HOMEBREW Digest #3470 Sat 04 November 2000

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  vol%alcoholbyweight (JohanNico)" <JohanNico.Aikema at akzonobel.com>
  MCAB update ("Louis K. Bonham")
  Dr Pivo's reflections, cutting kegs , volume in a beer line (craftbrewer)
  Re Keg conversions ("Grant Stott")
  Will the true bladder fermenter please stand up. ("Dr. Pivo")
  water (Crossno)
  Hello (Cabeca Dopenis)
  Virtual RIMS (Richard Foote)
  Beer Party? ("First Name Last Name")
  Fridge defrosting (fridgeguy)
  Re: Water Salts (Jeff Renner)
  Re: Calculus ("Stephen Alexander")
  water salts ("Paddock Wood Brewing Supplies")
  Pseudo-lager (Matthew t Marino)
  Dry Hopping bottles ("Jay Wirsig")
  Doh! Bulkhead Patent Infringement! ;-) (John Palmer)
  Mini-Keg Bungs ("Steve Wood/Tucson/Contr/IBM")
  Enzyme Kinetics - part 2 ("Stephen Alexander")
  Re: SG to Alcohol/Plastic/Unibroue yeast ("Stephen Alexander")
  re: Kettle valve (John_E_Schnupp)
  London Visit (Barry Wertheimer)
  Head Retentioin (Spencer W Thomas)
  Triumph Roggenbock (Spencer W Thomas)
  Rubber coated 1/2bbl kegs and co2 driven HLT (Tombrau)
  chillin' and breakin' (Aaron Robert Lyon)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 06:42:49 +0100 From: "Aikema, J.N. (JohanNico)" <JohanNico.Aikema at akzonobel.com> Subject: vol%alcoholbyweight Hi, Jeff Lutes has the same problem as I, in calculating the % alcohol. And the answers (OG-FG)*.129 (OG-FG)*133.3 (OG-FG)*131 (OG-FG)*.1275 (OG-FG)*1.25 (OG-FG)/75 (OG-FG)*105 are confusing. Chris Cooper uses a nice table, but it contains the same factor (7.6) for all the attenuations. I once read in Zymurgy (I think) about using different factors. At O.G. 1.020 7.5 O.G. 1.040 7.4 O.G. 1.060 7.2 O.G. 1.080 7.1 O.G. 1.100 7.0 O.G. 1.120 6.9 Do remember, this is an ESTIMATED alcohol %. On my website I've copied the method for measuring the exact % alcohol and OG in beer (in Dutch for the moment). This method needs a distilling apparatus and a very accurate way to measure the specific weight of liquids. http://www.hopbier.myweb.analyses.html Greetings from Holland (Europe), Hans Aikema Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 03:39:47 -0600 From: "Louis K. Bonham" <lkbonham at hypercon.com> Subject: MCAB update Hi folks: Alastair asks about MCAB III details. (A lot of folks have also written me in this regard, and unfortunately I haven't been able to respond to all of them.) As the MCAB site is out of date (it's being revised), here's the very latest from MCAB central . . . . MCAB III MCAB III will be held in the San Francisco area. Mike Riddle will be in charge of the event, which will be hosted by a consortium of Bay Area / Northern California homebrew clubs. The proposed date is April 28-29, 2001, which is a little later than last year. (Mike and his folks are having a planning meeting this weekend, and I hope to be able to announce the actual date next week.) I envision that entry packs would go out around the end of November to MCAB III qualifiers. Stay tuned. MCAB IV The MCAB Steering Committee is currently beginning the selection process for MCAB IV qualifying events and qualifying styles. If you know of a competition that should be considered, or have any thoughts as to which styles should be included, please drop me a line. As in the past, we hope to announce the MCAB IV styles and qualifying events by Thanksgiving. We're also looking for a host for MCAB IV (to be held in 2002). Interested parties should contact me. All the best -- Louis K. Bonham for the MCAB Steering Commitee Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 21:13:04 +1100 From: craftbrewer at telstra.easymail.com.au Subject: Dr Pivo's reflections, cutting kegs , volume in a beer line G'day All Now i should warn all you lot, I am in one of those reflective moods. And who wouldn't be, sitting out here on my stilt house, in the shade of the mango tree, wonderful barmy arvo, rumblings of thunder-bumpers in the distance, and a wonderful wheat flour Heffe in the hand. Well, life couldn't be better in God's own country (be it whatever God you choose or believe). And even happier knowing Dr.Pivo has finally accepted that he is but mortal and a lesser man - to quote: 'Graham has, so perhaps he knows better'. Never a truer word could have been uttered from Docs lips, and as such he himself will understand when i correct a minor mistake when he recons we have stilt houses to catch what fleeting breeze there is. Now yes squire its true you may get a breeze (if it doesn't blow you away) but this is secondary to the real reason, and that's simply we like to look down on the rest of humanity with a detached curiosity. So I flick off my newly acquired book 'Moral American for Beginners' to the dunny, chuck a fit, use b*st*ard the way its meant and but agree with aaron when he believes North Queensland is the last sane place on this earth. And the world should sh*t itself (I do) when you actually think there are those out there who think thats this is tue (thats s scary). Remember Aaron, everyone else in the world is mad but ye and me........ and I'm not to sure about ye! So as I reflect, a drop of rain here or there on the tin roof, a thought. There was a question a while back whether its the first or second decoction that gives the nice flavour, perceived or otherwise. Now the answer is obvious. Its like killing a scrubber with a sled hammer between the eyes. The first blow makes the quite an impact, but the second finishes it off. So it is for decoctions. (ah the ancient greeks had nothing on a North Queenslander). And while on deep thoughts, I should point out to all those so called knowledgables that they are just plain wrong when they use the volume of a cylinder to work out how much beer a beerline holds. Its time all you went back to school. If you put your mind to it, its not a cyclinder at all. The beer line is never perfectly straight, its coiled (Think about it people). Ah the mind is frightening when the gears start working. So with that put down, (like next doors cat) time to contemplate the next great mystery. Why is it that when I happen to offline a while, all of a sudden those southerners (aussies) come out of the woodwork. And when they do do they offer good advice. Oh no ----- we get information that is about as useful as a tit on a bull. Here was I relaxing without E-mail, thinking do i need it, and typical southerners show that the voice of reason is definitely needed, sooo I'm back. Oh, those who actually wish to, should note I have a new E-Mail address. Now I have a mountain of back issues of HBD's to get thru, so yes you will hear from me, but before I go From: "Mark Ellis" <mellis at gribbles.com.au> Subject: Kegs Cutting Mark, whats wrong witha good old fashion angle grinder mate. I did (and do occasionally for other) all my kegs with one. You only go thru one blade for cutting, one for the tidy up, all for the cost of $4.00. But there is one word of warning, wear earplugs. As you cut the keg, makes Big Ben sound like a toy. Shout Graham Sanders oh Survivor has upset all the tree huggers appartently. Something about trampling the rainforrest , upsetting the ecology etc. Seems they were given a list of not what to touch and eat that will kill them. I wonder if the wild hemp that grows all over the place up there is included. dont be surprised if they look spaced out when it goes to air. and this unworthy comment From: Jeff Renner <nerenner at umich.edu> Subject: Low gravity session bitter Hope this inspires some other brewers to brew low alcohol brews. Jeff, such talk will make you croc bait quicker than me out the window when SWMBO says "Honey, are you awake" Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 4 Nov 2000 11:24:09 +1100 From: "Grant Stott" <gstott at primus.com.au> Subject: Re Keg conversions Thanks to all who replied to my questions. I will add more than just a ball valve to the kettle, & will weigh up all suggestions before deciding. But I will probably build my 3 tier rack before touching the Keg. So it will be a while yet. BTW the price for the 10 gal Rubbermaid probably would not be too bad if I was paid in U.S. dollars, but I'm not. Grant Stott Geelong Vic Australia Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 03 Nov 2000 14:15:29 +0200 From: "Dr. Pivo" <dp at pivo.w.se> Subject: Will the true bladder fermenter please stand up. Mighty confusing stuff. Mikey writes about his bladder fermenting experience, and is quoted by Fred.... before he even made the submission. I know that Pat usually lets me read Steve's transmissions before they are published, so I can make fun of him in advance, but when did Fred get such privileges? (Sorry Pat.... hard to resist fanning the embers of paranoia). As far as the endless bladder fermenting debate goes, I am glad that Mikey has had such pleasant experience with them, but using the stomach of a cow is really quite superior, as it releases natural "renin"(a proteolytic enzyme) from the tissue, and obfuscates the need for a protein rest.... really cuts down on your brew day.... and I prefer a sirloin steak to poached cat most days of the week. Dr. Pivo Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 03 Nov 2000 07:06:13 -0600 From: Crossno <crossno at tnns.net> Subject: water rlabor at lsuhsc.edu (LaBorde, Ronald) wrote: "I would like to add to his method the idea of using a small submersible water pump in a bucket, this way, only a gallon or so of water is used, and you can venturi all day if you want. The water simply circulates." In cases of water shortages I can see this. But why is pouring water down the drain worse than killing a couple of watts? Glyn Crossno Estill Springs, TN Go Vote! Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 2 Nov 2000 16:20:52 -0800 (PST) From: Cabeca Dopenis <cabecadopenis at excite.com> Subject: Hello I hope it is ok for me to send a message. Can anyone tell me where I can get brewing supplies in Brazilia, Brazil? Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 03 Nov 2000 09:43:51 -0500 From: Richard Foote <rfoote at mindspring.com> Subject: Virtual RIMS Charles Preston wrote: >I am trepidatious (?ala Jeff) about asking advice >for building a 10 gallon RIM >system. > I was wondering if anyone has produce a video tape >of the complete construction details, and the >functions of each step? Why not take the "Virtual" concept to the next level? Our club, Chicken City Ale Raisers, has done a Virtual BrewTM web broadcast several times featuring video and chat in real time. I'll post the url with photos of our October Virtual BrewTM soon. The goal of our broadcasts is to introduce people to basic all grain brewing, showing equipment and process. Viewers, can ask questions in an interactive environment and get immediate answers. Now, if someone could take this concept with a RIMS to show construction details with interactive chat, now there's the ticket. Think of the possibilities. This would be far better than any video. If a viewer had a question about a construction detail or piece of equipment, he/she asks it and gets an immediate response. It's like distance learning. The interaction could go something like this: Q. "Hey, what's that red thingy at the lower left? Can you zoom in for a closer shot?" A. "Yeah, sure. Oh that just's my anti-HSA reverse venturi wort accelerator with polarity-switched frequency modulation harmonic resonance device. Yep, made it myself with parts from Radio Shack." Dream people. Think big. Hope this helps, Rick Foote Murrayville, GA Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 07:00:22 -0800 From: "First Name Last Name" <brian_huntley at my-deja.com> Subject: Beer Party? Alan McKay wrote: > Perhaps the idea of a beer party isn't that far-fetched. > > Up here in Canada we coincidentally have a federal election coming > very soon, too (Nov 27), and in addition to the 5 mainstream > parties there is a new Pot Party which hopes to bring attention > to the issue of legalisation of that substance. We also have had provincial Beer Party candidates on occasion. I especially remember an organization of that name on Prince Edward Island, who wanted to reform some of their odder laws, such as the ban on draft beer, or the 'drive straight home from the liquor store' requirement. At one time, it was technically illegal to drive beer home in a pickup truck or a hatchback, as there was no place to lock it away from the passengers. Bicycles didn't have that requirement. - ------------------------------------------------------------ - --== Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/ ==-- Before you buy. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 10:06:04 -0500 From: fridgeguy at voyager.net Subject: Fridge defrosting Greetings folks, In HBD #3469, Brian Pickerill did a great job of describing a defrost problem he's having with his lagering fridge and asked for troubleshooting help. This fridge should have a defrost timer attached to the frame near the compressor. Timers vary in configuration from model to model but most are in the form of a plastic module with several push-on wire terminals and with a short protruding stub or screwdriver slot to allow manually advancing through the defrost cycle. The timer is simply a time switch that periodically shuts the compressor off and energizes a heater on the evaporator coil. Many timers have a set defrost duration, after which the heater is shut off and the compressor restarted. However, some fridges add a defrost terminator to end the defrost cycle when the coil is cleared of ice, rather than waiting for the entire time period to elapse. I suspect the "thermostat" Brian found on the back of the evaporator is a defrost terminator. There a couple of possible causes for not defrosting. Most common is timer failure - the timer simply never initiates a defrost cycle. This can often be proven by manually advancing the timer through a cycle. When working properly, the timer will complete between 2 and six defrosts per day, depending on the particular fridge model. If the timer is working properly, it is possible that the terminator is ending the defrost cycle too soon. The terminator is just a thermoswitch set for 60 degF or so. If it is located too near the heater it might warm too quickly. If the fridge has an evaporator fan, make sure it is working! Fridges that use an evaporator fan will quickly ice the evaporator coil if the fan stops or slows, or if any air passages or ducts are blocked. The defrost heater is probably ok. They usually either work or fail completely. Also in the same digest, Brian Kern wants to add an external temperature controller to his free frost-free fermenting fridge and asked me to clarify a statement I made some time ago that frost-free fridges must remain powered, and not be switched through an external controller. As with all fridges, frost-free fridges can be found in many different configurations. The fridge you have might differ from what I describe. I'll describe a generic frost-free fridge, how it operates and what components it uses. Frost-free fridges often use a small evaporator coil located in the back wall of the cabinet, outside of either the fridge or freezer compartments. Fans and air ducts are used to direct cold air into the fridge and freezer compartments. These fans must run continuously for proper temperature and humidity control. The defrost timer must also be powered continuously to assure defrosting at the proper time interval. The freezer temperature control stops and starts the compressor to maintain the freezer setpoint. The fridge temperature control usually mechanically opens or closes an air shutter in the duct leading to the fridge compartment. There may be other controls (also air shutters) for meat or produce drawer temperatures. There are two ways to approach using this type of fridge for fermenting/lagering. One is to retain use of the freezer compartment for hops, etc. The usable temperature range would be from close to ambient to near freezing. This approach has the added benefit of good humidity control. The other approach is to remove or disable the defrost componentry and run the fridge and freezer at the same temperature.This approach would likely restrict cabinet temperatures to 50 degF or higher to avoid freezups, but an external temperature controller could be used. Humidity/mold could be a problem. The first approach would require mostly mechanical modifications to the air shutter and duct to the fridge compartment. If a separate evaporator fan is used for the fridge compartment, that is what an external controller should be connected to. It may be necessary to open or close the air shutter as well as stop and start the fan. Experimentation will be needed. The second approach would probably be easier but limits the usable temperature range. It may be possible to add a switch to enable/disable the defrost timer. Doing so would allow quick changeover from fermenting to lagering by restoring defrost operation and removing the external temperature controller. Whew! All of this fridge talk made me thirsty! I think I'll have some of my "Kelvinator" Doppelbock :-) Hope this helps! - ---------------------------------------- Forrest Duddles - Fridgeguy in Kalamazoo fridgeguy at voyager.net - -- Is your email secure? http://www.pop3now.com (c) 1998-2000 secureFront Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 10:46:24 -0500 From: Jeff Renner <nerenner at umich.edu> Subject: Re: Water Salts In Homebrew Digest #3469 (November 03, 2000), AJ <ajdel at mindspring.com> wrote >To put it succintly, even >if we bought the salts from the FCC (that's the Food Chemicals Codex, >not the guys that regulate television) the facility in which these would >be repackaged would be deemed a food preparation facility and subject to >all the licensing, inspections, forms... which multiple levels of >government would impose to protect the consumer from us and us from >making any profit. Perhaps he over stated the case but it was certainly >sufficient to scare me off. This shouldn't be a problem for any facility that repackages grain or malt extract, as they would also be a food preparation facility and should be licensed and complying with these regulations. I remember some ten years ago or so when local (Ann Arbor) importer/wholesaler GW Kent owner Randy Reichwage found this out, but it's really not that big a deal. He just set aside an inspected area for repackaging of grains, hops, salts, etc. I manage to comply with my little wholesale bakery in my house. Michigan may differ from other states, but here the inspectors have always been very reasonable. Well, up 'til the last inspector, that is. A new one. I knew we weren't in Kansas any more when she put on her hair net and snapped on her rubber gloves. The old inspectors would shine a flashlight around looking for bugs and mouse turds and have a cup of coffee and talk shop and that was about it. She talked about transmission of typhoid and meningitis! In bread!! And how I have to have sterilizing solution test strips, even though I don't use sterilizing solutions for anything. Except brewing. Oops, i guess I got myself started, didn't I? But really, I think any wholesaler would be able to do it, even if not a local shop. Of course, there may not be much of a market for it. Maybe Chris Farley of Northern Brewer or Lynne O'Connor of St. Pat's is already set up and would have an idea about this. AJ also wrote: >There are many ways to skin this cat. Oh, oh, now you're in for it from the animal rights people. Just ask Phil Yates. Where is Phil, btw? Hope Marilyn didn't finally seduce him into the bog with her. Jeff - -- -=-=-=-=- Jeff Renner in Ann Arbor, Michigan USA, c/o nerenner at umich.edu "One never knows, do one?" Fats Waller, American Musician, 1904-1943 Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 11:34:49 -0500 From: "Stephen Alexander" <steve-alexander at worldnet.att.net> Subject: Re: Calculus > Ha! My struggles with calculus 30 some years ago convinced me that > there is no such thing as a trivial knowledge of the subject. Ouch - I'll spot you the 5 years and try to keep it very simple and verbose. -S Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 10:43:35 -0600 From: "Paddock Wood Brewing Supplies" <orders at paddockwood.com> Subject: water salts A few have asked about custom water salts. So, please forgive the commercial intrusion... Paddock Wood introduced a ProWater salts line about 6 months ago which is precisely what posters have been requesting. (I should add the salts to the website!) $2-3 Canadian for a package to add to 23L. In any case, we do make custom water salts calculated to be added to de-ionized water, (RO water is often close enough). Specify the city, and we will do the salts. for further info drop us a line... hope this is useful, Stephen Ross -- "Vitae sine cerevisiae sugant." ______________________________________________ Paddock Wood Brewing Supplies, Saskatoon, SK orders at paddockwood.com www.paddockwood.com ADDENDUM <rant="page down to avoid soapboxing> I hesitate to get start in on this, and I'll apologize in advance. It's a bit like the plastic/glass thing. Just as there are new people asking about techniques that need help, I think there's a need to at least raise this issue every so often. A good reason for the following rant is to make good supplies more readily available to all brewers. Although I obviously have a vested interest here, I raise this issue as much as a brewer as a retailer. I'm going to suggest that brewers vote with their dollars to improve the hobby. If you've got this far, and are starting to get irritated, I'm sorry for the space, quick, hit <Page Down> now. Our store was started precisely because retailers were unwilling to carry what we needed: unwilling to bring in better selections of imported malt, unwilling to store hops vacuum sealed in a freezer, unwilling to carry liquid yeast. Neither of us are business men. We're beer geeks. Maybe the store won't survive, but if our store were to close, as a brewer I have no local or even national source for much of what we carry! The wholesale suppliers only sell to businesses, and in sizes that are impractical for the homebrewer. I'd be back to using only plain base malt, a limited selection of crystal, stale yeast, and a limited selection of pellet hops. There's not even another national mail order place that I could order things like Water Salts from. Retailers were aware of the requests, but believed that not enough customers cared. And it's true! Most brew shops make most of their profit on prepacked mass produced beer and wine kits. But that doesn't mean they can't carry the stuff that serious hobbyists need. It just means they are unwilling to give up time and floor space for something that won't make them money. We think there's a duty to support and promote the hobby even if it means having to give up a bit of profit. Some call it community involvement, but we don't do it altruistically. Making better beer possible means long term brewers, and loyal long term customers. A fellow mentioned his local shop wouldn't package the salts because of red tape hassle. We became a licensed food prep facility precisely so we could offer this type of service. The red tape is phenomenal at times, but it is the only way to offer the stock that we do. We import, blend, process, manufacture and repackage all kinds of high quality ingredients and supplies that aren't available otherwise. It's true we don't make a profit on things like Water Salts and an awful lot of other stuff that we carry. It is our fervent hope that people will support us not just for these specialty items but for ALL their needs, precisely because we go the extra mile (or km). We hope that quality and knowledgeable service will eventually win out over cheap (but high profit for the retailer) supplies. If this is not the case, then brew shops will not offer specialty items, because there is no profit margin. In fact, there is a negative margin on many of them. They only work if they act as 'loss leaders'- customers come for the specialty items, like Water Salts, but buy other goods as well. Find and support a store that carries fresh, high quality supplies, and that is knowledgeable about their stock. That doesn't mean paying more for identical supplies; retailers must be responsive to the market. But if a store is unwilling to do what it takes to get you what you need, consider switching stores -there are many fine retailers out there that will be happy to respond. If you support stores that only carry the easy cheap stuff, and you only take your brewing dollars elsewhere for hard to find stuff, there is no incentive for unresponsive retailers to change. Customers still support them enough to turn a tidy profit. This hurts the hobby! Concentrating your brewing dollars by buying all or most of your goods from a single responsive supplier is the best way to ensure that the supplies you need will be around as long as you brew... and to help ensure that your local store responds to your needs. Flames welcome by email. </rant> Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 07:51:43 -0700 From: Matthew t Marino <mattncherie at juno.com> Subject: Pseudo-lager I would like to make a good bock but I dont have the ability to ferment at recomended lager temps. I can realisticly ferment at 60 F and "lager" at 45 F. Does any one have experience with lager yeasts at this temp or even ale yeasts that might provide good results. Maybe wyeast 2112 California Lager. I also notice the temp range on Wyeast 2278 Chzech Pils is 48-64 F. Im not aiming for perfection but I'd like to come as close to style as possible. Also I was wondering what is the difference between mash efficiency (I can calculate this one) and brewhouse efficiency (dont understand this one)? Any feedback would be greatly appreciated. MADMAN ________________________________________________________________ YOU'RE PAYING TOO MUCH FOR THE INTERNET! Juno now offers FREE Internet Access! Try it today - there's no risk! For your FREE software, visit: http://dl.www.juno.com/get/tagj. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 11:28:41 -0500 From: "Jay Wirsig" <Jay.Wirsig at can.dupont.com> Subject: Dry Hopping bottles Has anybody tried adding a hop cone/flower to a bottle of bitter to get a dry hop flavour? What were the results? Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 03 Nov 2000 09:09:57 -0800 From: John Palmer <jjpalmer at gte.net> Subject: Doh! Bulkhead Patent Infringement! ;-) Well, my apologies to Glen. I went to the link for the August archive and read his bulkhead solution and lo and behold, it was the same (or nearly the same as what posted yesterday! The difference is that I added a 1/2 to 3/8 FIP Reducer coupling and 3/8 nipple because I already had 3/8 ball valves. Nice to know it's a proven design! John - -- John Palmer Palmer House Brewery and Smithy http://www.realbeer.com/jjpalmer How To Brew - the online book http://www.howtobrew.com Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 11:16:10 -0700 From: "Steve Wood/Tucson/Contr/IBM" <stevewo at us.ibm.com> Subject: Mini-Keg Bungs A few posts ago, a couple of you folks talked about using mini-keg bungs as part of the 'equation' for converting Gott cooler spouts into a bulkhead fitting. I have a 10 gal. and 5 gal. Gott cooler I want to convert. I know one poster specified a specific brand, Fass-Frisch. My question is, where do I get a mini-keg bung? Thanks, Steve Wood Corona, AZ. Internet: stevewo at us.ibm.com Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 13:29:41 -0500 From: "Stephen Alexander" <steve-alexander at worldnet.att.net> Subject: Enzyme Kinetics - part 2 At this point I intended to introduce a rather long list of definitions and notation then launch into the Michaelis-Menten equation; a most important but rather difficult to follow segment. Instead this installment will include the most basic and necessary definitions and begin the discussion of concentration and rates. A very complete and authoritative set of definitions and basics of enzyme kinetics can be found at: http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/kinetics/index.html Extracted (and abbreviated and commented) definitions from this source include: A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without modifying the overall standard Gibbs-energy change in the reaction. See http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/biochem/06/6.jpg for a nice diagram of the energy levels involved. In this example two molecules of hydrogen peroxide are catalytically converted to 2 molecules of water + an oxygen molecule. The line in red is the energy 'hurdle' or 'dam' that must be overcome with kinetic/thermal energy. When the catalyst is included that height of the hurdle is greatly reduced (blue line) and the random kinetic energy is more often able to overcome this hurdle resulting in a higher reaction rate. The website http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/biochem/index.html is a set of graphics for an undergraduate course with chapters on enzyme catalysis put up by Dr.James Hardy. It is intended for student work so let's not abuse the site, still it is well referenced by webcrawlers. An enzyme is a protein that acts as a catalyst. An inhibitor is a substance that diminishes the rate of a chemical reaction and the process is called inhibition. In enzyme-catalyzed reactions an inhibitor frequently acts by binding to the enzyme, in which case it may be called an enzyme inhibitor. An activator is a substance, other than the catalyst or one of the substrates, that increases the rate of a catalyzed reaction. An activator of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction may he called an enzyme activator if it acts by binding to the enzyme. A typical overall enzyme-catalyzed reaction involving a single substrate and a single product may be written as E + A <==> E + P where A is the substrate, E the enzyme catalyst, and P the product. The double arrows indicate that the reaction occurs in both directions, tho typically preferentially in the forward direction. The rate of consumption of a reactant of concentration [A] is defined as v(A) = - d[A] / dt At this point a little meta-notational discussion is needed. v(A)above is our name for the rate of consumption of the substrate A. [A] is the concentration of substrate A in units of moles per liter or similar. 't' is time. The expression 'd[A]/dt' is our ascii restricted notion for the change in [A] compared to the change in time. That is the rate of change of substrate concentration - this would be given in moles per liter per second for example. The minus sign is used because we have defined v(A) as the rate of *consumption* and is the opposite of the rate of production. The rate of production of product is given by v0 = v(P) = d[P] / dt (note the lack of minus sign). Kinetics is the after all the study of the rates of these reactions so a little familiarity with the notation will pay dividends. There are many factors which impact the rate of enzyme catalysis, the kinetics. The concentration of the substrate and enzyme are primary. The rates at which the enzymes are capable of catalyzing the reaction. The temperature, pH, presence of inhibitors and activators impact the rate too. We will examine these factors at various levels of detail. = Effects of Substrate Concentration on rate of Catalysis = Single Substrate case. The simplest model of enzyme activity is that of a single substrate. Consider enzyme molecules 'E' in solution with its substrate molecules 'A'. The enzyme and substrate connect and temporarily form a complex 'EA', then the product molecule 'P' and free enzyme are released . This is written: E + A ==> EA ==> E + P k1 k2 Sometimes, though infrequently, the complex fails to produce product and the first reaction reverses giving: E + A <== EA kr1 The rates of these reactions are labeled k1, and kr1 for the rates of complex formation and the reverse reaction, and k2 for conversion of the complex into product and free enzyme. It is possible for the second reaction to reverse with a rate constant kr2, however this is so energetically and probabilistically disfavored for any case we are interesting in that we will ignore this microscopic rate - sugars don't form starches on their own for example. Generally as the concentration of substrate increases, so does the rate of the reaction. This makes good common sense. In order to form product a substrate molecule with sufficient energy must complex with the enzyme molecule for the forward reaction to take place. This happens more often as the concentration of substrate molecules increase. What is less obvious is that the complex of enzyme and substrate 'EA' requires a certain amount of time before product 'P' appears. Eventually as the concentration of substrate increases, the amount of enzyme that is already complexed increases and so the amount of free enzyme 'E' decreases. Or in our notation, as [A] increases [EA] increases and so [E] decreases. The rate of the reaction increase with increasing substrate is self-limiting at a maximum rate or 'velocity' when all enzyme is in complexed EA' form. In conventional notation v0 is the rate of product formation v0 = d[P] / dt and so the discussion above implies a graph ... v0 | Vmax |- ___---------- | _= | - | / | / | / | / |/ _______________________________ [A] The rate of product formation (vertical axis) increases almost linearly with substrate concentration [A] (horizontal axis) until the amount of free enzyme [E] decreases sufficiently. Then at this high [A] value (to the right) the rate of product formation v0 is limited to a maximal value Vmax. A nicer graphic can be found at http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/biochem/slide.html$Chap ter=/biochem/06/&Last=59&Slide=11 (note line wrap on URL above) -S Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 14:34:24 -0500 From: "Stephen Alexander" <steve-alexander at worldnet.att.net> Subject: Re: SG to Alcohol/Plastic/Unibroue yeast The equations presented - > A = (OE - RE) / (2.0665 - 0.010665*OE) are based on the estimates that about 8% of carbohydrate The amount is of course variable and the eqn is truly an estimate, tho' one that was part of an older EBC or ASBC recommendation (the current method involves tables). The demonic Domenick Venezia says ... >Ever seen clarity or consensus? Not here Dom ! == > Personally, [...] I ferment only in genuine animal bladders >[...] Cat bladders are the best... So you are saying the cat that Phil de-tailed was just topping off one fermentor from another ? == I have pretty good reason to believe, that despite commentary on their website about a different yeast in each beer, that Unibroue uses the same yeast in Maudite and Trois Pistoles. Giant cultures on agar plates appear identical and a bit unusual. Smell & taste the same fermented in identical wort. - fwiw -S Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 12:13:53 -0800 From: John_E_Schnupp at amat.com Subject: re: Kettle valve From: Road Frog >What size valve do you have on your kettle? Is it to >small, to big, or just right? It's a mix. I used 1/4"NPT to tap a hole in the side of the kettle. The valves is a 1/2" brass hardware store variety ball valve. My tubing is 3/8" copper. The tubing is the limiting factor. For me 3/8" is good for 5 gal batches. I do an occasional 10 gallon batch (end of spring to stock up) and it is a little slow but tolerable If I was going to do nothing but 10+ gallon batches, everything would be 1/2". John Schnupp, N3CNL Dirty Laundry Homebrewery Georgia, VT 95 XLH 1200 Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 12:42:44 -0800 (PST) From: Barry Wertheimer <bmwerth at yahoo.com> Subject: London Visit This is the usual "I find myself going to London next week (leaving Monday) on business ..." post. If anyone has "can't miss" recommendations for real ale pub visits, I would greatly appreciate it. Private email would be best given my short lead time. If there are HBDers in London that would like to try to meet for a pint on Wednesday night, please let me know. ===== Barry Wertheimer Palo Alto, CA __________________________________________________ Do You Yahoo!? >From homework help to love advice, Yahoo! Experts has your answer. http://experts.yahoo.com/ Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 03 Nov 2000 16:05:48 -0500 From: Spencer W Thomas <spencer at engin.umich.edu> Subject: Head Retentioin Darnell> Yesterday I tried a stout at a local brewpub, and it took Darnell> FOREVER for the brew to settle down...ie the head was Darnell> HUGE. I think that I sat for 10 Darnell> minutes...thirsty...waiting... The other day I was chatting with a local (German-trained -- it's relevant -- you'll see) brewer, when my beer ran out. I asked him to pull me a beer. He ran the beer into the glass, about 1/2 foam, and set it on the counter. I said, "you got a foam problem?" He said, "no, just doing it the RIGHT way." Over the space of the next several minutes (would be 7 in Germany, but I wasn't timing it), he went back and pulled more beer into the glass as the foam subsided. The last pull left a cap of "whipped cream" foam extending about 2 inches above the rim of the glass. Wow! I'm sure it didn't make the beer taste any better, but the visual effect was stunning. In case you're wondering, the brewery is Leopold Brothers, in Ann Arbor. They make organic German-style lagers (mostly). =Spencer Thomas in Ann Arbor, MI (spencer at umich.edu) Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 03 Nov 2000 16:09:49 -0500 From: Spencer W Thomas <spencer at engin.umich.edu> Subject: Triumph Roggenbock Last weekend I was in Triumph Brewing in Princeton, NJ. They had a "Roggenbock" on tap, so I *had* to try it. :-) It was quite good. Dryish, hefty, with just a hint of caraway. Very drinkable. So now I'm wondering if anyone can get hold of the recipe? I tried Triumph's web site, but it just says "coming soon" with no email addresses or anything. I guess I could pick up the phone, but sending email to the HBD is so much more fun! adTHANKSvance. =Spencer Thomas in Ann Arbor, MI (spencer at umich.edu) Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 17:29:48 EST From: Tombrau at aol.com Subject: Rubber coated 1/2bbl kegs and co2 driven HLT Brew Brothers I have access to several rubber coated 1/2bbl sanke kegs. I want to convert these to a mashtun and electric HLT, hoping for some insulating quality. Does anyone know if the rubber will hold up to the heat? I have been using a Gottun and am concerned with temperature loss in a Sanketun. I don't have plans for a herms or rims and will rely on the insulating quality to hold 150ish for an hour. Does anyone know the temp loss in an uninsulated sanketun and rubberized sanketun? Also, I am thinking about using a sanke tap and co2 to push hot liquor out of my sankeHLT and up to the tun. Several things concern me about just welding water heater elements into an unmodified sanke and using a sanke tap to dispense hot liquor. 1) This is a potential sealed container with a heater (aka pressure cooker), utmost care must be taken to assure it be "tapped" (vented) while heating. 2) Would the tap seals and keg seals survive 170f or would they swell and constrict (aka pressure cooker) 3) The cost of pushing 15g up 5 ft with co2 should be minimal and it surely wouldnt carbonate it. Am I missing anything? 4) Can I get an element short enough not to hit the downtube? This sounds like a simple (cheap), yet big upgrade to my primitive simple infusion tree brewerymabob that is overtaking my garage. I am glad I did not start building to quickly because my design sure is evolving. Any thoughts on the above wanderings are welcome!!! Cheers Tom Moench p.s. How about making a fermentor out of an upside down tapped sanke keg like the upside down carboy trick that brewco sells. Hoodeehoo Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 3 Nov 2000 20:22:52 -0500 (EST) From: Aaron Robert Lyon <lyona at umich.edu> Subject: chillin' and breakin' I'm currently using an immersion chiller to cool down about 11 gallons of hot wort every time I brew, but I'm thinking of getting a counterflow setup (specifically the wortwizard/chiller combo). My only fear is that I will be getting far more (hot?) break into my fermenter since I won't be able to let it sit 15-20 mins below 80 degs and allow everything to settle below my valve. Is this fear grounded in reality? It IS harder for things to settle out at higher temperatures...right? Any input would be appreciated. Thanks. -Aaron Return to table of contents
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