HOMEBREW Digest #3016 Wed 28 April 1999

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		Digest Janitor: janitor@hbd.org
		Many thanks to the Observer & Eccentric Newspapers of 
		Livonia, Michigan for sponsoring the Homebrew Digest.
				URL: http://www.oeonline.com

  Re: Pot caramelizing wort (Paul Shick)
  Re: Water treatment (CALAMIDA Alessandro)
  Take one down.../ kegged mead (Paul Haaf)
  chlorine vs. iodophor (Marc Sedam)
  re: Hops in Beer and Dutch (Tidmarsh Major)
  Phosphate removal using Calcium (Matt Brooks)
  Aussie Big Brew 99 sites (Brad McMahon)
  Recipe standardization (David)" <drussel3 at ford.com>
  lawnmower beer (Vachom)
  Oxy-cap sanitaion ("Nathaniel P. Lansing")
  Brewpubs in France? (mark)
  RE: Hallertau Hops -- Summary ("Jeffrey A. F. Hittinger")
  Recent issue of BT uninteresting? ("Brian Dixon")
  In defense of CACA (Paul Shick)
  hop + sulfate ("Bayer, Mark A")
  mead yeast starters (Bryan Gros)
  SO4/SO4/PO4/Distillation (AJ)
  Contamination from CO2 (Bryan Gros)
  Just another sulfate taste ("Dr. Pivo")
  Honey Beer ("Trevor Good")
  implosion... not! (BrewInfo)
  Has anyone kegged Mead? (Ted McIrvine)

Beer is our obsession and we're late for therapy! 2000 MCAB Qualifiers: Spirit of Free Beer! Competition 5/22/99 (http://burp.org/SoFB99); Oregon Homebrew Festival 5/22/99 (http://www.mtsw.com/hotv/fest.html); Buzz-Off! Competition 6/26/99 (http://www.voicenet.com/~rpmattie/buzzoff) Send articles for __publication_only__ to post@hbd.org If your e-mail account is being deleted, please unsubscribe first!! To SUBSCRIBE or UNSUBSCRIBE send an e-mail message with the word "subscribe" or "unsubscribe" to request@hbd.org. **SUBSCRIBE AND UNSUBSCRIBE REQUESTS MUST BE SENT FROM THE E-MAIL ACCOUNT YOU WISH TO HAVE SUBSCRIBED OR UNSUBSCRIBED!!!** IF YOU HAVE SPAM-PROOFED your e-mail address, the autoresponder and the SUBSCRIBE/UNSUBSCRIBE commands will fail! Contact brewery at hbd.org for information regarding the "Cat's Meow" Back issues are available via: HTML from... http://hbd.org Anonymous ftp from... ftp://hbd.org/pub/hbd/digests ftp://ftp.stanford.edu/pub/clubs/homebrew/beer AFS users can find it under... /afs/ir.stanford.edu/ftp/pub/clubs/homebrew/beer COPYRIGHT for the Digest as a collection is currently held by hbd.org (Pat Babcock and Karl Lutzen). Digests in their entirity CANNOT be reprinted/reproduced without this entire header section unless EXPRESS written permission has been obtained from hbd.org. Digests CANNOT be reprinted or reproduced in any format for redistribution unless said redistribution is at absolutely NO COST to the consumer. COPYRIGHT for individual posts within each Digest is held by the author. Articles cannot be extracted from the Digest and reprinted/reproduced without the EXPRESS written permission of the author. The author and HBD must be attributed as author and source in any such reprint/reproduction. (Note: QUOTING of items originally appearing in the Digest in a subsequent Digest is exempt from the above. Home brew clubs NOT associated with organizations having a commercial interest in beer or brewing may republish articles in their newsletters and/or websites provided that the author and HBD are attributed. ASKING first is still a great courtesy...) JANITORS on duty: Pat Babcock and Karl Lutzen (janitor@hbd.org)
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 08:29:15 -0400 (EDT) From: Paul Shick <SHICK at JCVAXA.jcu.edu> Subject: Re: Pot caramelizing wort Hello all, Brian Dixon asks about what to expect from his initial foray into pot caramelizing wort. Brian described using his 160K burner on the first runnings (it sounds pretty explosive!) I've only tried this with a smoked Scotch ale, but the results were pretty amazing. The caramel flavors you get this way are very different from what you get from crystal malts. It blends really nicely into the flavor of a wee heavy, at least in my limited experieince. I boiled my first runnings on a wimpy stovetop burner, reducing about 4 quarts to less than 1 quart over about 25 minutes. Brian, I might worry a bit about scorching, using a 160K burner. In my case, the Scotch ale had some peat smoked malt that might have masked any scorched flavors. On the other hand, a wee bit of scorching might add a note of complexity to your wee heavy. Paul Shick Basement brewing in Cleveland Hts OH Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 14:35:52 +0200 From: CALAMIDA Alessandro <alessandro.calamida at fiat.com> Subject: Re: Water treatment In HBD #3014 AlK wrote: <snip> However, modern water treatment aside, traditionally, the beer that was brewed in these famous brewing cities (Munich/Munchner Dunkel, London/Porter, Burton-upon-Trent/Pale Ales...) was made with untreated water. Today, they can make Pils in Dublin, but back then, they couldn't. <snip> What I'd really love to see are "*suggested* water profiles" associated to beer style definitions. Is it so absurd? Isn't water the main ingredient of beer, after all ? Water content for the various ions could be given as "acceptable ranges", some could even have "don't care" values. Yes, I have those tables with water profiles for the main brew cities, but one has to know where a given style is brewed AND I guess not every style comes from those few cities. Alessandro Calamida Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 08:34:46 -0400 From: Paul Haaf <haafbrau1 at juno.com> Subject: Take one down.../ kegged mead As far as not having bottles to 'pass around', how about filling a growler? I use emptied and washed bottles of 'Mississippi Mud' for my growlers. They are dark bottles with a wide mouth, and they're 32 oz. Two of them is almost a 6 pack. and the carbonation stays in the second while you're working on the first. BTW, 'MM' is a black & tan available in New Jersey and there's a 'gator on the bottle. Do I here banjo music? 8-) Beware of kegged mead!! Personal experience has shown me the error of my ways. No it hasn't, I'll probably do it again, when I free up the current mead keg. Storing at room temp seems to have no ill effect, and I've had it in the keg for over 2-3 months. The only problem is that it disappears faster. Enjoy. Salut, Paul Haaf ___________________________________________________________________ You don't need to buy Internet access to use free Internet e-mail. Get completely free e-mail from Juno at http://www.juno.com/getjuno.html or call Juno at (800) 654-JUNO [654-5866] Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 09:02:40 -0400 From: Marc Sedam <marc_sedam at unc.edu> Subject: chlorine vs. iodophor Joy Hansen wrote in HBD #3014: <snip> "Of course, the chlorine wouldn't have much effect on the idophor; however, the lack of chlorine in the city water could introduce beer spoilage organisms into the nutrient rich environment of my wort!" <snip> Is this true? I would guess that, if the local water authority used sodium hypochlorite (plain ol' bleach) to chlorinate the water that it WOULD affect the iodophor. Hypochlorite (and chloramines, methinks) is basic, while iodophor is in a phosphoric acid solution, as I recall. Just for fun, I poured a few drops of bleach into an iodophor-laden carboy. The ruddy color disappeared immediately, signifying to me that all the sanitizing properties associated with iodophor were now over. Would it be possible for iodophor to have limited sanitizing abilities in water heavily treated with chlorine? Marc Sedam "Ideas you may believe are absurd ultimately lead to success!" -last night's fortune cookie Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 09:28:36 -0500 From: Tidmarsh Major <ctmajor at samford.edu> Subject: re: Hops in Beer and Dutch Badger writes: >I would love to get my hands on the recipe. what source it from? The source is an unpublished 14th C manuscript held by the Reynolds Historical Library at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and the subject of my recently completed dissertation. I have excerpts (including the mead recipe on folio 20r) on the web at http://parallel.park.uga.edu/~tmajor/MS/ >I mean to say, that beer is what they called ale with hops... which >was primarily a product of the Flemish. . . . >When you say Late addition, do you mean Late period meaning (to my sca >brain) 1500+? There really is no distinction now-a-days.. I have >vague memories of Ale and beer coming into such usage around 1300? >(QDA) Don't have my brewing library in my head. I haven't done any research about when the distinction arose, so my dates are guesswork, but it seems to have arisen around the time the Dutch began importing beer to England, somewhere around the early 15th C, so it seems my definition of late (as in late Middle Ages) is similar to yours. I have an article at home on the words ale and beer in Germanic, and I'll be happy to dig up the reference if you're interested in historical linguistics. waes hael, Tidmarsh Major Birmingham, Alabama Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 10:29:24 -0400 From: Matt Brooks <mabrooks at erols.com> Subject: Phosphate removal using Calcium In HBD 3003.... >>Secondly, extreme amounts of calcium in the brewing >>liquor ( maybe by using the more soluble chloride) >>precipitate too much of the phosphate and the pH falls >>and, more importantly, the mash and wort is starved of >>phosphate. A bad thing for the mash pH and the yeast. And a response in 3014.... >This is a good point and I will check my pH next time, but I'm pretty >sure that it was reasonable. You would have to use an awful lot of CaSO4 or CaCl to precipitate phosphate (PO4) in water or wort. In the field of Water Treatment, phosphate is removed with quicklime or CaO (generally added in a slaked form of CaOH2), when added in this form the pH of the water rises quickly. I t is important to note that this is not an equivalent per equivalent based reaction as many chemical reactions are, it is a pH dependent reaction and phosphate WILL NOT PRECIPITATE (as hydroxyapatite) UNTIL THE pH REACHES 11.0 (or higher), after which point there is no stopping the reaction less you add an acid to lower the pH below 11.0. I seriously doubt anyone would/could be adding enough Calcium (Ca anything) to get the pH up above 11.0 ? (even if your alkalinity was low to begin with) Matt B. Northern VA. Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 27 Apr 1999 00:39:06 +0930 From: Brad McMahon <brad at sa.apana.org.au> Subject: Aussie Big Brew 99 sites If the other Australian sites involved in Big Brew 99 could drop me an e-mail, that would be nice. Some of you may not be aware that we are co-ordinating with other international sites, and we would love to have you aboard. In fact any other international sites involved, write and say hello. Brad Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 12:02:19 -0400 From: "Russell, D. A. (David)" <drussel3 at ford.com> Subject: Recipe standardization Al Korzonas #3013: "A good recipe should say "high sulphate" or "low sulphate" or "low bi/carbonate" if this is important... A good recipe should specify the brand of malt... if one brewer used blowoff or skimming and the other didn't. This should be specified in the recipe, but it rarely is..." These are great points. When I first started out, I created my own "format" for documenting my recipe for my self. The format I now get is from my "brewing formulation software", of which I have suggested some formatting changes to the program creator. Is there any accepted format that is out there? Has the AHA or BJCP organiztions set about a standard format? (I know of the AHA recipe form, but there are many missing pieces there) Should the brewing formulation software developers set about standardizing this? Anyone else got any comments? Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 11:23:13 -0500 From: Vachom <MVachow at newman.k12.la.us> Subject: lawnmower beer In HBD #3013 Harry asks for a definition of lawmower beer. Let's work backwards and infer such a definition. Imagine a July Louisiana day, 90F at 9am, 80% humidity. The lawn's a mess, consequent spousal disapproval. As you yank futilely on the starter cord of the recalcitrant mower, you envision a beer awaiting you at the end, or perhaps a beer or two midway. Paradoxically, as the sweat clouds your vision, that beer comes into greater focus. Is it a stout? The stomach jumps in revulsion at the prospect of the roasty darkness of this brew that belongs to moments of quiet leisure in a cool pub. An IPA--closer to it, the hops aroma laying siege to the thirst, but then such a strong beer. . . .power tools. . . .severed hand. A kolsch or a pilsener, then? Ideal, yet wouldn't it be a bit regrettable to gulp down these difficult-to-brew styles and miss all of their charming subtleties? The parameters of this beer begin to emerge: a thirst-quenching session beer light in gravity, low to medium hop bitterness, an easy-to-brew beer. The simplest option: bag the third parameter and buy it. Some homebrewers quite justifiably argue that one should not waste time brewing a beer that is going to be swilled in a frenzy of thirst slaking. Perhaps, these brewers would argue, this is the only defendable raison d'etre for Coors. I have to admit I fall into this pattern of thinking occasionally. Luckily, I have a local brewery, Dixie, that brews a respectable, ricey CAP that's worlds tastier than Coors and makes it possible for me to support locally. But more often, I have on hand my summer house beer, an American wheat. This all-purpose, low-gravity brew is a true thirst quencher, yet in slower moments the back-of-the-throat, flowery dryness imparted by the wheat and the straight-forward yeast (1056) proves to be an enjoyable subtlety. Best of all, the combination of the simplicity of the recipe and the fact that I've brewed it so many times makes for a short brew session. This style is much abused by style purists who argue that its central characteristic is the lack thereof, but I think it's the macdaddy of lawnmower beers. Mow beer, Mike New Orleans, LA Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 12:49:40 -0400 From: "Nathaniel P. Lansing" <delbrew at compuserve.com> Subject: Oxy-cap sanitaion I had reported what a person at one manufacturer of oxygen scavenging caps had told me. Al K says, "Secondly, this goes against what the lead engineer of the original oxygen-absorbing caps told me personally (on the phone). He recommended bleach solution at a rate of 200ppm free chlorine or iodophor at a rate of 12.5 to 25 ppm titratable iodine." Don't shoot the messenger, I'm just saying what the the guy told me, that chlorine and iodophor are both oxidizers and will instantaneously destroy the oxygen scavenging capabilities of the caps. I talked to the other company that makes the caps with the clear liner. Perhaps the formulations are dissimilar enough that chlorine will effect one but not the other. >>Posting 5: Extracted from file: 1009 >>Date: Mon, 9 Nov 92 16:20 CST >>From: korz at iepubj.att.com >>Subject: Re: Smartcaps >> >>Someone (sorry) asked about SmartCap(tm) sterilizing. >> >>A few months ago, Craig Martens posted a "letter" written by Bruce Zenner >>who headed the development of SmartCaps for Aquanautics. He said that >>indeed the oxygen scavenging is activated by exposure to high humidity >>and that boiling would render the caps virtually equal to regular caps. >>He suggested that a water/household bleach solution or sodium metabisulphite >>should be used to sanitize the caps. >>Al. Is the "he" that suggested using sodium metabisulphite, Bruce Zenner, who headed the developement of the caps? Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 18:52:34 +0200 From: mark <shrike.cars at accesinternet.com> Subject: Brewpubs in France? Hi fellow beer digesters, I will shortly be taking a trip around France, I was wondering if anyone knew of any brewpubs in France? Maybe a webpage or a listing? (But not the allaboutbeer page, I have seen it already and know of these) Are there any new ones? Please e-mail me direct as well as post to the digest, I do not always have time to read the Digest... Thanks! Prost! Mark mark at awfulquiet.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 12:54:16 -0400 (EDT) From: "Jeffrey A. F. Hittinger" <jhitt at engin.umich.edu> Subject: RE: Hallertau Hops -- Summary In HBD #3006, I asked: >1) Does Hallertau Hallertau actually exist, or is this just really sloppy > nomenclature? If the latter, when one refers to Hallertau or > Hallertau Hallertau, which strain do they actually mean? I would tend > to think that it is the latter, and what is meant by the vague > appellation is a noble Hallertau hop like Mittelfrueh or it's closest > descendent, since strains like Tradition are meant to provide > Mittelfrueh-like characteristics from a heartier plant. > >2) Is there a definitive book on hops out there which someone can > recommend? I find that most of the books on homebrewing overly > simplify the discussion on hops. Thanks to all who replied. Here's a summary of the information which I have obtained: On the Nomenclature of "Hallertau" hops: - ---------------------------------------- According to Garetz ("Using Hops"), German hop names have a traditional form which reflects information about the growing regions and strains. This is an important piece of information, since the quality of the hops is highly dependent on the environment in which they grow. For instance, noble European hops, when transplanted to North America, lose their noble qualities. German hop names typically have two or three parts. The first part of the name should be an adjective referring to the region in which the hops were grown, for example, Hallertau, Hersbruck, or Spalt. The second part of the name describes the variety (cultivar) by the region where the strain originated; typically, this is constructed by adding the suffix -er to the region name. Thus, hops originating in the Hersbruck region would be called Hersbrucker, and if that hop strain were grown in the Hallertau region, it would be called "Hallertau Hersbrucker". Thus, "Hallertau Hallertauer" would be a type of hop originating in the Hallertau region ("Hallertauer") as well as grown in the Hallertau region. "Hallertau Hallertau", from my original question, is not a valid name. Now, there can also be a third label which specifies a particular substrain. One of the noble hops is "Hallertauer Mittelfrueh", which, if grown in the Hallertau region, is actually "Hallertau Hallertauer Mittelfrueh". In German "Mittelfrueh" means "middle-early", and denotes that this hop matures "middle-early" in the growing season. However, other subvarieties have been developed there, such as "Hallertau Hallertauer Tradition". As far as I know, sub-varietal names have no particular convention. What makes things difficult is that parts of the name are often dropped. For instance, "Hallertau Hallertauer Mittelfrueh" is often just referred to as "Hallertauer Mittelfrueh". In polite company, the adjective "Hallertau" is understood, but, in general, this name is vague since it does not tell you where the hop was actually grown. You might also see "Hallertau Hallertauer", but this gives no clue as to which subvariety it is, and subvarieties can be quite different. So, be careful when buying hops, and try to get as much information as possible. The labeling more often then not will be vague, and, in my experience, most distributers in this country poorly label their products; I wouldn't expect them to adhere to the German labeling structure. If you want German Hallertau Hersbrucker hops, and they just say "Hallertau Hersbrucker" or "Hersbrucker", don't assume that they're German - ask. American-grown hops are no substitute for the European counterparts of the same name. References on Hops: - ------------------- Here are some of the books people have suggested, in no particular order: Books ----- "Using Hops" by Mark Garetz The most popular reference, perhaps because of it's price and availability. It has a good section on hop varieties, but several respondents have questioned the accuracy of some of the more technical aspects of the book, like his formulae. Price is $16.95 +s&h from Amazon.com; you can often obtain this book from homebrew supply shops. "Homebrewing - Volume I" by Al Korzonas This book gets a lot of praise. It has a chapter on hops and an appendix of 95 hop varieties. Price is $17.00 (including s&h); from Sheaf & Vine, http://www.brewinfo.com/brewinfo/ "The Classic Guide to Hops", Zymurgy Special Issue (1997), v20, n4. IMHO, the most valuable article in this is "What's your IBU?" by Michael Hall which compares the methods for calculating IBUs recommended by several authors of books on brewing. There are also articles on hop physiology, growing hops, hop history, etc. Price is $9.95+s&h; from the AHA, http://beertown.org/cgi-bin/mvend/catalog "The Hops Atlas" by Barth, Klinke, and Schmidt Joh. Barth & Sohn is the oldest hop trading company in the world, located in Nuremberg, Germany. Gail Elber, Associate Editor of Brewing Techniques, writes: "It contains more than you would ever want to know about the history and current practices of hop cultivation worldwide and a good deal about the history of brewing, but not so much about the characteristics of the varieties, though it does have photos of cones and leaves of the German varieties." Price is $59.00 +s&h; from Joh. Barth & Sohn, http://www.johbarth.com/ "Brewing Techniques' 1998 Brewers' Market Guide" Gail Elber, Associate Editor of Brewing Techniques, writes: "[This] contains a directory of pretty much every hop in the world with its specifications, plus information from Mark Garetz on how to understand the specifications." Price is $7.50+s&h; call Brewing Techniques at (541) 687-8534 to order. Here are some web sites on the subject of hops in no particular order: URLs ---- http://hbd.org/brewery/Library.html#Hops http://www.realbeer.com/hops/ http://www.breworld.com/hops/ http://www.johbarth.com/ http://www.bohemiahop.cz/ http://www.john-i-haas.com/variety.htm http://www.hopunion.com/educat.htm http://www.uvm.edu/~pass/perry/hops.html Thanks to: - ---------- Stephen Alexander <steve-alexander at worldnet.att.net> Herb Bexley <BreslerHS at aol.com> Gail Elber <gail at brewtech.com> Al Korzonas <korz at brewinfo.com> Tom Plunkard <tommagic at ix.netcom.com> Marc Sedam <marc_sedam at unc.edu> Bill Tobler <WCTobler at brazoria.net> J- - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeffrey A. F. Hittinger Office: (734) 764-7573 W.M. Keck Foundation CFD Laboratory CFD Lab: (734) 936-0107 Department of Aerospace Engineering Fax: (734) 763-0578 The University of Michigan Pager: (734) 651-9586 Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 09:58:33 PDT From: "Brian Dixon" <briandixon at hotmail.com> Subject: Recent issue of BT uninteresting? I guess I didn't really have to continue the thread, but someone recently posted something like "Is it just me or was the recent issue of BT uninteresting?" Well Wally, I think that any time a rag has at least one article that's interesting or applies, then I'm pretty lucky ... considering the extremely broad range of readers out there. In this case, the 2 articles that stand out (in order) in my mind are a) the article on removing chloramines by the forever- inspiring A.J. deLange (thanks, A.J.!), and b) the all-electric brewery. In the case of the water treatment, a very brief read of the very first part of the article explains why we should be concerned and what the current municipal water treatment trends are. The rest of the article explains what chloramines are, what risks your brew has when these are present and how to get rid of them. (For more info, try this web site: http://www.ccwa.com/chloramines.htm, Central Coast Water Authority (Santa Barbara, CA)) And on the all-electric brewery, it seems like I've seen a bunch of questions around here from people in types of housing or situations where the use of propane or natural gas is not a good idea, e.g. basement brewing, apartment brewing, brewing in closed garages etc. Seems like that article is pretty self- explanatory for those that need it. I guess the original poster of the "uninteresting" statement must have pure water and an open garage (cool!). In any case, I just wanted to get this off my chest. Thanks for the bandwidth! Brian _______________________________________________________________ Get Free Email and Do More On The Web. Visit http://www.msn.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 13:51:21 -0400 (EDT) From: Paul Shick <SHICK at JCVAXA.jcu.edu> Subject: In defense of CACA Hello all, The queue has been kind of short lately, so I thought this might be a good time to continue a thread started by Jeff Renner, before he became the center of the homebrewing universe. Like many others, I was inspired by Jeff to try making a Classic American Pilsener, which aside from being a great beer style has a nice acronym. It's a style I've really grown to like, and I usually do at least two 10-12 gallon batches of it a year. My recipes vary considerably in terms of hopping or percent of maize in the grist, but they're pretty faithful to Jeff's vision. (Except for the yeast: I find Wyeast 2112 California lager at 50F yields a clean, malty finish, even with a pretty low mash temperature.) As Jeff has said here repeatedly, it's a beer anyone can enjoy: tasty and subtle enough for "real" beer drinkers, but accessible enough for those more used to megaswill. My only complaint about the style is that it's too popular a beer to take so long to mature! My friends who throw large parties are always after a keg or two of CAP, often on fairly short notice. In desperation, I've taken to making the "sort of ale" variant of a CAP, the Classic American Cream Ale (hereafter referred to as CACA.) I'm convinced that this is at least as nice a beer style, but that its unfortunate acronym will keep it from widespread popularity. Following Jeff's lead, the grist of a CACA should include 10+% maize, to add grainy sweetness and lightness of body. This is balanced by fairly assertive hopping, 35 or so IBUs, much beyond the AHA guidelines for a cream ale. I've grown to like the style even more than CAP lately, because a fairly clean ale yeast still adds just a bit of fruitiness onto the CAP flavor profile. This seems to add some nice complexity, without being distracting. CACA is also a great style for using first wort hopping (with American versions of Hallertau-type hops,) because the hop flavor isn't as hidden as much as it is in fruitier British styles. Finally, a CACA can be quite ready to drink in 2 or 3 weeks from brewing, if you use a clean dry yeast (like Danstar's Nottingham.) This makes a popular party beer convenient! Of course, any fairly clean American or Canadian ale yeast would work as well, or better, but for quickness and convenience, it's hard to beat the Nottingham. So, without anyone asking (or before you can ask me not to post it,) here's a recipe for a CACA. Unfortunate Acronym CACA (11 gallons) OG 1.054 FG 1.010 (Pretty good attenuation, eh?) 17 lbs Briess 2 row 2 lbs Weissheimer Munich 3 lbs Briess flaked maize (I'm still a wimp about cereal cooking, or I might try grits. Sorry, Jeff.) 1.5 oz US Liberty whole hops (4.1%) First Wort 2 oz German Perle pellets (7.0%) 60 minutes 1 oz US Hallertau whole (3.9%) 10 min .5 oz US Liberty 10 min .5 oz US Hall. steep while cooling 1 oz US Liberty steep " " 4 5g pkgs Danstar Nottingham yeast (.5 tsp Irish moss added to kettle at 20 min, if you're planning to serve this fairly young. Otherwise skip this.) I use a converted keg "semi-RIMS" setup, but it should be easy to adapt these procedures to any system. Dough in the grains with 7.5 gallons 166F water (w/ .5 tsp gypsum, 1 tsp CaCl2 for my water (kind of "average")) to hit 152F. Rest 30 min, then apply heat and recirculate to raise to 158 at 45 minutes, 164F at 60 min, begin runoff. (Remember to add the FWH hop charge to the kettle before beginning the runoff.) Sparge w/ 7-8 gallons 170F water, treated with 1.5 tsp 10% phosphoric acid (again, works for MY water. YMMV) Collect 12.5 gallons in brewpot in 25 minutes (yeah, I know, too fast, but I still think you get less astringency with a faster runoff and I'm willing to live with an extra pound or two of malt...) Wait a few minutes after reaching boil to add the bittering hops, etc. Cool as usual (my immersion chiller takes at least 30 minutes, so that I probably get more bitterness out of my late hop additions than some;) to about 70 F. Pitch yeast (you should rehydrate the dry yeast, of course, but the world won't end if you don't.) If the fermenting temperature is to be a bit low, you might consider pitching the yeast at 75 or so F, to add more fruitiness. Aerate well (especially if life is too chaotic to rehydrate properly.) Ferment at 65F for 2-3 weeks, keg. I force carbonate with 30psi at 65F, shaking for 5-7 minutes, then chill. Serve at 45F to emphasize the malt profile. It ends up being a surprisingly interesting beer, with a nice balance between malt and bitterness, pervasive hop flavor from the FWH, but with a nice added slightly fruity note from the ale yeast. The kegs certainly disappear quickly! Paul Shick Basement brewing in Cleveland Hts OH Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 10:57:54 -0700 From: "Bayer, Mark A" <Mark.Bayer at JSF.Boeing.com> Subject: hop + sulfate collective homebrew conscience_ al k wrote: <snip>I again would like to argue against this >alleged "harsh bitterness" attributed to sulphate. Also, now it seems >that somehow (probably not Jeff's fault) there is some association between >this harshness and noble hops. The brewers of Munich, Koeln, Vienna >and Dortmund certainly use a lot of noble hops, yet their waters can have >sulphate levels of 80, 86, 125 and 280, respectively. *speculation mode on* (i.e., pgdwn if you need hard evidence) perhaps higher sulfate levels in wort do not bring about an absolute harshness, but rather depend on the hopping level. so if you have 150 ppm of sulfate and you're brewing a pilsner, you would see a difference once you got beyond, say, 30 ibu's. with 50 ppm of sulfate, you could go to 45 ibu's without creating a harsh profile, etc. (caution: these numbers are pulled out of thin air to illustrate the unproven hypothesis. do not put them in your database.) if you're brewing munich helles, klsch, vienna lager, or dortmunder, you may not have to worry because your bittering level has not reached the "threshhold" at which the water supply's amount of sulfate brings out perceptible and objectionable harshness. the brewers in these cities would have discovered this effect empirically. they would not have had a laboratory to analyze it; instead they would have cut back on the kettle hops until the beer tasted okay, gradually establishing the classic style associated with their city. *speculation mode off* brew hard, mark bayer saint louis missouri Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 12:44:34 -0700 From: Bryan Gros <bryang at xeaglex.com> Subject: mead yeast starters What is the best way to make a yeast starter for a mead? Should I use honey and yeast nutrient to simulate the conditions where I want they yeast to ferment? Or should I use a malt starter to provide extra nutrients/amino acids and whatever? thanks. - Bryan Bryan Gros Oakland CA Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 15:23:55 -0500 From: AJ <ajdel at mindspring.com> Subject: SO4/SO4/PO4/Distillation Larry Maxwell describes the taste of Bass as chalky. I'll buy that but I'm more inclined to say the taste is "mineral". One can easily get some idea of part of what the various salts do in beer by naking up solutions of epsom salts (magnesium sulpahte), baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), gypsum (calcium sulphate), table salt (sodium chloride) and calcium chloride in various strengths and tasting them (start with dilute solutions first). Though authors write that magnesium and bicarbonate are bitter, don't expect epsom salts, for example, to pucker you the way a 70 IBU Pils does. These salts are bitter but it is a very subtle bitterness in the quantities found in ever Burton water. By the way, don't swallow any but the smallest amount of these test solutions. Even plain old table salt can make you sick. I say that because you will probably find that you have to put a lot of salt into a sample to get it to the point where you really taste it. As I said, that's part of the story. The issue here is really the synergism between sulfate and hops. About the only way to really appreciate that is to prepare some wort, split it into two batches, supplement the sulfate in one (befor boiling) and make two beers with identical hopping levels. It is ineteresting to do this with noble hops such as Saaz and with an English variety such as the classic East Kent Goldings. I'm not sure whether to call the effect of even modest levels of sulfate on Saaz as astringent, bitter, harsh or just "not too good". I think I lean towards "harsh". * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Al K asks about an economical method for removing sulfate. I guess "economical" means different things to different people. This aside the only practical methods that I can think of off hand are reverse osmosis and anion exchange. The former removes (to greater or lesser extent) all ions so that makeup with supplemental salts is necessary. The latter swaps sulfate for some other anion. While I'm pretty certain that special exchange configurations could be had the most common anion exchange is for (OH)- and resins which do this are usually combined with cation exchange resins which substitute H+ for the cations. Thus the pH of the water processed through the combination stays the same. This water is thus deionized and must also be supplemented with desired anions. For the home brewer the easiest way to control sulfate is to dilute with deionized water, suplementing with salts for any desired ion which is diluted more than desired. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Joy Hansen mentions the precipitate which forms when iodophore is used in bicarbonate waters. Actually it is not, I believe, the bicarbonate which causes the precipitate but the calcium (and pehaps magnesium) which, with the bicarbonate comprise the "temporary hardness". I too have reasonably bicarbonate water (alkalinity 80 - 100) with hardness a bit over 100. When used as is, the precipitate forms. When run through a home water softenter which substitutes sodium for Ca/Mg the precipitate does not form. The softener does not change the bicarbonate level. I seem to recall reading somewhere (quite possibly here) that iodophor is acidified with phosphoric acid (this should be easy enough to verify and if I get a few minutes spare I'll do that). If so, I suspect the precipitate is calcium phosphate which is extremely insoluble in water. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Al K writes about a couple of fellows who killed themselves with their moonshine. I'll bet they drank the "heads" and/or "tails". The former contains aldehydes and ketones which are quite poisonous (most of us know the effects of acetaldehyde poisoning through hangovers) and the latter higher alcohols. The Germans call these "fusel" which means "bad booze". Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 13:24:58 -0700 From: Bryan Gros <bryang at xeaglex.com> Subject: Contamination from CO2 Brook Raymond wrote: >I checked out Brewing Techniques web page and found and interesting article >describing an brewing experiment (sorry can't remember the Title at the >moment, but I'm sure many of you are aware of this study since the >participants were from HBD). >Anyway, I poked around with the data and found conclusive evidence that >contaminated samples were caused by force carbonation.<snip> About >half of the naturally carbonated samples were contaminated, but all of the >forced carbonated samples were contaminated As others have said, this observation is hardly conclusive evidence. An interesting observation though. It seem unlikely that the assortment of bacteria that Louis measured would be living in a CO2 environment under 800 pounds of pressure. Perhaps, though, it is kegging that tends to lead to an increase in contamination. I have wondered about this myself (yes, I was one of the infected people, and I did keg and force carbonate. Good beer, though...) I probably don't do a very thorough cleaning as often as I should. I wonder what is lurking inside of the poppet valves, in the crannies of the disconnects, etc. Fighting mold in my chest freezer is a constant battle. Just yesterday, I took George deP's advice and tried cleaning inside of the long tube in the keg. I didn't have anything to clean a gun barrel as recommended, so I straightened a coat hanger and took a piece of rag and shoved it through. Went in white, came out brown. Apparently, lots of gunk builds up in the dip tubes. My keged beer has never tasted off, but after bottling it and shipping it across the country, I can understand why it wasn't perfectly clean. I'm stepping up my sanitation routine... - Bryan Bryan Gros Oakland CA gros at bigfoot.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 22:57:58 +0200 From: "Dr. Pivo" <irv at wireworks.se> Subject: Just another sulfate taste There has been some discussion of late, and at previous times, about the exact taste of "Sulfates". Having had the occasion to drink some sulfates on repeated occasions, I might describe how that came about, how you yourself can recreate it, and my impressions of the flavour. When doing "sheet-rocking" (this is called "dry-walling" in some English speaking countries, but I don't recall which) If I sit my coffee cup down, and then really go at trying to fit a piece around a window with a jig-saw, and create a pile of dust in the air, I get a Calcium Sulfate or "gypsum" blast on my next swig from the cup. I would describe it as slightly astringent (though nowhere near so as its cousin Aluminium Sulfate, or Alum, with which a simple touch on your tongue, will turn your face into a raisen), slightly bitter (which is, after all, a close relative of astringency), and in more aesthetic terms, describe it as a "clean, dry taste". I kind of like it.... wouldn't dream of covering my mug when doing such work. But then again, that's just my description, and won't help anyone else taste it by proxy. Perhaps the best way to understand its taste, is to, well, er, uh "taste it".(now there's a novel idea). I hate to propose such broad experimentation, without any means of confirming your results, but should you not be planning on doing any sheet-rocking, with a full coffee cup beside, if you have any gypsum around for brewing or mask making purposes, perhaps you might mix a little bit in a beverage (hey! how 'bout a beer?). It's pretty distinctive, and then you would know exactly what it tastes like. You wouldn't then have to follow my taste description, but could make up one of your own (we do perceive things differently). And then I could read your description and tell you that you were "wrong". Wouldn't that be fun? Dr. Pivo Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 15:25:39 -0600 From: "Trevor Good" <t.good at printwest.com> Subject: Honey Beer I have recently brewed a mead and a Honey Cinnimon Wheat beer thinking that the flavour of the honey would remain. I appreciate the dryness that the honey adds ( it compliments the cinnimon flavour beautifully ) but i would like to leave the honey flavour. The only way I think this will work is to prime with honey. Has anyone done this? How much would I use on a five gallon batch? Is there another way to leave the honey flavour in the beer? Also I would like to thank all the people who responded to my question about diabetics and beer. All information was appreciated. To keep you up to date my friend brewed his second batch recently. Trevor Good I got more questions than answers Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 16:51:15 -0500 (CDT) From: BrewInfo <brewinfo at xnet.com> Subject: implosion... not! I wrote: >Oh, and AJ, please take my advice and de-aerate your test water >as I suggested earlier: gently pour boiling water into a Corny and >pressurise with nitrogen so the cooling doesn't draw a vacuum. For the record, I was not expecting implosion, but rather the drawing of air into the keg, which would spoil the purpose of this exercise (to de-oxigenate the water). Al. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 26 Apr 1999 20:30:27 -0700 From: Ted McIrvine <McIrvine at ix.netcom.com> Subject: Has anyone kegged Mead? Alan McKay <amckay at ottawa.com> asked about kegging mead. Perhaps my most successful mead (at least the judges thought so) was a plain mead that went through a 3 month fermentation, was kegged and served at a party, and then lagered cold for another three months before bottling and victory in a competition. I suspect that kegging the mead left a blanket of CO2 that minimized oxidation while letting some of the flavors mellow and blend. However, I don't serve kegged mead at parties without a warning on the keg so that my guests are aware that they are quaffing a beverage of wine or champagne strength instead of my usual 45 gravity house bitter. Cheers Ted And good luck on that move, Alan. I'm fortifying my sister-in-law with mead tonight because her family is moving. Return to table of contents
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