HOMEBREW Digest #2962 Wed 24 February 1999

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		Digest Janitor: janitor@hbd.org
		Many thanks to the Observer & Eccentric Newspapers of 
		Livonia, Michigan for sponsoring the Homebrew Digest.
				URL: http://www.oeonline.com

  oat malt report and recipes (Jeff Renner)
  re: grain bag lauter tuns ("Curt Abert")
  Re: oat malt report and recipes (Jeff Renner)
  Pump operation questions ("Dana H. Edgell")
  Two models of vacuum evaporation of alcohol ("S. Wesley")
  cleaning stainless (Alan McKay)
  Yeast from bottles (Petr Otahal)
  Re: Computer Controlled brewing (Joe Stone)
  Brewery Automation Web Article (Ken Schwartz)
  The Jethro Gump Report-Part 1 ("Rob Moline")
  The Jethro Gump Report-Part 2 ("Rob Moline")
  Philly Competition March 20, 1999 (birman)
  Automatic Mill, was Re: Motors for Malt Mill (Doug Roberts)
  This is gyle! (Alan McKay)
  small bottles? (John Herman)
  Milling Grains (Jack Schmidling)
  iodophor film (Paul Dey)
  Lautering Temperature ("Fred L. Johnson")
  Re: Fake decoction/ Weissheimer haze ? (Paul Shick)
  Re: Computer Controlled Brewing ("Peter J. Calinski")
  Corny Keg Thread Size/Type (chatgros)
  Drunk Monk Challenge - Second Notice!! ("Formanek, Joe")

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 14:29:25 -0500 From: Jeff Renner <nerenner at umich.edu> Subject: oat malt report and recipes An update on this rare and overlooked ingredient: My oat malt brown ale (1.051, 30 IBU, see recipe at end) has really come into form at nine weeks now. The 11% malted oats really do make a distinctive flavor and almost oily mouthfeel contribution, which is much more evident in the midieval Domesday Ale (50% home malted oats, 24% malted wheat, 24% malted barley, 2% chocolate, first runnings only, O.G. 1.096, no hops, no bottle priming), now bottle aging for the millenium. The brown ale took some time to clear and is still slightly hazy, probably because of the beta glucans. The Domesday Ale is still very hazy (probably home malted oats are worse than commercial?), but in the 12th C, ale was drunk from opaque vessels, so who cares. This ale is thick! About 10W40, I'd guess. Sweet, still, not very complex this young, some diacetyl and caramel, chocolate and oat malt aroma and flavor. We'll see how it is after a year in the bottle. The only maltster I know of that malts oats is Thomas Fawcett and Sons http://www.fawcett-maltsters.co.uk/welcom.htm . The importer for Fawcett is Claude Bechard, North Country Malt Supply, 12 Stewart St, PO Box 665, Rouses Point, NY, 12979, 518-297-2604 (yada, yada). I was very pleased with the quality of this apparently unique malt, and wish I'd had it for the Domesday Ale. Malted oats would seem to be an ideal ingredient for an English or Scottish stout. Here the haze doesn't matter. The only commercial malted oat brew I am aware of is Maclays Oat Malt Stout, which is available in the U.S., although I haven't tried it. (Arcadian of Battle Creek, MI has an oatmalt stout, but it is made with flakes, and it is unclear to me after email exchange with the English maltster that they are definitely malted. They definitely are non-diastatic.) Protz's _Real Ale Almanac_ has this about Maclay's: 1.045 OG, ABV 4.5%, 50 deg. color EBC [roughly 25L], 35 IBU. 70% Marris Otter pale ale malt, 22% malted oats, 6% roast barley, 2% chocolate; Fuggles whole hops. He calls it a "Luscious, silky stout based on an 1895 recipe." I hope someone will try brewing this this winter (I have too many others planned). I don't know what yeast Maclay's uses, but any of the more characterful British ones would do well, I'd think. I like Strathcona (see below). Anyone who brews this please report back. Here is the outline of the brown ale: For *7.75* gallons, 1/4 bbl: Untreated temp. hard Michigan well water; 9 lbs. Paul's pale ale malt, 2 lbs. Durst Munich, 1.5 lbs. Fawcett oat malt, 0.75 lbs NW 60L crystal, 0.75 lb. Durst 90L crystal, 3 oz. Scotmalt chocolate; 2.0 oz. whole Cascade 5.0% alpha for 65 minutes, 0.5 oz. homegrown Cascade 22 min., 0.4 oz. ditto 7 minutes, 0.5 oz. ditto at heat off (but with 10 minute settling steep); top cropped repitched YCKC "Strathcona" yeast (NCYC 1332). I was cleaning out the closet and don't think the malt brands are real important. Jeff -=-=-=-=- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan c/o nerenner at umich.edu "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 14:17:32 -0600 From: "Curt Abert" <abert at flanders.isgs.uiuc.edu> Subject: re: grain bag lauter tuns In HBD #2959, Frank asks about people's experiences with grain bags lauter tuns: > I would like to hear from the others in this group on their experiences > using a filter bag in the sparge bucket. What do they see as drawbacks or > negative impacts on the beer. I had used this technique for 2 years. It was very easy (and cheap) to set up, but this last fall I made myself a slotted copper manifold instead. I don't think I ever saw any negative impacts from this meathod on the final product, but there were some drawbacks, namely: - loss of extract (probably due to channeling), - excessive vorlauf (often up to a 1.3 gallons needed to be recirculated) - difficult clean up (getting all of the grain out of the bag is was a chore). With my manifold, I only need to recirculate around a quart of wort before it runs clear, my extraction rates increased (on average 5 pts/lb/gal), and clean up is *way* easier. Just my 2 cents... Curt Abert Champaign, IL abert at isgs.uiuc.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 15:22:06 -0500 From: Jeff Renner <nerenner at umich.edu> Subject: Re: oat malt report and recipes More oat malt information from an email to me last year from the maltster (isn't it nice that there is still a family member involved in this old firm?): 3) Oat malt laboratory worts are normally slightly hazy rather than clear. Oats are not normally low in protein and are quite difficult to modify from a protein viewpoint, which could well explain this. Our current stock gives values of 11.8 % total protein with an index of modification of 27.8%. 4) As far as mash schedules are concerned we would suggest you ensure temperatures are between 63 degrees C and 68 degrees C during mashing in with a one hour minimum stand after mashing in a grist composed of 50% oat malt and 50% lager malt. 5) You should aim at a liquor/grist ratio of between 2.5:1and 3:1. 6) Oat malt needs very close mill settings to achieve an acceptable grist. For normal malts our standard mill setting is 62 thou top and 58 thou bottom- for oat malt we drastically reduce these settings to 48 thou top and 42 thou bottom. Certainly a point to watch to produce an optimal grist for mashing. I hope some of all this is useful. We are delighted that you are using our malts and hope that you have every success with your future brews. Yours sincerely James Fawcett -=-=-=-=- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan c/o nerenner at umich.edu "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 15:52:42 -0800 (PST) From: "Dana H. Edgell" <edgell at cari.net> Subject: Pump operation questions Dear HBD, I have a couple of questions for pump/electrical/RIMS crowd so if you're not interested please page down. 1) I have noticed that some heat exchange RIMS designs on the web include a valve to bypass the HE coil when heating isn't required. Why not simply turn the pump off? Recycling only during heating sould be enough for the desired clarity shouldn't it? Does turning the pump on and off infrequently somehow affect the grian bed compactions? 2) I have 120VAC to 24VDC plug in adapter and a 24V relay (NOT solid state) to control my pump. Do I need some sort of resitor to control the current in this circuit and prevent overheating? 3) I saw a speed controller for an overhead fan motor in the hardware store the other day and it got me thinking. Is there any advantage to electronic speed control of the pump motor vs a downstream valve to control the flow rate. Thanks in Advance, Dana - ------------------------------------------------------------------ Dana Edgell edgell at cari.net 2939 Cowley Way #G http://www.quantum-net.com/edge_ale San Diego, CA 92117 (619) 276-7644 Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 19:26:25 -0500 From: "S. Wesley" <WESLEY at MAINE.MAINE.EDU> Subject: Two models of vacuum evaporation of alcohol Dear "AJ", I agree with your reformulation of my spreadsheet calculations in terms of molar fraction instead of mass fraction for an evaporation limited system. I get essentially the same result as you for the quantity of water that must be removed in this model. I am becoming convinced, however, that this model is not valid for the conditions under which I am evaporating. Ironically, using cheap equipment saves me. There are two extreme cases for this process which I will refer to as evaporation limited and quasi-static. In the evaporation limited model you have a vacuum pump which instantly removes all gasses as they evaporate resulting in molar evaporation rates which are proportional to the molar fraction. To understand the quasi-static model consider the following setup. Two beakers containing ethanol and water are placed in a bell jar which is completely evacuated at 19C. After some time the partial pressure of water will be 16.477 mm and the partial pressure of ethanol will be 40mm. (Numbers from CRC Handbook) 2.4 times as many moles of ethanol will evaporate as water, and since ethanol has a molecular weight of 46 and water 18 this means that 6.13 times as much ethanol by mass will evaporate. Once equilibrium is achieved the system is completely evacuated again and the process repeats until all the ethanol is gone. In the end you will evaporate 6.13 times more ethanol by weight than water. In reality what is hapening here is we are pumping so slowly that we never move the system away from equilibrium. I am using an aspirator which has a nominal ultimate pressure of 36 mm and a pumping speed of 1.4 litres per min. At 28C, where I am working, the partial pressure of water is about 28 mm and ethanol is about 67 mm. total pressure of 95 mm. I am pumping out 35 ml of a 350 ml sample in 20min. If I assume I am pumping out mostly water vapor, it means I am removing roughly 2 mol of water. 44.8 liters at STP from a pump which can't deliver that in 20 min. I am essentially flooding the pump because I can evaporate more quickly than I can pump. This means that I am close to the quasi-static model and most of what I evaporate is actually alcohol at first. If this is a valid approach to the problem then it is not necessary to evaporate 60% of the volume, in fact the 10% I did is overkill. This is corroborated (by no means conculsively) by the complete lack of phisiological reaction I experienced from drinking, over the course of an hour, five bottles of beer treated this way. On the other hand if the evaporation limited model is valid the last thing you want to do is use a reflux column. This is counterpoductive as it reduces the molar fraction of alcohol in the wash making it harder to evaporate alcohol. It is much more effiicient to remove evaporated water once and replace it when you reach your target concentration of alcohol, than to evaporate it many times and dilute the alcohol molar fraction into the bargain. As you suggested I got my hands on a spectrophotometer. It is a Spectronic 20 built by Milton Roy Company. I haven't had time to RTFM yet, but I don't think they have a chapter on analyzing alcohol content in beer. Any further insight into this process would be greatly appreciated. Best Wishes, Simon Andrew Wesley Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 20:52:58 -0500 From: Alan McKay <amckay at ottawa.com> Subject: cleaning stainless In 2960 Matthew Birchfield asks about cleaning stainless. There are all kinds of products maide from the same stuff as "Barkeeper's Friend". Here you get it in any hardware store. Just ask for stuff for cleaning stainless. It's a white powder, and there really is nothing better (or even anything that comes close) for cleaning stainless or copper. I find best results when you use a single drop of quality disk detergent with it (like the yellow ivory, or Dawn), and then just enough water to work up a paste. Rinse extremely well! cheers, -Alan - -- "Brewers make wort, yeast makes beer" - Dave Miller's Homebrewing Guide http://www.magma.ca/~bodnsatz/brew/tips/ Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 13:30:43 +1100 From: Petr Otahal <potahal at postoffice.utas.edu.au> Subject: Yeast from bottles This may sound like an uneducated stupid question but I have been reading a lot about yeast culturing and storing on the web and such. Why doesnt everyone just restart their yeast from their own home brew bottles by building up from the sediment in the bottle? Isnt this a lot less complicated than having to use agar and stuff? Surely you could do this at least a few times without getting many mutations and the like. Thanks for any replies Pete Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 18:22:41 -0800 From: Joe Stone <joestone at cisco.com> Subject: Re: Computer Controlled brewing Shane, > Has anyone created an interface to actually control boil/mash temps with a > computer? Or even logging your brew session or fermentation with your > computer (having it automatically record the temp at certain intervals). > I've had some experience talking through serial ports with Perl, and have > programmed in Java, C, C++... as well. Unfortunately, I don't have the $$ > for digital thermometers - can anyone point me to a cheap one? In any case, > I'm interested! You can see my computer-controlled brewing system at, http://www.employees.org/~joestone/Sbs/ The brewing system is controlled by an IBM PC-AT (80286) with an ADIO (Analog / Digital, Input / Output) board. I use a "float" level indicator to measure the level of water in the sparge vessel and a float switch to monitor the level of water/wort above the grain bed in the mash vessel. I use one pump to transfer dough-in and sparge water from the sparge vessel to the mash vessel and a second pump to recirculate wort to the mash vessel. I use an electric water heater element (in conjunction with a National Semiconductor LM34 temperature sensor) in the sparge vessel to increase and maintain the temperature of sparge and dough-in water. I use a Morris style RIMS tube and electric heater element (in conjunction with a LM34 temperature sensor) to increase and maintain the temperature of the mash. I use four solenoid valves to control the flow of water/wort. I use a pressure transducer to monitor the level of wort within the boil vessel. The pumps, solenoid valves and electric water heater elements are controlled using the ADIO board via SSRs (solid state relays). The state of the entire system, sparge target temperature sparge actual temperature mash target temperature mash actual temperature sparge target water level sparge actual water level sparge heater element mash heater element sparge pump mash pump sparge propane stove boil propane stove sparge water solenoid valve mash-to-boil wort solenoid valve boil-to-chiller wort solenoid valve chiller water solenoid valve is logged to a batch file once every minute. I am extremely happy with this computer-controlled approach to brewing. Check out the website. If you still have questions, feel free to send me E-mail. Joe Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 19:36:16 -0700 From: Ken Schwartz <kenbob at elp.rr.com> Subject: Brewery Automation Web Article It's not often that a parade of beer bottles crosses my desk at work, but that's exactly what happenned today. Among the many trade rags I get is Product Design & Development, and the latest issue has a feature article on automation at the Spoetzl ("Shiner Bock") Brewery. You can check it out on-line at http://www.pddnet.com/dtopics/0299f1.htm . - -- ***** Ken Schwartz El Paso, TX Brewing Web Page: http://home.elp.rr.com/brewbeer E-mail: kenbob at elp.rr.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 21:11:34 -0600 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: The Jethro Gump Report-Part 1 The Jethro Gump Report-Part 1 After the 3 part 1984 "Applied Environmental Microbiology" article, Sept 84, American Society for Microbiology by Casey, Magnus, Ingledew..."High Gravity Brewing: Effects of Nutrition on Yeast Composition, Fermentative Ability, and Alcohol Production."..... I received many interesting comments....selected two to forward to Mr.Cone, and have had them answered briefly......The Questions and responses follow.....If they don't follow a direct Q&A style, forgive me..this is really just the product of 3 personal e-mails...... I trust it meets your interests..... Rod Prather Asks <SNIP> >Did the paper give any insight as to why sake ferments to 20%. I have been >told of a phenomena called accomodation where the alcohol tolerance >increases if sugars are added slowly as fermentation progresses. Sake >emmulates this because the koji, or aspergillus fungus, that produces the >sugars continues working after the yeast is added to the rice liquor so >conversion and fermetation takes place simultaneously. I have wondered if >the principle could be applied to high alcohol beers. Steve Alexander writes.... ><SNIP> >3/ My synopsis/comments follow - could you fill in some of the details as >you > understand them ... especially figure 5 since this might be of > considerable practical value to HB high gravity brewers. >4/ Reference 22 is ??? >5/ Did the paper give results for Sterol/UFA/FAN additions alone and in >various combinations. If so which appear to be most effective ? I get the >impression that added sterol isn't the issue, but FAN (what levels?) and >certain unsaturated FA's are. >=== > >Brewing yeast can fully ferment high gravity wort with proper nutrition and >reach 16.2% alc at 14C/57F, high yeast viability, normal brewing periods. >Wort must contain nitrogen supplements (yeast extract, FAN) and either >sterol(ergosterol) + UFA(oleic fraction of TWEEN80) supplements. >Fermentation then proceeds rapidly DUE TO INCREASED YEAST GROWTH, [not >increased alcohol tolerance]. > >O2 deficiencies can be overcome by either the addition of 24 ppm ergosterol >with 0.24% (vol/vol) Tween 80 as a source of oleic acid OR by periods of >oxygenation during the fermentation. > >[Both of these methods have potentially serious negative flavor/head >consequences for beer. Chronic human sterol intake around 1mg/day (~1.5 >fl.oz at 24ppm) can result in hypercalcemia with CNS consequences - so >don't >try this at home !] > >High gravity worts had insufficient FAN. Levels of yeast extract >nitrogen) >required c>an be drastically reduced by the use of an all malt base.(Fig >5). >[Rob - can> you tell us what is in fig 5 ? This should indicate how much >yeast extract is needed when brewing barleywines - no ?] > >Tolerance to the effects of ethanol on generation time, viability, and >solute uptake are enhanced when C18:2 UFA [linoleic acid], rather than >C18:1 >[oleic acid] was added. > >[C18:1(oleic acid), C18:2(linoleic) have 18 carbons, one and two degrees of >unsaturation resp'y. The unsaturated bond synthesis requires oxygen. The >statement above says than linoleic protects yeast from the negatives of >ethanol. Is linoleic+FAN the key to high gravity ferments ?] > >The early rise and then continued decline in fermentative power values has >been attributed to an increase in the cellular levels of hexokinase >activity >by the buildup of intracellular ethanol levels with time(27). > >[hexokinase is an enzyme that starts off the fermentation process by >converting various hexose sugars into their hexose-6-phosphate form. >ATP(energy) and Magnesium ions are required. The phosphated sugars have an >inhibitory effect on the enzyme(regulation). What is the impact of ethanol >on this step ?] > >>Yeast glycogen and sterols were found to differ considerably between >anaerobic and semi-anaerobic conditions and on the nutritional supplement >used. > >Glycogen - < 10% semi-anaerobic, unsupplemented or supplemented > ~30% anaerobic fermentations [no supplement ??] > 10.5% anaerobic, fully supplemented (fastest ferment) >Sterol - 0.85-1.09% semi-anaerobic [w/o-with supplement?] > 0.27-0.56% anaerobic [w/o-with supplement?] > >Sterols were not the limit of growth. [!!] [Or else sterol >0.2% is >required for high gravity/high ethanol growth. Glycogen is an energy >storage carbohydrate, so high levels result from non-carbohydrate growth >limits (the energy would be used to grow if possible).] >== > >The addition of sterol *appears* to be unnecessary. Among the UFAs linoleic >is most effective than oleic. Will oleic+FAN do the trick ? > >I still have doubts that UFA additions or mid-fermentation oxygenation will >make a tasty beer, but this should add some weight to the idea of >repitching >healthy well aerated starters with FAN additions. >Steve End of Questions.....Response to follow in Part 2 Jethro Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 21:14:40 -0600 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: The Jethro Gump Report-Part 2 The Jethro Gump Report-Part 2 Response Follows..... Rob, Just as a starter. Several breweries world wide are commercially producing hi gravity beer. So, many of the problems (flavor) that were originally associated with this new technology have been worked out. Most of the problems were solved by the adequate use of oxygen and supplying the yeast with enough nitrogen both in the amino acid form and Ammonium phosphate. Mike Ingledew has produced 16.8% alcohol beer. He has reached over 21% alcohol for other industrial beverages. Labatt, Molson & Guiness have produced 18 - 20% alcohol beers. Guiness Book of Records is 23% alcohol beer. Uncle Igors Famous Fall Water Brewhouse, Scotland produced 23.3% alcohol beer. Clayton Cone produced 21% Alcohol beer. There has to be a holistic approach to all fermentations especially higher alcohol fermentations. Fermentable nitrogen is a key factor. Wort is often lacking in enough FAN for even low gravity fermentation because of the nature of the original malted barley. If it is underdeveloped there will be less available nitrogen. Single step mashing can result in low FAN. Boiling the wort causes some of the FAN to bind with the reducing sugars (glucose & fructose) making them unavailable for the yeast. There will be lots of protein that humans can digest, however, yeast will not be able to assimilate. Malt extract can have the same problem. Beer yeast can use Ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. However they prefer a balanced diet of amino acids and NH3. Fermaid K offers this balanced diet plus essential minerals (magnesium).) and vitamins. It is very common for commercial breweries to add yeast nutrients to their wort. Both Lallemand and Siebel Institute have a large market for their yeast food. Lallemand sells over 200 tons of Fermaid K to one brewery. Nitrogen is essential for the yeast to produce cell mass, DNA, RNA, ATP,ADP and all of their metabolic enzymes. Nitrogen is also essential to protect the yeast against alcohol toxicity near the end of fermentation. Nitrogen and Amino acids also inter into the flavor producing components Oxygen is an essential nutrient for a healthy yeast cell. As you know, yeast can reproduce with oxygen(aerobic) and without oxygen (anaerobic). However, a single yeast cell can reproduce about 21 times aerobically (it is limited to about 21 times because that is all the room the yeast has on its cell wall surface for new bud scars) and only about 3 - 5 times anaerobically. Without oxygen, the yeast cannot produce lipids and sterols. The lipids are growth factors and can quickly limit the growth cycle of each yeast cell. Each mother cell shares 1/2 of her lipids with the daughter cell, the daughter in turn shares her lipid with her daughter cell. Depending on the amount of lipids in the original yeast cell, the reproduction continues until there is not enough left for another reproduction cycle. The lipids in the cell wall protect the yeast against alcohol toxicity near the end of fermentation. The beer maker can supply the yeast with the necessary lipids and sterols by adding oleic acid and ergosterol or by adding 1, 2 or 3 saturation's of oxygen (8, 16 or 24 ppm O2). There should be no concern regarding the sterols. All of nature produces sterols. They are integral structural components of yeast cells membranes and are essential in the maintenance of plasma membrane permeability. Humans have a similar system. When it is deficient, the cell wall becomes tough and leathery and nutrients cannot pass into the yeast cell and alcohol cannot pass back out of the yeast. It is easy to get steroids and sterols mixed up. All sterols are steroids but not all steroids are sterols. Some of the steroids in humans are the male and female sex hormones. The chief sterol in yeast is ergosterol, which is the precursor of vitamin D.. Sun rays on ergosterol produced vitamin D. For your interest, some breweries produce beer in very large fermenters that require several batches of wort to fill them. They will prepare the first batch of wort, aerate it on the way to the fermenter and add the yeast. They will prepare another batch of wort, aerate it and pump on top of the first batch. This is repeated one or two more times. For those that are afraid to add air or oxygen later in the fermentation can take some comfort from this process in which air is added several times. The lipids produced in the yeast cell should present no problem in the beer head properties. Figure 5 represents two wort fermentations. One of the wort was 100 malt. The other wort was single strength malt wort and a cereal adjunct (probably corn or rice) syrup that brought the soluble solids up to about 28 % equal to the malt wort. For all practical purposes it shows that adequate oxygen can replace ergosterol and that cereal adjunct can ferment equally as well as 100% malt if adequate nitrogen is supplemented. I have sponsored research at the U. of C. Davis brewing school that indicates that a satisfactory beer can be made with up to 75% cereal adjunct and 25% malt wort when supplemented with adequate amounts of Fermaid K. Yeast extract can be an excellent source of nutrient for beer making. 100% yeast extract might impart a slight yeasty note to the beer. A balance of yeast extract Fermaid 60 and Fermaid K would be an excellent combination. It is easy to calculate the amount on nitrogen required . We can work on that as needed. Subsequent research has shown that adding nitrogen several times throughout the fermentation levels off the fermentation rate. There is no sudden burst in the rate at the beginning then a rapid decline. The rate will remain level until the end of the fermentation. Re. The hexokinase comment. Beer yeast's are glucose inhibited. This means that they will not ferment maltose while they are utilizing the glucose. They will utilize the sugars in the wort in the order of their size; glucose, fructose, sucrose ,maltose ,maltotriose then maybe maltotetrose. I am not sure if the fermentation rate would be speeded up if the yeast could tackle all of the sugars at once. There is some work being done by research labs to develop a yeast that is not glucose inhibited. The Sake yeasts that I have worked with are sugar intolerant. High levels of sugar have toxic effect on the yeast. They respond very well to the slow addition of sugar into their media. The Koji amylase enzyme does just that. This principle can definitely be applied to any fermenting material. I over see the production of millions of gallons of product this way world wide. High levels of nutrients and oxygen are required. I am not sure if the yeast is accommodated to higher levels of alcohol by the slow introduction of sugar (could very well be) or does this method minimize the combined toxic effect of both alcohol and sugar. For anyone interested we can work with them. Lallemand has kits in the Scandinavian countries that will produce 20 -21% alcohol in less that a week. So it can be done. I think that it would be fun for the home beer maker to play with gravity, nutrients and Oxygen. Clayton Cone Cheers! Jethro Gump Rob Moline brewer at isunet.net Lallemand Web Site consultant jethro at isunet.net "The More I Know About Beer, The More I Realize I Need To Know More About Beer!" Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 22:48:40 -0500 From: birman at netaxs.com Subject: Philly Competition March 20, 1999 Hear ye, hear ye Homebrewers of Philly & Suburbs is having their annual Best of Philly and Suburbs Competition. March 20,1999 Details at: http://www.netaxs.com/~shady/hops/ Entries due 3/11 Judges/stewards contact Joe at birman at netaxs.com thanks Joe Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 20:53:20 -0700 From: Doug Roberts <gertchie at earthlink.net> Subject: Automatic Mill, was Re: Motors for Malt Mill Ok, I'm happy now. I received an Automatic Mill from William's Brewing for Christmas, and I was _not_ happy with how it performed. It had problems milling the larger Marris Otter 140 L crystal. I sent it back and received another in exchange (Williams is a good company: no muss, no fuss). Last weekend I used it to mill 26# of Hugh Baird Marris Otter for a 10-gal batch of special bitter. Milled all 26# in 15 minutes with the DeWalt 3/8 drill turning the shaft. Nice even crush. Automatic must have had some problems reported with early versions of the home brew model. I noticed that the rollers have a different cut on them than the first one I had. Bottom line: I recommend the Automatic Mill. It's bullet-proof, fast, and does a nice job. The sintered-brass bushings & steel construction will guarantee a long happy life. - --Doug gertchie at earthlink.net Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 23:00:37 -0500 From: Alan McKay <amckay at ottawa.com> Subject: This is gyle! I just did a search in the archives on "gyle AND priming" and couldn't really come up with a definitive formula to compute the amount required. I found these 3 : http://hbd.org/hbd/archive/1573.html#1573-25 http://hbd.org/hbd/archive/1350.html#1350-16 http://hbd.org/hbd/archive/1349.html#1349-3 And the newest of those is a couple of years old. I'm doing the search for some folks in one of the German forums. (I'll leave the play on words in the subject line to your imagination :-)) So, what's the formula that's commonly accepted nowadays? (Preferably in metric ;-)) thanks, -Alan - -- "Brewers make wort, yeast makes beer" - Dave Miller's Homebrewing Guide http://www.magma.ca/~bodnsatz/brew/tips/ Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 23:34:00 -0500 From: John Herman <johnvic at earthlink.net> Subject: small bottles? Any ideas on where to buy small bottles? I guess I could buy a case of Malta and dump it. Thanks - -- \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ * Bicycling, Bassing and Brewing * * * * The Real 3 B's! * * * * John Herman * * johnvic at earthlink.net * ////////////////////////////////// Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 21:50:33 -0800 From: Jack Schmidling <arf at mc.net> Subject: Milling Grains Dan Listermann <72723.1707 at compuserve.com> "The other week Jack Schmidling posted the following: < If you look at the oft published drawing of a six roller > mill..... Just to keep the record straight, I posted no such thing. It was the sales manager for that Canadian company who always seems to be trying to pick a fight. He got nowhere on r.c.b so he lifted that from my web page and came trolling here in the HBD and now seems to have gotten a bite. "I tried to reproduce the claims made by Jack's promotional material with an adjustable Maltmill. Again for the record, that statement was paraphrased from a report submitted by George Fix after an evaluation of one of the first MM's ever shipped. The data is NOT paraphrased, it is his data. Because of your difficulty in reproducing the results, I sent samples to Sieble Institute along with samples from your mill and the results more or less corroborate the fact that the MM provides "about the same distrubution" and I went away satisfied. I did nothing with the data provided on the grist from your mill other than give a sigh of satisfaction. However, as one can make anything one wants with an adjustable mill, the results didn't seem worth publishing. I was more interested in what our mill did. "I have not found the data that Jack publishes to be remotely reproducible even with multiple passes and adjustments between passes. I take no responsibility for your problems in reproducing the results. "Someone (?) will point out that I am not without interests here and they are right. I am willing to lend my seives to others who might want to attempt to reproduce Jack's claims. It is kinda fun! Just ask. It certainly is a good exercise and if everyone understood the basics of the testing, it would make life much simpler for all of us who make mills. I wish I had a buck for everyone who complained that there was "too much flour in the grist from my brand new mill". Because they do not understand the technology, they assume that all fine grist is evil. When asked how much is too much, they haven't a clue. BTW, Sieble uses a motorized and timed shaker so I would not be surprised if someone got different results hand shaking the sieves. js - -- Visit our WEB pages: http://user.mc.net/arf ASTROPHOTO OF THE WEEK..... New Every Monday Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 22:41:37 -0700 From: Paul Dey <alldey at uswest.net> Subject: iodophor film In 2960, Jethro mentions, among other good info and in reference to a brown iodophor film: >>>>>BTW, I still see this problem occasionally, even with other manufacturers Iodophor, and have still not yet identified the problem, though I tend to believe that introducing the Iodophor into solution slowly has a beneficial effect, but this does not seem to be universally true.)<<<<<< I too have seen the film and its been mentioned in the past on this forum though I don't recall any explanations. I especially notice formation if I'm filling iodophor-laden carboys with a spray nozzle set to high pressure. From that, I've assumed that the film consists of an ozide of iodine. Chemists? Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 07:25:40 -0500 From: "Fred L. Johnson" <FLJohnson at worldnet.att.net> Subject: Lautering Temperature My system includes separate mash and lauter tuns. I typically mashout at 168 F for 10 minutes, transfer to the lauter tun, recirculate for about 10 minutes until almost crystal clear, and then sparge. During the recirculation, I am losing heat quickly, despite the fact that my lauter tun is insulated. Most of this heat loss is probably occurring in the grant and during the manual transfer back to the lauter tun. The top of my grain bed may easily drop to 145 F, perhaps even lower. The sparge water may also have dropped some so that the sparge may only be at 150-155 F. Finally, I can't heat my kettle until after the sparge and I have no idea how low the temperature has gotten on the wort. I have not been concerned about this until recently when I was reading Steve Alexander's warning against the dangers of low temperatures during the mash. He points out that mashout (at 168-170 F) does NOT denature all the enzymes, which sets up my question and fears that post-mashout, pre-boil temperatures may be affecting head retention, etc. I have sometimes been disappointed with head retention on some of my beers, but I have never before considered the temperature of the wort following mashout as a potential source of the problem. To Steve Alexander (et al. ): I would appreciate some more discussion on this issue. Do I need to take further measures to insure that my wort does not drop too low during the sparge and before the boil? - -- Fred L. Johnson Apex, North Carolina USA Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 08:30:48 -0500 (EST) From: Paul Shick <SHICK at JCVAXA.jcu.edu> Subject: Re: Fake decoction/ Weissheimer haze ? Hello all, Scott Moore asks about ways to get decoction-type malt flavor without the hassle (and protein rest risks.) Lately I've been trying to do this using about 5-10% DeWolf-Cosyns Aromatic malt in the grist. This malt has a lot of the melanoidin content that you get from decoctions, although no doubt in very different form. In particular, this has worked well with very malty styles like Oktoberfests and bocks (at least from initial tasting in the bocks.) I don't get quite the same level of maltiness in a German Pilsener from a 5% charge, but that might be due to the lower saccharification temperature and dryer finish. So far, it seems to be doing the trick. Mike Maceyka comments on his haze problems with Weissheimer malts. My experiences have been quite different, although I was initially worried about the Weissheimer malts, because the specs available on their web page (and the 97 HBD) seemed right on the edge of needing a protein rest. In particular, the Kolbach index was in the high 30s, much lower than I was comfortable with a single infusion. However, several very accomplished brewers answered my HBD questions with a wealth of detail, but different suggestions, ranging from single infusion to 4 temperature regimes. I eventually decided to try a single infusion and not to look too closely at the haze, if it occured. The resulting 10 gallons of German Pilsener is clear enough to read through. It was mashed at 152F for 30 minutes, with recirculation and gentle heating to 158 over 25 minutes, then raised to 164 for runoff. A dunkelbock on the dregs of one carboy of the Pilsener was very clear when racked to the secondary at 3 weeks. (Tastes great too. The aromatic malt and tons of Weissheimer Munich really worked well.) A Maibock on the other dregs was cloudy when racked at 2 weeks, but is clearing nicely at 4 weeks. I'm really happy with these Weissheimer malts! Maybe I'm just getting better at keeping track of pH, etc., as far as the clarity goes, but the flavor is at least is nice as any European malt I've tried. Paul Shick Basement brewing in Cleveland Hts OH Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 09:49:59 -0500 From: "Peter J. Calinski" <PCalinski at iname.com> Subject: Re: Computer Controlled Brewing My son sent me the following email this AM (2/23/99). - -------------------------------------------------------------- Dad: This month (February 1999) in PRODUCT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT. www.pddnet.com They have an article on PC-based automation of "critical processes" in brewing at the Spoetzl Brewery. The web site talks more about it if you can't get the edition. I just got it. Tonight I'll take it home and read it and save it for you. Joe - --------------------------------------------------------------- It will be a few days before I can checkout the www. but I thought it may be of interest to the group. Pete Calinski East Amherst NY Near Buffalo NY 0 Degrees 30.21 Min North, 4 Degrees 05.11 Min. East of Jeff Renner Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 07:38:02 PST From: chatgros at excite.com Subject: Corny Keg Thread Size/Type Auuggghhhh! Screech!!! I want to close a third fitting (where a level sensor was inserted) on an otherwise stock corny keg. It is the same threads that the in/out have. I cannot find anything that fits the thread despit having bought examples of most of caps in Home Depot. I do not ant to spend $7 for a 'fitting'. Anyone know what the size/thread on corny fitting posts actually is? Thanks. _______________________________________________________ Get your free, private email at http://mail.excite.com/ Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 10:33:31 -0600 From: "Formanek, Joe" <Jformanek at griffithlabs.com> Subject: Drunk Monk Challenge - Second Notice!! The Urban Knaves of Grain homebrew club is now accepting entries for The 1st Annual DRUNK MONK CHALLENGE!! This is an AHA/BJCP-sanctioned homebrew competition to be held March 6, 1999 at Founders Hill Brewery, Downers Grove, IL This is the first event in the race for 1999 Midwest Homebrewer of the Year. Accepting all AHA categories of beer, mead, and cider, plus THE MENACE OF THE MONASTERY, a special category for the best beer in a style traditionally associated with monks: Belgian dubbel (2b), tripel (2c), pale (2d), strong pale (2e), and strong dark (2f), and German doppelbock(12c). Entries: $5 each for 1-4 entries, $4 each for 5 or more entries. Menace of the Monastery entries are $2 each (counted separately). Two bottles required (just one for Menace), all the usual rules. Judges needed! For judge/steward info, please contact Joe Formanek, jformanek at griffithlabs.com, 630-378-4694 (H). For entry info, contact Shane Coombs, srcoombs at synsysinc.com, 630-393-7303 (H), 630-820-5150 (W). Even more info, including entry forms: see the Drunk Monk Challenge website, http://www.synsysinc.com/srcoombs/ukgdmc.htm, or the UKG website, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/stmckenna/ukg.html. Return to table of contents
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