the reader to Greg Noonan's book, "Brewing Lager Beer." You can build a Zapap Lauter tun for under a dollar, so your argument about "collecting a bunch of equipment" is full of holes (pun intended). You can get two 5 or 10 gallon HDPE buckets free from a local bakery or restaurant and rather than using a valve (which would be better) you can use a length of hose and a plastic, adjustable hose (pincher) clamp. If you bought Charlie's book, Jack, I'll bet you could learn a lot. Back to kettle mashing for a second. If you've got a non-removable false bottom, you cannot stir the liquid that is closest to the heat and it would seem to me that Jack's pipe-and-windowscreen kettle would also make stirring at the very bottom of the kettle inconvenient, at the least. Both these cases are invitations for scorching both the mash and the wort. Al. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 11:46:24 CDT From: tony at spss.com (Tony Babinec) Subject: london-area pubs A bit of background which you might already know: English pubs are either "tied" (attached) to one of the brewers or "free." You want to find a "free house" that features different beers from different brewers. On the other hand, a tied house is fun when you can sample two or more beers from the same brewer and the brewer is one of the independents such as Fuller's or Young's. Speaking of which, the Young's brewery is in Wandsworth and the Fuller's brewery is in Chiswick, both on the west side of town. I visited Wandsworth, which I recall being within walking distance of the Clapham Junction rail station. You'll find several Young's pubs there. I didn't tour the brewery, but those who have say it's a terrific tour. At a Young's pub, sample the Ordinary and the Special bitters. At a Fuller's pub, go for the Chiswick Bitter and the ESB! Above all, look for cask-conditioned real ale served from the hand pull tap. Most pubs have a last call about 10:45 and close at 11. So, in order to use your time wisely, you might either try to have a bit of food at a pub, or quaff ales all evening and then look for a place to eat around closing time. You can find ales at the restaurants, and there are also some all-night dance clubs that serve ale. Michael Jackson's Pocket Guide recommends: The Lamb at 94 Lamb's Conduit St, Bloomsbury--Young's pub Star Tavern at 6 Belgrave Mews West, Belgravia--Fuller's pub The Sun on Lamb's Conduit St.--wide range of out-of-town ales any of the Firkin chain, for example, Frog and Firkin, 41 Tavistock Crescent--their own beers, including Dogbolter The Orange, 37 Pimlico Rd--try the Porter! The Greyhound, 151 Greyhound Lane, Streatham Common I had the good fortune to go to London for business a couple of years ago. My colleagues put together a pub crawl that starts at the Thames near the center of London and visits pubs in Chelsea and Belgravia. You'll notice a number of the above pubs listed below. You might not want to do the whole thing in one crawl! Ferret & Firkin, Lotts Road, Chelsea--own beer Cross Keys, Lawrence Street, Chelsea--Courage (try Director's) Orange Brewery, 37 Pimlico St, Pimlico--own beer Antelope, Eaton Terrace, Belgravia--Benskins Star, Belgrave Mews, Belgravia--Fullers Nags Head, 53 Kinnerton Street, Belgravia--Benskins Grenadier, Wilton Row, Belgravia--Watneys Final advice--Get a map of London, and get the CAMRA Good Pub Guide, which you should find at better bookstores. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 10:00:34 PDT From: jeg at sangabriel.desktalk.com (John E. Greene) Subject: AutoMash(tm) >From all the mail I have been receiving about the AutoMash, I thought it would be worth-while posting the information about it here. Specifications: Grain Capacity: 5 - 11 lbs. Liquid Capacity: 18 qts. max. Mash Steps: 1 - 5 plus delay. Maximum Step Duration: 2hrs, 5 minute intervals. Maximum Delay: 12 hours, 15 minute intervals. Temperature Range: 40 - 180 F, accuracy +/- 2 degrees F. Power Requirements: 120 VAC, 60 Hz, 1500 Watts. Safety: over/under temp., over current, low water, all grounded construction. Made by: Scientific Brewing Systems 1125-B Arnold Drive, Suite 256 Martinez, CA 94553 (415) 376-6000 List price: $599.00 I am in no way connect to SBS other than a satisfied customer. When I first received the unit I had a few questions/concerns about it and called them. I had to leave a message but they called back shortly and were very friendly and helpful. - --john Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 10:01 PDT From: Bob_Konigsberg at 3mail.3com.com Subject: Yeast growth rates In hbd #942, John DeCarlo asks about yeast reproduction rates. According to Dr. Lewis of UC Davis, the reproduction cycle of yeast is about 120 minutes. In addition, the reproduction cycle of wort spoiling bacteria (he didn't specify particular ones) is about 20 minutes under similar conditions. This means that the wort spoilers can, in 24 hours (enough to let you not relax and worry), overwhelm the yeast and do their damage. The yeast do eventually finish up the job, but the beer is already trash at that point (Unless you LIKE lactic acid). All the more reason for a good starter. I recommend a 1 quart starter with a 2 to 3 day lead time on pitching. My friends and I then see lag times measured in single digit hours or less. Since I usually brew in the evening, I don't stay up to watch, but it's always busy in the morning. BobK Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 12:29 CDT From: korz at ihpubj.att.com Subject: Re: Sparging Larry writes: >In HBD #941 Al writes >>... >>You're right about the difference between mash-out and sparging. There are >>two reasons for mash-out that I can think of: 1) stopping conversion ... > >This is the conventional wisdom. There is no way a 10 min mash out at >170f is gonna stop conversion. I can name at least two local breweries >that MASH at 160-162f! (Thomas Kemper and Hales) and I suspect a lot >more around the PNW do as well. Another 8-10f isn't going to magically >kill the enzymes. Enzymes are the closest things to magic on earth, really, and they are proteins, so it's not surprising that 8 or 10F *could* denature them in a very short time. I'm only going by data from Fix, Papazian and Miller, but all three mention deactivating enzymes in the mash-out. Unfortunately, George and Charlie are a bit sketchy on the temperature at which Alpha-amylase (a-amylase) and Beta-amylase (b-amylase) really, denature, but Dave says that 5 minutes at 168F will "stop all enzyme activity positively." Now, I don't exactly agree with this, but we must consider the actions of these two most important enzymes. A-amylase breaks long chains of glucose molecules (starches) into dextrins (liquification or dextrinization). B-amylase produces glucose, maltose (two glucose molecules) and maltotriose (three glucose molecules) from the starch molecules (saccharification) but is limited when it hits a 1-6 link in the starch chain. A-amylase works best at warmer mash temperatures (149-153F) whereas b-amylase prefers lower temps (126-144) and according to Charlie, b-amylase will "become deactivated within 40-60 minutes at a temparature of 149F." Therefore, temperatures favoring b-amylase produce worts that are more fermentable and temps favoring a-amylase produce worts that are less fermentable (so, since I love beers that tempt you to spread them on toast, I can't wait to try Thomas Kemper and Hales beers during next years conference! -- BTW, the Winekeller Breweries here in metro Chicago, mash at 153F and their beers are like having sex in a canoe). What I was talking about in my post, was primarily refering to stopping conversion in the context of making highly-dextrinous worts, although I probably did not mention it (oops). From what I've read and experienced, 170F may not stop a-amylase from cutting a few more large dextrins (let's hope there's no starch left) into smaller ones, but will effectively stop the b-amylase from creating more fermentables from the remaining dextrins. Al. Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 13:02:17 CDT From: guy at mspe5.b11.ingr.com (Guy D. McConnell) Subject: Prime Beer Head Sam Israelit writes: > Subject: Beer Head and Priming > > I just opened the first bottle of my version of the TCJoHB Maerzen and it > has almost no head!!! . . . > I believe the culprit is the way I primed. ...I used 1.25 cups of (DME) > boiled in about 2 cups of water. How long has it been in the bottle? Beer carbonated with DME or gyle takes longer to develop carbonation. It is well worth the wait though. I usually find that about an extra week over what I was used to with corn sugar does the trick. This is, of course, only one brewer's opinion but I'm sure you will get many others. - -- Guy McConnell guy at mspe5.b11.ingr.com "Red Mountain Red goes to your head" Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 92 9:53:51 PDT From: gummitch at techbook.com (Jeff Frane) Subject: Let's get our data straight! > > Date: Wed, 5 Aug 92 09:54:35 PDT > From: rush at xanadu.llnl.gov (Alan Edwards) > Subject: Cold Break Temperature > > Al Korzonas writes (in HBD #941): > | In his talk on wort chillers at the Conference, Jeff Frane said the most > | enlightening (to me) fact of the whole conference: that cold break begins > | at 65F. Wow! > > Has anyone heard this statement made anywhere else? Anyone's experience > bear this one out? I have a VERY hard time believing that you need to > cool below 65F before you start getting cold break. > > Before I started using an immersion chiller, I had maybe half an inch of > break material in my primary fermenter. Now that I chill the wort down > to about 70F, I get at least three inches of cold break (after it settles > for a few hours). > > -Alan I'm sorry, I missed the posting in 941 (I was on vacation--yipee!), and have to note that I was misquoted by Al Korzonas. I just happen to have a copy of my presentation here; anyone who attended will tell you that I read certain parts verbatim and this is one: "The cold break--which consists of similar organic compounds--begins after the wort has been cooled below 60 degrees C (140 degrees F)." The problem is that Al heard "fahrenheit" when I said centigrade. Hence Alan's rightful confusion. > .------------------------------------. > Phil Miller writes: > > I've got a question that was prompted by something that was originally posted > on rec.crafts.brewing... > > In response to a question whether or not to boil all tap water that contacts > your brew slk6p at cc.usu.edu wrote: > > > Tap water (at least most taps) contain VERY few bacteria or fungi. You > > could hardly even find one at high magnification. > > Is the above statement true? and here's why I ask: > Several years ago, we at the Oregon Brew Crew had someone from the Water Bureau do a very interesting presentation for us, which confirmed my own experience with extract beers. According to this fellow, even the most thorough of water purification cannot guarantee a 100% kill of bacteria. This isn't a problem for drinking water, as there's no real opportunity for the bacteria population to increase -- in your glass or in your body. However, if you then introduce a few cells into an environment like fresh wort -- wonderful temperatures, lots of sugars -- then you can get plenty of bacteria. Nowadays, when I teach beginners I always urge them to boil _EVERYTHING_ (and in fact, a full wort boil is even better, for other reasons) that is going into the fermenter. The system I use calls for boiling 2-1/2 gallons or so a the day before brewing, cooling it down and adding it to the sterile carboy. The boiled, concentrated wort is added to that. > I'm a novice brewer with about 7 extract batches under my belt (or 'down > the hatch', I should say :-) I didn't really know what I was doing at first > (like I'm an expert now...), and so some flaws in my first beers escaped me > in the beginning. Having had the summer to sit back and think about things, > I realize that all my beers had the same funny, barely noticeable after-taste > (astringent and bitter, but not like hop bitterness). > > All my batches were cloudy and one batch that I liked so much that I set some > aside to savor over the summer developed into The Gusher Bottles From Hell*. > It doesn't take a rocket scientist to figure out that I had an infection > problem. > Good catch, really. You'd be surprised how many people continue to drink beer like this without understanding they have a problem! > I changed a lot of things going from batch 1 to 7 including: switching from > a plastic fermenter to a glass primary and secondary, started using a bottling > wand, going to the blow off method, the addition of a wort chiller, switching > from b-brite to bleach, switching from dry to liquid yeast, dry hopping... > Well, you get the picture. Basically, if I saw it discussed on this digest > twice, then I tried it at home ;-) > > The things that I kept the _same_ were 1) I rinsed all my equipment with tap > water after sanitizing and 2) I added 2 gallons of grocery store > fill-it-yourself distilled water to my 3 gallons of wort after the boil. > I figured that it's one or both of these things that's causing the infection. > Change them both, why don't you. If you're sanitizing with the right concentration of chlorine you shouldn't have to rinse at all, and you're pretty much defeating the purpose by throwing that water onto your sanitized surfaces -- try using boiled water if you feel a need to rinse. - --Jeff Frane Return to table of contents
Date: 6 Aug 92 14:15:00 EST From: "CMD 2NDLT ALBERT W. TAYLOR " <S94TAYLOR at usuhsb.ucc.usuhs.nnmc.navy.mil> Subject: Yeast Reproduction The question was asked how long does it take "before fermentation begins?" I think a point is being missed here. Fermentation begins as soon as the first yeast cell is capable of metabolizing sugar. That is as soon as it hits the wort (assuming rehydration). More accurately, it will begin when the yeast must shift to anaerobic metabolism, as soon as all the O2 is consumed. You won't see the results of fermentation until the wort has become saturated with CO2. I have seen CO2 evolving as soon as 4 hours after pitching, after a very large pitching rate. Is it just me, or did everyone get a truncated HBD on 6 August? Will someone please send me the complete issue? Thanks! Al Taylor Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #943, 08/07/92