HOMEBREW Digest #1350 Tue 15 February 1994

Digest #1349 Digest #1351

		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  MICRO/PUB BREWS ("Dana S. Cummings")
  Fill it to the rim or line ? (Karl A. Sweitzer)
  Women homebrewers (VANAGS)
  Digest Articles (John DeCarlo              x7116          )
  cheap airlocks (Eugene Sonn)
  trub use (RONALD DWELLE)
  Stupid Questions (James D Rickard-1)
  Sterility possible? (Bob Jones)
  a few questions ("Steven C. Boxer")
  motorizing the MaltMill ("Anton Verhulst")
  Low pH/Hop Back Capacity/Cold Break!!! (npyle)
  Coleman stoves (You awake and there's someone tugging at your sleeve  14-Feb-1994 1103 -0500)
  Recipes, anyone? (Michael Sheridan)
  Homebrew Digest #1349 (February 14, 1994) (TODD CARLSON)
  Scottish Ale Recipe (Brian=Wilson)
  priming with gyle (Chip Hitchcock)
  Re: all-grain books, and a questoin on extraction rates (Mark Bellefeuille)
  A couple of quick questions (GNT_TOX_)
  Re: Coleman btu's and cooker source (Mark Bellefeuille)
  cancel (Mark Bellefeuille)
  Question On Using Hopped Malt Extract (Greg Heiler)
  Chilling and whirlpools (Ed Hitchcock)
  Hop AA% Accuracy (Mark Garetz)
  black & tan (Lessard_Michael/HP-Exeter_s2)
  Woman-Only Brew-Offs (Conan-the-Librarian)
  ExtractPriming/HopPlugs/SucroseVsDextrose/OvernightCool/DryHopping (korz)
  MaltMill performance ("Dave Suurballe")
  2-D gels/cleanliness (Edward H Hinchcliffe-1)
  wheat beers (Spencer.W.Thomas)
  decoction character/hop scale ("Jeff M. Michalski, MD")
  floating thermometer design (Laura Conrad)
  Laaglander good, not bad! (lyons)
  ginger (Bryan L. Gros)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 07:51:08 -0500 (EST) From: "Dana S. Cummings" <dcumming at moose.uvm.edu> Subject: MICRO/PUB BREWS I am going to be traveling in March and would like to plan my route around fine local brews. I intend to travel through central NY and PA, Eastern VA/ DC, with my destination in NC. If there's a brewpub or craft brewer in your area I'd appreciate hearing about them. Many thanks in advance. Reply to DCUMMING at MOOSE.UVM.EDU Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 09:14:44 +0500 From: ksweitz at sn618.utica.ge.com (Karl A. Sweitzer) Subject: Fill it to the rim or line ? Two comments about beer glasses: 1). In Germany (France, Switzerland, Austria, etc) the beer glasses have markings on them for there intended amount (e.g. .5 l), and ample "head" room above the mark. I have never had a problem pouring a .5 l Weiss into a .5 l Weiss glass. Proust! 2). In Belgium many bars use "knives" to cut the head off the top of the glass so that it can be filled to the rim without making too much of a mess. The bars also start serving beer amazingly early in the morning. All those happy patrons keep comming back for full glasses. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 8:34:54 -0600 (CST) From: VANAGS at ADCALC.FNAL.GOV Subject: Women homebrewers There has been alot of discussion about this topic. Although I've never participated before, this is important enough for me to respond to Greg who posted a couple days ago. You made some really good valid points, such as >If this kind of artificial victory helps some woman >feel more confident in entering another competition (open >to all), then what's the harm done? Many women do feel shy about entering any arena where there is a majority of men. You make a good point about that there is no harm done in giving a person an extra hand (especially in the beginning). Even professional women, such as myself, feel a little scared at first - actually sometimes professionals feel even more scared because we're used to being good at what we do and here's something we're not good at yet. >Maybe I should come up with some >set of standards that makes me more likely to win through a restricted >competition? This is a very nice, compassionate thing to say. I hope you weren't being "humorous". We all need to help one another out. What's the harm in lowering standards for people (any group of people) who are first starting out as long as that is clearly stated? Most sports have B teams. All it does is encourage. And the more encouragement, the more brewers, the more good (or improving) beer. ***But I must have missed something - where did it state that the standards would be lowered?*** >"Let's call a spade a spade. There are no wrongs to right on the >field of brewing/competition access for women. This is an event that >sets up an uneven playing field; any respect earned from a victory in >this event cannot translate over to a wider audience. True victory >comes from competing with your peers, many of whom are men in this >hobby (by fact not design)." The playing field is only uneven if the standards are lower. If the standards are lower, then newcomers (the B team) can have a chance to compete and gain confidence. This does not negate the victory and respect they gained by winning. It just puts it in the perspective of an A team vs a B team. If the standards aren't lower, then the victory is equivalent to any victory in a contest with less entries (unless if you're assuming that the entries would be of a lower quality - and why should you assume something so stupid, right?). Cheers ->>Laura Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 09:50:17 EST From: John DeCarlo x7116 <jdecarlo at homebrew.mitre.org> Subject: Digest Articles Since we have such a low signal-to-noise ratio, what the heck <g>. How many people out there read *every* article in the HBD? Every day? Raise your hands. Thanks. My informal count of hands shows about 5% with that much free time and that much interest in noise. What do *I* do? Look for informative "Subject:" lines. Skip over long, rambling, multi-response articles. Hit the "next article" key quickly. Now for equal time from those who want fewer but longer articles, with everything in them. John DeCarlo, MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA--My views are my own Fidonet: 1:109/131 Internet: jdecarlo at mitre.org Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 10:50:54 -0500 (EST) From: Eugene Sonn <eugene at sccs.swarthmore.edu> Subject: cheap airlocks Hi, I've had a problem with my airlock ever since I've changed over to using liquid yeast. For the first day or two of fermentation, the wort ferments so rapidly that the sanitizing solution in my airlock gets blown out and I have to periodically replenish the liquid. I'm using one of those cheap (99 cent) one-piece plastic airlocks. Are the the more expensive airlocks less likely to do this? I've thought of trying to widen the intake diameter in the airlock to reduce the pressure a bit, but am wary I might crack the plastic and have to make a special trip to the homebrew supply shop just for this stupid airlock. Replies via direct e-mail or via the digest would be great. Thanks, Eugene Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 10:50:55 EST From: dweller at GVSU.EDU (RONALD DWELLE) Subject: trub use I too was bothered by the amount of wort left with the trub after chilling and racking. So now I just pour the remains in an old Gallo 3 liter wine jug and let it settle over night. Next morning, I usually have a clear dividing line between liquid wort and the trub. I pour off the liquid, heat it to boiling, and put it in a mason jar with a new lid. I use this liquid for priming after the ferment is over. I usually do a little crude calculating to decide if and how much extra DME to add to get enough carbonation, but often it seems to come out about right. Cheers, Ron Dwelle (dweller at gvsu.edu) Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 09:32:17 -0600 (CST) From: James D Rickard-1 <rick0018 at gold.tc.umn.edu> Subject: Stupid Questions There has been a lot of noise about whether *discussing* the use of cannabis is appropriate on this digest. Shame on all you who feel that there is no room for intelligent discourse on every brewing subject, regardless of the ingredients. Isn't the purpose of this forum to pool the knowledge of the brewing community? As for cannabis being illegal, yes it is. But when the free discussion of ideas is prohibited, forbidden, or discouraged, then our most basic rights are being attacked. Let the FBI read everything here, this digest is an exercise of the freedom afforded by the bill of rights. In reply to Mr. Venezia, who wrote that marijuana "makes you stupid", please try not to pass off momily and hearsay as scientific fact. If we need to compare the physical and mental effects of psychoactive cannabis compounds and alcohol, I am sorry to say that alcohol does not fare very well. Anything in excess is harmful by definition, but alcohol can kill. Excuse me for the non-brewing related bandwidth, but if you have ANY BREWING QUESTION, don't be afraid to ask it here! This has historically been a friendly and helpful digest. Don't let the dweebs scare you off. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 07:59:22 +0800 From: bjones at novax.llnl.gov (Bob Jones) Subject: Sterility possible? Is it possible to build up starters without unwanted bacteria? That's the basic question. Over the years of peaking through a microscope at starters and yeast I can say I have NEVER seen a pure yeast culture. This even goes for the yeast from respected brewerys. On a more personal note I'm pretty anal about sanitation and sterility when making starters. I can my starters, flame necks or swab with alcohol, etc. Whenever I look at a starter I always find some level of bacteria. Now I know it is a matter of level of bacteria, and the resulting beers always taste good, but is it possible to eliminate these bad players? I usually see cocci, probably pediococcus. For those microbiologists out there, what are the pathways for these bugs? How about some practical techniques for eliminating these bad bugs, if its possible. It seems to me that it should be possible to pick up a single yeast colony from a plate and build it up without bugs. I remember the Zymurgy article where the author injected his starters via a septum and did all transfers in a homemade glove box. Would this make a difference? I have a motive in all this, I am giving another talk this year at the AHA conference on building yeast up to proper pitching ratios. I would gladly pass along any new ideas and techniques that really help reduce the bacteria when building yeast starters. Bob Jones bjones at novax.llnl.gov Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 10:58:54 -0500 (EST) From: "Steven C. Boxer" <scb15 at columbia.edu> Subject: a few questions What do I use to raise the ph in my mash tun? Just by adding the grain and tap water I get a ph or 4.9-5.0. I assume that I should be around 5.4. Also, I just found an old alcohol lap...just the thing for working with yeast. I filled it up with Isopropol alcohol however the wick does not stay lit. Should I use denatured alcohol? Is there a difference? Thanks for the hlp. STEVE IN NYC Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 11:19:42 -0500 From: "Anton Verhulst" <verhulst at decvax.dec.com> Subject: motorizing the MaltMill Dan Johnson in HBD #1348 wrote a nice article on motorizing a MaltMill using a clothes dryer motor and belts. I took a different route. I simply removed the hand crank from the mill and attached my Makita cordless driver directly onto the shaft. The driver runs at about 450 rpm (unloaded) and when actually grinding grain, the speed drops to well under 200 rpm. The driver has plenty of power. If you don't have a cordless driver, then Dan's route is the way to go, but if you've got on hanging around, give it a shot. - --Tony Verhulst Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 9:20:29 MST From: npyle at n33.stortek.com Subject: Low pH/Hop Back Capacity/Cold Break!!! I have just had the most "interesting" (read: problematic) brew session I've had in a while. As background, you may recall that I've had trouble brewing a good all-grain dark beer, although my lighter efforts have been fine. After receiving my water analysis (very, very, soft water), I decided that it is possible that the mash pH is getting very low (most people have problems with high pH) with the darker beers; not so bad with lighter beers. So, I decided to check the pH carefully for the next few batches, and adjust as necessary. This beer is a pale ale, using Fuggles and EKG hops (I can't wait!). Just after mash-in, I remembered that I wanted to harden my water a bit (I got into autopilot mode, and forgot). So, I added a couple of teaspoons of calcium sulfate (this is about right for my water) and stirred it into the mash. Well, then I decided that was dumb, since I hadn't yet checked the pH. I checked it with the colored paper strips, and it looked like 4.6! This brings up a question about the use of the paper pH strips. After a few minutes, the color on the strips started to change toward a higher pH (started to get more red). Should the pH be read immediately, or is there a waiting period that must be abided by for a correct reading? Assuming that the pH was already quite low, I added a couple of teaspoons of calcium carbonate to try and raise it. It didn't seem to have any effect on the pH, and I didn't dare add any more calcium to the mash. It was well below 5.0; what effect this will have is unknown. Most of the brewing books only address high pH problems. Another note, and one that is probably critical: I used a large portion of hot water (then heated it more with my propane cooker) for the mash and sparge water. This means the water was coming out of my water tank, rather than straight from the tap. I was trying to save some time and propane by starting with hot water, rather than the near-ice (the natives call it water) that comes from the tap here in Colorado. I assume this was a bad idea, since I have no clue as to the ion concentrations that might build up in the water heater. As you can see, I have too many variables (water from the tank, adding salts at bad times) to really judge, but I would appreciate comments. To followup on my recent posting about using a one-pint mason jar as a hop-back: don't try to pack a whole ounce of loose hops into one of these. You can get the hops in there, but you will probably regret it, as I did. I just couldn't get the wort to flow through such a dense filter bed. I ended up throwing away most of an ounce of East Kent Goldings ;-/ At least I've got another ounce in reserve for dry hopping, but I'm looking for a quart mason jar before my next batch. A final note: I got huge amounts of cold break in my fermenter on this batch. It is the first time I've used 100% Hugh Baird malt, if that is the reason. The fermenter looks like egg drop soup 24 hours or more after pitching. I'm sure once the yeast gets going (a slow start this time) it will mix up this stuff and it will have to settle out again, but no amount of waiting and racking would have avoided it. Lots of this stuff is sitting at the mid level in the fermenter, so racking above it won't work. On the other hand, the wort itself is bright, so I think the beer will be, too. Sorry to ramble so on one batch of beer, but it was a bit different in several respects, and probably good for learning. Norm Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 11:06:35 EST From: You awake and there's someone tugging at your sleeve 14-Feb-1994 1103 -0500 <ferguson at zendia.enet.dec.com> Subject: Coleman stoves I have used a coleman stove in the past for boiling about 4 gals of liquid. It works alright, however, i don't think the stove would last too long because I had to run it at nearly wide-open throttle. Not to mention, the cost of the fuel, which is about 3-4 bucks per gallon. Instead, I have a cajun cooker (King Kooker) that i bought used for $20 or so. then, i got a 20# propane tank from the dump (i volunteer at the dump sorting plastics). filled up the tank for $8, and i have myself a 200k BTU set up for $28.00. BTW, i don't think the coleman stove would work well trying to boil more then 5 gals, espec. a 15.5 keg. JC Ferguson Just_say_no_to_low_fills Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 11:55:55 EST From: mikesher at acs.bu.edu (Michael Sheridan) Subject: Recipes, anyone? Hi, y'all. When I got onto this newsletter, I was really looking for recipes as well as general advice. I'm a malt extract brewer so far; I've only been at it for a year now. So, does anyboy have any good recipes for extract versions of Sam Smith's Pale Ale, Nut Brown, or Oatmeal Stout? I want to do up a pale ale first, but Papizan's TCGtHB just has an India pale ale. Anybody have any good ones they'd like to share?? I'm mikesher at acs.bu.edu thanks, Mike Sheridan Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 12:04:31 EST From: carlsont at GVSU.EDU (TODD CARLSON) Subject: Homebrew Digest #1349 (February 14, 1994) Here is a question related to the recent discussion on transfering from kettle to primary. I have started to do partial mash beers. I don't want to mess with the equipment needed for all grain. I have found a partial mash to little extra work and it allows me to experiment with some of the ingredients that would otherwise be unavailable to the extract brewer. The problem I encountered is that after the boil, the finings (irish moss), hot and cold break didn't settle after chilling, presumably due to the high gravity of the boil (I used 6# of DME with about 2 1/4# of grain). After chilling I tried straining but the strainer cloged so rather than muck around with chilled wort I just dumped the whole mess in the primary with the rest of the water. Diluting to five gallons allwed the trub to settle and fermentation was vigorous. Racking to secondary got rid of most of the crud. Does anyone out there do partial mashes? Do you have the same problem? How do you deal with it? Is ignoring it my best option? Thanks in advance Todd carlsont at gvsu.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 12:32:57 EST From: Brian=Wilson%Eng%Banyan at hippo.banyan.com Subject: Scottish Ale Recipe Hello, Last year I had several business trips to Seattle where I discovered Grant's Scottish Ale. If you haven't had it, it's awesome. I would love to make a Scottish Ale, however, I can't find a recipe. I checked Papazian's book and the Catsmeow for recipes but only found "all-grain" Scottish Ales. If somebody out there has an extract recipe, send me a copy - or post it. If it's an attempt to copy Grant's, that would be the ultimate. - Thanks in advance Brian Wilson Brian at Banyan.Com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 12:18:03 EST From: cjh at diaspar.HQ.ileaf.com (Chip Hitchcock) Subject: priming with gyle Here's an attempt at a formal calculation of the volume needed for priming with wort. This should work better than some of the posted formulae since it accounts for the fermentability of the specific yeast/extract pair in the current batch, but (as always in homebrewing) it should be no more than a guide: try following the formula, then increase or decrease the constant if you want to have more or less carbonation. let Dsg = change in SG in points (thousandths) in the fermented wort Vf = volume of flat/fermented/finished beer Vg = volume of gyle / green wort to add. Assumptions: the canonical .75 cup of corn sugar (for a five-gallon batch) weights .3 pounds. (.4 pounds/cup per my brewer's sliderule.) corn sugar yields 45 point-gallons/pound, 100% fermentable. .3 * 45 = 13.5 point-gallons / 5 = 2.7 \fermentable/ points added for priming A formula for the volume of green wort needed to add this much in fermentables to a volume of flat beer given the above, is Dsg / 2.7 = (Vf + Vg) / Vg Solving this for Vg gives Vg = 2.7 * Vf / ( Dsg - 2.7 ) This means (for instance) you'd get the canonical amount of priming by adding .4945 gallons of green wort to 5.00 gallons of flat beer that had shown a 30-point SG drop. There's at least one inaccuracy: Dsg needs to be increased a bit to correct for the drop in SG caused by the fact that the beer is partly alcohol rather than entirely water; but my guess is that this makes a difference of maybe 1% given the low concentration of alcohol. By experience, this formula is a good approximation; I was getting appropriate carbonation for ESB's (which are flatter than the standard) with 1 pint of green wort in half batches (2.5 gallons) that dropped an average of 40 SG points (Wyeast London & British ale yeasts really tear through M&F extract). I haven't tried true krauesening (using fresh working beer of the same type to carbonate the previous batch) because I didn't brew in that orderly a setting even when I was desperately seeking Fuller's; I suspect the right thing to do would be to decrease Dsg by the amount the new batch has dropped between preparation and the time you use it. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 17:17:18 GMT From: mcb at mcdpxs.phx.mcd.mot.com (Mark Bellefeuille) Subject: Re: all-grain books, and a questoin on extraction rates snip > lastly, i just read through papazian's section on all grain brewing for the > second time and i am still thoroughly confused. does anyone know of some > literature on this subject that covers the process step-by-step (i can't > figure when to do what from charlie's book because he skips around so much). > -james clark I've only done 4 all grain brews. I've got CP's: TNCJOHB, Dave Line's: 'BBLTYB', and 2 by D.Miller: (and I never get the titles completely right): 'The Complete Handbook of Homebrewing' and 'Brewing the Worlds Great Beers'. IMHO BTWGB does a great job of presenting all-grain as a step by step process. It's the one I've had open while mashing. TCHOH does a very thorough job of detailing what is happening and why we are doing what at what time. I keep rereading sections of it in between brewing batchs. ie: water treatment for mashing and sparging. I also us the Easymasher(tm) method so I had to modify what I wanted to do at each step. I found it wasn't hard with Miller's directions. Of course YMMV. I enjoy all-grain hope you do too. QUESTION: I'm using a Corona mill at the brewshop and am curious: what type of extraction rates do other Corona users get. I will be getting a rollermill in the future; but, right now a Corona is what I have available. Thanks in Advance, mark Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 12:24 EST From: <GNT_TOX_%ALLOY.BITNET at PUCC.PRINCETON.EDU> Subject: A couple of quick questions If the Rheinheiotsgebot(sp?) only allows the use of malted barley, water, hops, and yeast, how did the Germans come up with wheat beer? And secondly, could someone please explain a little about these new Wyeast packages without starters? I haven't seen any of the new strains, so I don't know what anyone is talking about. Thanks, Andrew Pastuszak Philadelphia, PA Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 17:36:04 GMT From: mcb at mcdpxs.phx.mcd.mot.com (Mark Bellefeuille) Subject: Re: Coleman btu's and cooker source In HBD #1348 Tim Sasseen asks > Has anyone ever tried using a Coleman two-burner campstove? I was using a propane two burner Coleman, it took quite a while to get 6.5gal barely boiling. I checked a new box, each burner is rated at 10000btu. >Also, is there a cheap mail order source for the cajun cooker? My brother-inlaw found a 170,000btu with a steel 10qt pot and aluminum strainer on a 26" stand for $70.00 in the Bass Pro catalog. I ordered it and the total w/S&H was only $60.00. It comes with a UL approved regulator and IMHO is well made and built. Ordered from 1-800-BASSPRO. No affiliation, blah,blah,blah, just satisfied. mark mcb at phx.mcd.mot.com - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 17:47:40 GMT From: mcb at mcdpxs.phx.mcd.mot.com (Mark Bellefeuille) Subject: cancel cancel article 02141025.24133 Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 13:26:38 EST From: gheiler at Kodak.COM (Greg Heiler) Subject: Question On Using Hopped Malt Extract I plan on using hopped malt exctracts in a Vieanna Lager extract recipe. I've heard that after boiling 60 min. the "hopping" in the extract boils away and can not be tasted. Does this mean the alpha boils away as well, and that the associates bitterness should not be condidered when determing IBU's ? Thank-You; Greg Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 14:48:46 -0400 From: Ed Hitchcock <ECH at ac.dal.ca> Subject: Chilling and whirlpools I hate to be an iconoclast, but I had a bad experience whirlpooling my wort after chilling it (immersion chiller). The wort just took too darn long to clear after whirling it, and hadn't cleared fully by the time I wracked it (this is 40 min or so we're talking about). The result is the cloudiest beer I've made in a long time (and I've made Witbiers that came out crystal clear...). After reading the article on whirpooling in Brewing Techniques I altered my protocol. I now remove the wort from the heat, toss in my finishing hops, and spin the hot wort. I jam on the lid, let it sit for 15-20 minutes, then put in my chiller, let it sit an additional 5 minutes, and turn on the water. The result is a crystal clear wort, the hop gunge and hot break material make a nice little cone in the centre, and the cold break sits on top of it. By siphoning off the sides (through a choreboy) I get very little break material in the fermenter. The material that does make it in is mostly the cold break material that is sitting on top of the hops and hot break. For those of you about to scream: "You can't do that! What about HSA?!!" please don't. Stirring carefully (accelerate the wort slowly) with minimal splashing, the risk of O2 contamination is minimal because of the steam still evaporating off the surface. ____________ Ed Hitchcock ech at ac.dal.ca | Oxymoron: Draft beer in bottles. | Anatomy & Neurobiology | Pleonasm: Draft beer on tap. | Dalhousie University, Halifax |___________________________________| Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 10:40:35 PST From: Mark Garetz <mgaretz at hoptech.com> Subject: Hop AA% Accuracy Dominic asked me to comment about the accuracy of AA% readings on the hops one buys. Firstly, I want to keep this brief, so for a more complete story and a method for adjusting AA% for differing storage conditions, check out my article on this subject in the Jan/Feb '94 issue of Brewing Techniques. To understand this, you need to know where the AA% numbers come from. Almost 100% of the hops sold to homebrewers come from hop brokers. Hopunion, Haas, Morris Hanbury, etc. They do the analysis of the hops for AA%. If the hops are stored cold, the AA% doesn't change much. Periodically the broker will retest the hops and adjust the AA%. I don't know of any hop dealers that test the AA% themselves, with the possible exception of Glenn Tinseth since he has access to the lab at Oregon State. (We do our own oil percentage testing, but not AA%). Hop dealers, homebrew product distributors and larger homebrew shops get their hops from the brokers and pass the AA% on to the consumer. Up until this point, the AA% should be fairly accurate. What happens next is where any innaccuracies can occur, and it mainly relates to the storage and packaging techniques that the hop dealer, distributor or retailer uses. Basically, if the hops have been stored cold and in O2 barrier packaging, the AA% is about as accurate as you can get it. If you buy from a reputable dealer that cares about the hops, you should be fine (Glenn Tinseth at the Hop Source, Dave Wills at Freshops and ourselves at HopTech are notable examples, along with "enlightened" homebrew shops like Lynne O'Connor at St. Pats of Austin and Al Korzonas at Sheaf and Vine). Signs of a dealer that cares: Cold storage (extra points for freezing), barrier packaging, good selection, packages marked with AA% (not just a sign on the fridge), single AA% number given, not a range. Hope this answers the question. Check out the aforementioned article for more details. Oh. And please don't email me asking for copies of the article. It's not fair to BT and we need to support them with our subscription $$ if they are going to survive. Call BT at 1-800-427-2993 and subscribe. Mark Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 14:09:15 -0500 From: Lessard_Michael/HP-Exeter_s2 at om2.ch.apollo.hp.com Subject: black & tan Item Subject: cc:Mail Text has anyone come across or have a homebrew recipe for a black & tan. I've asked around a few places and most people recall a drink, possibly a mix of two types of beers. What I'm looking for is a brew recipe. I checked Cat's Meow - nothing there. Any help would be appreciated. thanks mike lessard Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 11:08:33 -0800 From: pascal at netcom.com (Conan-the-Librarian) Subject: Woman-Only Brew-Offs Sorry if this offends anyone ... ( right. :-) ... but I already feel that women are my equals, my peers, in the kitchen or out. I think that to provide a special forum for them to brew, to provide them with a special place to "encourage" them, is to patronize them, plain and simple. What women thought never stopped me from learning to bake or cook. Why should what I think stop a woman from brewing beer ? Undermotivation on the part of one or more women is not my concern. Nor is it the responsibility of any of the rest of the readers of the Home Brew Digest. It is a personal problem, not a societal problem ... and _not_ a matter of concern for the Home Brew Digest, except, perhaps, as yet another example of Yet Another International Brew-Off For The Globally Insecure. So, no, I'm less than paralyzed by White Anglo-Saxon Male Guilt Syndrome, so sorry. - -- richard Help ! I'm a lesbian trapped in a man's body !! richard childers san francisco, california pascal at netcom.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 13:04 CST From: korz at iepubj.att.com Subject: ExtractPriming/HopPlugs/SucroseVsDextrose/OvernightCool/DryHopping Paul writes: >Question:If I use malt extract to prime what quantity do I use to prime >5 gallons? It depends on the fermentability of the dried (or liquid) malt extract. As we've recently heard over and over, Laaglander is not as fermentable as say Munton & Fison or Briess DME. Corn sugar (dextrose) is 100% fermentable, so if you are happy with a particular amount of carbonation you get with corn sugar, weigh the corn sugar, add 20-45% to this weight (depending on the fermentability of the extract) and then use this weight of the malt extract. Note that if you use syrup, 20% is water, so you have to take that into account also. One other point is that DME contains protein, so if you want to avoid an odd-looking "slick" that might appear in your bottles, force-chill your well-boiled extract priming solution and leave the hot and cold break behind. As a general rule, if you are happy with 3/4 cup dextrose, you might start with 1.25 cups of M&F DME and adjust from there. >Also, are whole hop plugs used oz/oz as hop plugs? I think you mean are plugs oz/oz the same as whole hops. That's how I use them. I prefer whole hops over plugs however, because I find they are less damaged than the plugs and there are less little hop bits to contend with when racking. On the other hand, if you can't get fresh, whole hops in purged, oxygen-barrier bags, you might be better off with the plugs -- it all depends on the qualilty of the hops you get from your supplier. ********** Andrey writes: >1. What is corn sugar and why is it used for carbonation? Why can't >sucrose be used? Is it fructose? I am tired of driving to my homebrew >store just to get it. Corn sugar is dextrose, aka glucose. Sucrose can be used and I believe that, by weight, it has slightly more carbonation potential than dextrose. Yeast can use glucose and fructose directly, but need to expel invertase to break down sucrose into its component glucose and fructose (1 molecule of sucrose is a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule bonded together) before ingesting it. This implies that it's more difficult for yeast to ferment sucrose than glucose, but I don't know if it is significantly more difficult. I always use corn sugar for priming. A customer recently reported having to substitute sucrose for a kit and despite having used 3/4 cup of sucrose, he got gushers. This is but one datapoint... perhaps others can give more? Couldn't you just buy a large bag of corn sugar and save yourself a bunch of trips? >2. What is so special about the 70 degrees for pitching? What I have been >doing is letting the wort cool overnight and then pitching in the morning. >Is there something serious wrong with this procedure? I can't for the life >of me see the problem, especially if I am using starter yeast. One problem is the risk of bacterial infection during your overnight cooling. Nobody's house or wort is free from bacteria and wild yeast -- the key is getting your cultured yeast established and fermenting before other, competing organisms get their numbers high enough to affect the flavor or aroma of your beer. Using a good, big, healthy starter is going to reduce the risk of problems from infection to almost nil, but there's another reason for cooling quickly: Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS). When the wort is above 140F, DMS is being created. While the wort is boiling, the DMS is boiled off. Once you turn off the heat, the DMS still is being produced till the wort cools below 140F. If you're making an ale, the fermenation will probably be so vigorous that whatever DMS was created, will probably be scrubbed out by the CO2. If you are making a lager, the fermentation will be quite a bit slower and this is why a small amount of DMS in a lager is part of the character of most lagers. (By the way, DMS smells like cooked corn -- Old Style from Heileman has quite a lot of it.) Finally, a more "congealed" cold break is another advantage of force-chilling. Force cooling will cause the cold break that forms to be more compact and make it easier for you to leave most of it out of your fermenter. ******** Doug Lukasik has a problem with a hopbag that floats in the carboy and blocks the outlet. I'd like to add one more note to -Z's response. Perhaps, Doug, you are dryhopping too early. I wait till there's virtually no activity in the fermenter before dryhopping. I do this primarily for three reasons: 1. evolving CO2 will scrub-out some of the aromatics, 2. finished beer is less susceptible to a bacterial or wild yeast infection from the hops than a beer that has not yet fereented out, and 3. I don't use a hop bag and dryhop directly in the primary (ales) so *any* kraeusen could clog the airlock or blowoff tube with hops. Al. Return to table of contents
Date: 14 Feb 1994 11:20:58 -0800 From: "Dave Suurballe" <suurb at farallon.com> Subject: MaltMill performance A while ago Jack Schmidling said that he had designed the hopper on his MaltMill so that grain entered the rollers through a fairly short slot, so that hand cranking would not be overly strenuous. He suggested that a motorized mill would perform better with a longer slot. I have a motorized mill, so I removed the two triangles of board that actually form the slot. This provides access to the entire length of the rollers. I cracked 12 pounds of grain in 2 minutes and 20 seconds. This is more that twice as fast as before. (The mill turns 140 rpm.) Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 13:09:28 -0600 (CST) From: Edward H Hinchcliffe-1 <hinch001 at maroon.tc.umn.edu> Subject: 2-D gels/cleanliness Dear HBD, Just a few quick words. In regards to 2-D gels of beer, neat idea but might be technically difficult...so go for it! Try silver staining to pick up minor bands (spots). Hey, you could even use the spots as antigens to make polyclonal antibodies that would specificly recognize types of beer. Pull 'em out at your next contest and prove if The Terminator is really a Dopplebock or not. A good resource: Dunbar, Bonnie S. "Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis and Immunological Techniques. 1987 Plenum Press. New York, New York. And read O'Farrell, P. H. "High Resolution Two-dimensional electrophoresis of Proteins". 1975 J. Biol. Chem. 250:4007-4021. Good luck. A quick and handy technique to prevent unwanted infections during racking, pitching etc. Fill a spray bottle (like a windex bottle) with 75% ethanol (get 190 proof{95%} and dilute with water). Spray hands, tools whatever. Won't affect beer, is mostly safe (but flammable) and keeps surfaces clean. If you know a lab nerd, ask 'em to get you some denatured absolute ethanol-it is real cheap. Bye, Edward H. Hinchcliffe (No leters after my name yet, but you get the picture) Cell Biology & Neuroanatomy University of Minnesota hinch001 at maroon.tc.umn.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 14:37:49 EST From: Spencer.W.Thomas at med.umich.edu Subject: wheat beers "Michael D. Hansen (708) 938-3184" writes: > Can anybody tell me what the fundamental difference is between a > wheat beer, a weissbier, and a weizenbier? Anybody got a good > recipe for a dunkelweizen (extract or mash-extract)? A "wheat beer" would be any style made with wheat. Weissbier & Weizenbier are names that are typically applied to the Bavarian style of wheat beer. It is made with 50-70% wheat malt (with the balance being barley malt), and is fermented with a special yeast (sometimes denoted S. delbruckii, although there is controversy about this) that produces a clove-like aroma and flavor. Hop bitterness is low, and hop flavor and aroma usually absent. It is usually cloudy, because of the high proportion of wheat malt, and is frequently bottled with yeast in the bottle. Weizen is somewhat tart and quite refreshing. Commercial examples include versions by Hacker-Pschorr and Franziskaner. "Hefeweizen" (or "mit hefe") is "with yeast" and "Crystal" is without. "Dunkelweizen" is a darker version, and "Weizenbock" is a higher gravity version. A style that is sometimes confused with this (in name only) is Berliner Weisse. The only similarity between them is that they are both brewed with wheat malt. Berliner Weisse is a low-gravity (1.030 or less) style made with a high proportion of wheat malt. However, it is fermented with both normal brewers yeast (NOT the weizen strain) and with a Lactobacillus delbruckii strain. The lactobacillus produces lactic acid, resulting in a very tart (some would say sour) beer. Hop bitterness, flavor and aroma are totally absent from this style. It is frequently served with a sweet syrup added (raspberry and sweet woodruff are the classic flavors). The only commercial example available in the US is by Kindl (and even that can be found only in certain states (e.g., not Michigan)). If you see an American micro-brew product labelled "wheat beer", it is probably in the American Wheat style, which is a light ale brewed with some proportion of wheat malt. The style does NOT exhibit the clove-like character of the German Weizen. Other styles made with wheat include Lambic and Belgian White (Wit), both of which use raw (unmalted) wheat. =S Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 13:48:07 -0500 From: "Jeff M. Michalski, MD" <michalski_jm at rophys.wustl.edu> Subject: decoction character/hop scale I've been doing temperature controlled infusion mashes with the usual protein rest (optional), saccharification rest, and mashout. I've read decoction fans state it is the best way to get that real malt flavor in their beer. I've never attempted decoction because I have too little information and the process sounds complicated and time consuming. Do you really "boil" the thick part of the grains? How do you avoid scorching? I was wondering, can I do my usual infusion and just boil a portion of my mash (about 1-2 lbs) during one of the temperature rises to add that malty character? Could we call it a "partial decoction"? P.S. Does any one know a good, cheap source of a scale that weighs quantites of 0-5 ounces. Most of the dietary or postal scales I've seen are terribly inaccurate in this low range (for hops, small adjuncts, etc.). JEFF M. MICHALSKI michalski_jm at rophys.wustl.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 15:08:09 EST From: epochsys!lconrad at uunet.UU.NET (Laura Conrad) Subject: floating thermometer design I use a metal meat thermometer from a shopping mall kitchen store for my brewing thermometer. It is billed as instant read, but in fact requires about a minute to come to equilibrium with the surrounding liquid. I used to hold it there in the liquid wishing it would float. I made some unsuccessful experiments with trying to punch a hole the right size in a wine bottle cork. Then, I was fixing my sink drain and I had a brainstorm. My current design is a cottage cheese container (bottom only), with a small hole large enough for the business end of the thermometer to go through. Before inserting the thermometer through the hole in the cottage cheese container, I put it through a lump of plumbers' putty. This causes the interior of the cottage cheese container to remain dry (mostly), and the container floats on top of whatever liquid I want to monitor the temperature of. (verticle cross section) | | | | | |-----Cottage cheese container | ------- | | | | | OOOOO----------|--------Plumbers' putty ___________|____________| | | |-------------------Thermometer | | | You can still imagine a better design -- the putty gets soft enough when it's warm that you can't adjust the height of the thermometer, and there is occasionally a small amount of leakage around the thermometer, although never enough to sink the contraption. But it's enough of an improvement over holding the thermometer by hand that I thought people might be interested. Laura Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 16:24:39 EST From: lyons%adc2 at swlvx2.msd.ray.com Subject: Laaglander good, not bad! In HBD #1338 Sandra writes: >To the issue of Laaglander DME. I have seen numerous posts blasting it because >of the high final gravity. I for one, (and maybe the only one!), have been >excited by this information! I have recently started all-grain brewing, but >with my schedule don't always have the time to plan for it. Going up to my >favorite homebrew shop to grind grain isn't always convenient. The flip side >is that extract brews are often thin, lacking in body.It only seems reasonable >that the use of Laaglander DME with its unfermentables would help extract >brewers end up with a final product with more body (ie. "mouthfeel"). My future >plans include using Laaglander along with a more fermentable brand of DME >(Breiss, M&F, or your favorite canned extract) to achieve a beer with "body". I strongly agree. I switched back to extract brewing (from all-grain) about a year ago when I learned about Laaglander DME. My first clue came from Al (Korz) about a year and a half ago when he hinted that using a small amount of Laaglander would boost the FG. Since then I've seen this mentioned in TNCJOHB and other sources. I've experimented and found that most yeasts (#2112, New Red Star, Windsor, Whitbread) give me approximately 78% AA for M&F DME, 55% AA for Laaglander DME, and 100% for corn sugar & honey. I also get extract potentials of 42 for M&F DME, 46 for Laaglander DME, 45 for corn sugar, and 35 for honey. Using this information I have been able to precisely formulate brews with the desired OG, FG & %Alc. My measurements of the actual OG & FG, after correcting for temperature, are typically within 1 SG. One point, I don't recommend using 100% Laaglander DME. My batches with 100% Laaglander resulted in high body low alcohol brews. Tasty, but no punch. Just use a little math and you will be able to get exactly what you're after. Chris Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 94 13:34:44 PST From: bgros at sensitivity.berkeley.edu (Bryan L. Gros) Subject: ginger What amounts have people used in ginger-flavored beers? Has anyone tried Papazian's recipe? I think from looking at the Cat's meow that 3oz grated added to the end of the boild would be good. Anyone tried adding the ginger to the secondary?? - Bryan Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #1350, 02/15/94