HOMEBREW Digest #4755 Tue 05 April 2005

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  Making highly fermentable wort(1/2) ("-S")
  Making highly fermentable wort(2/2) ("-S")
  re: Round two - Enzymes Next question ("-S")
  Re: Enzymes (extraction, half-lifes and location) ("Fredrik")
  Two Scholarships for Siebel Institute ("Keith Lemcke")
  UK Yeast Event (Signalbox Brewery)
  Spirit of Free Beer XIII ("Mark E.  Hogenmiller")

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 00:46:53 -0400 From: "-S" <-s at adelphia.net> Subject: Making highly fermentable wort(1/2) Lou Heavner asked followup offline. Having known Lou thru HBD for quite a few years I feel he won't object to my posting the exchange. > BTW, if it isn't a trade secret or anything, how would you mash for maximum > fermentability and dryness. [...] I don't have a way to heat the mash except > with infusions or decoctions. [..] I guess I'm wondering if you can say with > reasonable confidence and typical base malts (I usually use pale malt as > the base, but sometimes Pils and rarely Munich) what would be the ideal > temps, grist/water ratio, process (infusion vs decoction), etc. How would > you vary things for different malts as described above or the case of weizens > where ~ 50% of the grist is wheat malt, which I understand is also loaded > with enzymes. The wort contains some materials (protein, phenolics, minerals, caramels ...) which are fundamentally unfermentable. It also contains many carbohydrates (cellulose, gums limit dextrins) that can (almost) never be made fermentable in the mash. Then we have non-limit dextrins which could be made fermentable with the application of alpha-amylase(AA) or beta-amylase(BA). It's good to keep in mind that a reasonably fermentable wort, say over 77% apparent attenuation, has a *rough* breakdown of extract as: 63% in fermentables (and corresponding % real attenuation) 28% carbohydrates (dextrins, caramels, gums, etc) 9% non-carbos, protein, minerals, etc Down at the Bruteforce Chemical Brewery, if we want very high attenuation for Atkinsian beers levels, we add amyloglucosidase enzymes either to the mash or fermenter. My local HB shop (grapeandgranery.com) special ordered a bottle (about 1L) for about $35 (several ml/5gal, a lifetime supply). Amyloglucosidase breaks amylopectin 1-6 bonds and converts many AA and BA limit dextrins to fermentables. When less "forceful" methods are sought we have to consider the grist components and the mash schedule. AA, with no help from BA, is capable of removing all starch and creating a lot of fermentables and most grists have loads of AA. AA acting on conventional starch (20% amylase, 80 %amylopectin) may produce about 50% fermentables. So you should be able to get ~60% apparent attenuation from AA alone. The AA enzyme has a lower affinity to the short dextrins etc, so this can take longer. AA "prefers" a higher pH for "optimal" activity (pH=~5.8) while BA prefers a low pH (5.1-ish). Unfortunately the lower pH also makes BA less stable, so dropping the pH is a losing strategy unless you drop the temp and increase time radically. The conventional mash pH 5.3-5.4 is a best compromise. The change in activity vs pH is small. You might lose 6-8% of BA activity if the pH is 6.3 (far too high) ! pH is a *minor* but real factor in fermentability and conventional pH is probably best and certainly good enough. Mash thickness is also a consideration. Both amylases are more stable in thicker mashes where more starch (and even maltose) assist in substrate stabilization. Unfortunately thick mashes also slow enzyme activity in the early mash because the lack of free water. If you mash much under 1qt/lb of malt grist your mash is slowed by lack of water ! Thin mashes provide plenty of water, but the enzymes are less stable and more damaged by temp overshoots. Radically thin mash creates low substrate concentration which slow the late mash progress. Any thickness between 1.25qt/lb and up to 3.5qt/lb are feasible and practical. Mashes on the thin side (2+qt/lb) deliver higher extract and attenuation but part of the reason is related to starch gelatinization and concentration(below). Grist components contain variable levels of enzymes and particularly beta-amylase which is primary to high attenuation. A low kilned high protein malt called distillers malt has very high levels of beta-amylase, but should only be used in small quantity to avoid haze and flavor deficit. Lager and pils malts are kilned at a lower temp than UK PA malts and have therefore higher beta-amylase levels. Munich malt has a kiln temp about as high as PA malt and also has somewhat lower BA levels and AA levels and in addition perhaps to a higher caramel unfermentable component. Wheat and rye malt can have very high amylase levels, but rye malts unevenly and it's numbers are over the map. Pale wheat malt often seems to have a notch higher alpha-amylase levels than good lager malt, and even higher relative BA levels too (based on the relation of AA measure vs Lintner degrees). Adjunct (sugar, raw grain, starch) is nearly devoid of usable amylases. The grist contains variable amount of easily extracted unfermentables. Many raw grains have higher levels of unfermentable undegraded gums than either wheat or barley malt. Some, like corn(maize), have very high lipid levels and must be degermed to reduce high levels of oil. Crystal&caramel malts have high proportions of unfermentable caramel and relatively little available starch. I assume that an adjunct like candi sugar includes a high proportion of fermentable sugar along with the unfermentable caramel - (my guess). Pure starch (or white flours) has perhaps 80% extractable starch by weight, but the other 20% is largely insoluble. Adding a small proportion (3-5% of extract) of cane sugar is a traditional UK ale method that increases wort fermentability. My point here is consider your grist as part of the fermentability picture. Sugar sources are 100% fermentable. Most purified starches can modestly increase fermentability as they add only to the carbohydrate mix (but detract from protein). Most other adjuncts, such as whole raw grain, poorly malted grain and anything with much caramelized sugars are likely to detract from fermentability. Ignoring the non-fermentables and also sugar adjuncts, sufficient enzymes properly applied to starch is key to high fermentability. One practical problem is that two reactants (starch + water) and the catalyzing agent (amylase enzymes) will not react rapidly as soon as the three are brought together. AA & BA appear primarily in the seed germ/endosperm barrier layer and it takes a matter of 5-10 minutes to extract these in volume from crushed malt (almost regardless of mash temp). Starch isn't ready for much hydrolysis either. The amylopectin is tightly balled in granules with less exposed surface, and these reside along with the amylose inside the remnants of the (long dead and well degraded by malting) endosperm cells. Of course raw grain and flour adjunct has no malting degradation. To access the starches rapidly the cell walls must be breached and the amylopectin granules unraveled - gelatinization.With raised temps first amylose leaks out of the cells and the amylopectin granules swell. The high fraction of granules will burst very near to a characteristic temperature. This gelatinization temp(GT) is increased as sugars and starches are added which may explain why barley GT is considerably lower than malt GT; malt gelatinization includes more free sugar and starch. A little calcium ion content assists in gelatinization. (more)-S Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 00:48:37 -0400 From: "-S" <-s at adelphia.net> Subject: Making highly fermentable wort(2/2) Mash thickness impedes gelatinization slightly so thinner mashes produce marginally better extract yields (+2-3%) and potentially marginally higher fermentability (as the addition extract is largely starch). Mash thickness can have another profound effect. If you are familiar with using starch as a cooking thickener, say adding flour to thicken gravy, then you are aware of gelatinization and it's problem firsthand. If the flour gelatinizes before it is suspended in "enough" liquid then you have lumpy gravy. If instead you stir in the flour below the GT temp then heat to above GT, the gravy thickens smoothly w/o lumps. The unraveled amylopectin absorbs and traps considerable amounts of water and if sufficient water is unavailable the "dry" amylopectins are likely to attach to each other and make a gluey mess which is related to another day's topic called "starch retrogradation". In gravy it's lumps, in the mash it's called "balling". Retrograded starch isn't digestible, can't be enzymatically degraded in any practical way. You should hydrate grist below it's specific gelatinization temperature to prevent this. In malt the alpha-amylase is incapable of curing the retrograded starch, but it can prevent it from forming. Anyone who has performed a cereal mash understands that if you add a small amount of malt to crushed raw grain or flour plus water and raise the temp above the gelatinization temp, that the malt enzymes have a profound effect. The cereal mash is much more fluid and liquid than if no malt was added. The malt AA snips the newly gelatinized starch and this radically reduces it's demand for water (it's gelling capacity). This water is then available for use by other gelatinizing granules. So AA helps prevent retrogradation by increasing the available water. This probably explains why malt can be mashed with only 1.5X it weight in water (0.75qt/lb) while text books suggest pure starch would require 3-7X its weight in water to prevent retrogradation. =============== Back to the practical impact: How to make a highly fermentable wort with a conventional mash & grist ? 1/ Grist Enzymes. Choose a grist that has sufficient BA as this is the enzyme which carries wort from low attenuation to high. PA malt and Munich malt have insufficient BA enzymes to carry much starchy adjunct (unmalted grain, flour, grits) to high attenuation. Use lager malt, carefully chosen pale wheat malt or some distiller's malt to carry adjunct starches to high attenuation. 2/ Grist Starch & adjunct sugar. Only starch and sugars add to fermentables so don't overload the grist bill with vast amounts of caramel, crystal malts(adds caramel, not much starch) or other adjuncts high in unfermentables. [[Terry Foster's PA book uses 1.5 to 5.5% crystal, not the 10-15% I see in HB recipes]]. Do consider a modest cane sugar addition in the boiler for a PA recipe - improves fermentability and is traditional. 3/ Choose a mash schedule & thickness which treats the BA enzyme carefully. AA is plentiful and stable while BA is in short supply and relatively unstable. Note that more than half the BA is lost in even a short (<1hr) low temp (144F) mash so time & temp are both critical. Also recall that the enzymes aren't very available for 5-10 minutes after mash-in as they leach from the grist. 4/ Expose the starch. To get high attenuation we need *most* of the starch in contact with the BA enzyme before it denatures. Unfortunately barley malt GT is higher (~150-154F) than our ideal high fermentabilty mash temp(~144F) [wheat malt GT should be a bit lower]. Plan on a cereal mash for substantial amount of starch adjunct ... absolutely necessary for high GT grains like rice. Avoid introducing starch late in the mash after the BA is mostly gone. All mash temp increases cause some starch release so *consider* eliminating the mash-out (yes it's practical). 5/ Lautering and late runnings have less fermentables as a fraction of extract so reduce or eliminate the sparge. 6/ Remember the goal is good beer, not max fermentability. You can't leave a mash based on modern malts in the 55C-60C range for very long without protein head & body loss. Very long mash schedules may also compromise flavor too. Putting this all together, two alternatives are to bring the mash above GT briefly and lower it back to the ideal BA rest temp *or* to make a short rest near the BA ideal (which processes the cold water extract and a modest amount of gelatinization at the near-GT-temp) then step the temp just above GT before the BA is too far gone. == Wolfgang Kunze suggests the following *extreme* mash schedule for dietetic beers (low dextrin) and suggests a 90-92% attenuation is possible: 1/ mash-in 50C/122F 30 min 2/ 62C/144F rest 45 min 3/ 65C/149F rest 45 min 4/ 68C/154F rest 30 min 5/ 70C/158F rest 30 min 6/ 72C/162F rest 15 min 7/ mash-off 73-74C/165F. Note that this is a ~3.5-4 hour long schedule. Perhaps as Kunze is likely to use lager malt with more BA he still persists in a third (4/) saccharification rest hoping for more maltose but that's pretty iffy. Any further rests, I feel, are about allowing AA more time to degrade dextrins and getting a little more extract (a commercial necessity). Mash thickness is not mentioned for this schedule, but is likely ~2-2.5qt/lb - his typical for pale beers. == For pure-infusion brewing(insulated coolers) perhaps this would work well enough 1/ mash-in very thick(0.5qt/lb) at 50C/122F (hydration) 0-5 minutes. 2/ infusion step to 67C for full gelatinization rest for 10 minutes. 3/ downward infusion step to 63C for long BA rest - 45+ min. 4/ slow series of infusions to 68-72C over a 45min period. ... I haven't done the infusion water equations, but I would hope the 67C rest could be kept thick (around 1qt/lb) and the 63C rest should be thinned (no chance of overshoot) at 2-2.5qt/lb. Here I expect the 0 time rest at 50C to just be long enough with just enough water to avoid balling and the enzyme leaching to begin, and enzyme extraction it will necessarily complete in a brief (thick to protect BA) 67C rest where gelatinization should be completed. The down-step rest to 63C can be thin and the rest time can be extended ad nauseum. The rising steps (4/) are just window-dressing - allows AA to form some fermentables of dextrins as the BA dwindles fast. == For a single infusion you'd probably be best-off compromising the BA losses with the gelatinization temp and striking at around 65C/150F (which all sounds oddly traditional)! == I used the Fix 50C-60C-70C rests early-on and got nice wort but medium-low attenuation 72%-76% from memory). I long-ago adapted this to 63C-72C-mashout which increases fermentability by several percent, but not to Kunze-dietetic levels. I now see that the starch is too inaccessible at 60C (or even 63C) and any increase toward GT improves this. The 60C rest is too low to achieve gelatinization and too long avoid significant BA loss, so it is not made for high-attenuation (which was not Fix's goal after all). - -- One last point - don't be fooled by the numerology. We speak of apparent attenuation a tho' it's independent of other variables and it is not. From the discussion it should be clear that you can't simply doubleup the grist and get the same attenuation at twice the Plato. Most HB hydrometers and measuring techniques give a 5%-ish percent error bound in apparent attenuation measures - it's a crude tool for analyzing results. Brew to your preferred attenuation by taste not some mark on a paper. -SteveA Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 01:17:13 -0400 From: "-S" <-s at adelphia.net> Subject: re: Round two - Enzymes Next question MARTIN AMMON shouts, > Learning a lot but one question what happens when you throw in the fact > that during the mash you are reticulating the wort from Mash to coil water > tank back to Mash. Maintaining the set temps and clearing and wort. Depends on a lot of things, The shear forces will denature enzymes (in the pump and tubing) but apparently not at too high a rate (RIMS guys have used these successfully for years). I expect the impact of shear on starches is negligible in their low concentration in the thin-mash. Typical RIMS/HERMS operate by taking some thin mash through a heating cycle and returning it to the big mash on a continuous basis. Yes the enzymes denature faster and act more rapidly at the raised temp in the tube, so you need to keep the flow rate high enough so the hot returning mash isn't too much hotter than the target temp. In any case you can think of this as keeping a fraction (whatever fraction of thin wort appears in the hot-side tubing) of your enzymes at the higher temp with the corresponding hyperdenaturing and hyperactivating rates. The constant mixing means each soluble enzymes is fractionally hyperdenaturing and hyperactivated, but some fixed fraction. There is little doubt that RIMS/HERM pumps and shear forces and excess heating constitute a form of enzyme abuse, but there is an open question about whether a RIMS/HERMS provides faster & better starch extraction or product mixing to offset the enzyme abuse. We'd have to compare the limit of fermentability of wort from your masher(?) vs another method in a ridiculously difficult to control experiment ... then we could say. Can you make sufficiently fermentable wort for your needs ? It's easy to decrease fermentability I think so that's the only serious question at hand. -S Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 18:47:04 +0200 From: "Fredrik" <carlsbergerensis at hotmail.com> Subject: Re: Enzymes (extraction, half-lifes and location) Thanks Steve for the nice enzyme posts. Good stuff! There are some points that are somewhat cloudy for me and has been bugging me. I wonder if Steve or someone else has some more info on these details. -> impact of moist/water on the amylase decay rate >From various posts on here, and brewing articles we have now decent ballpark data on the half lifes on both amylases in solution at different temps - so far so good. But to consider the extreme of a dry enzyme, trapped inside the dry grain, it is as far as I understand far more stable to heat than in dilution - right? (Otherwise I supposed the kilning would fry away more enzymes than they do.) This raises the question how the half life curve looks, going from dry, increasing the moist, until it reaches full dilution in water? This means we have two datapoints, what does the curve looks like in between? It seems that during a slow liquification process, this might be a factor? Maybe not so easy to account for, but still. What I am at, is that perhaps the not yet extracted enzymes (trapped in the not yet gelatinized starch matrix) doesn't decay as fast as we may expect assuming the same denaturation rates as in full dilution? Any ideas? data? -> dynamics of enzyme extraction, physical location of enzymes I would expect the above issue to apply mainly to the enzymes scattered throughout the endosperm starch? Enzymes in the aleurone are I guess liquified relatively quickly. But as far as liquification of the endosperm, would it be a decent assumption to think that the % liquification correlated to % extraction of endosperm trapped enzymes? I also ask this this because, at a typical predecoct rest, how many % of alpa rep beta enzymes have you actually extracted before toasted the rest in the boil?? >From what i've read, the endosperm is the bulk of the grain, though I've seen some reports that the beta-amylase density is somewhat higher in the embryo part this is still a minor % of the total deposit? I've also seem some claims that the outer layer of the endosperm and the aleurone later have higher enzyme density than the core sections, still I failed to find any numbers.I am also unsure if the distribution of alpha and beta are similar or not? I would really like to get hold of some numbers on the above. They might vary, but some ballpark numbers would be great. This seems to be part of hte key to the optimation process. /Fredrik Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 13:16:16 -0500 From: "Keith Lemcke" <klemcke at siebelinstitute.com> Subject: Two Scholarships for Siebel Institute The deadline for application to the 2005 Glen Hay Falconer Scholarships is April 20, 2005, and we wanted to remind brewers to get their applications in. The Glen Hay Falconer Foundation Brewing Scholarships consist of two full-tuition scholarships for the World Brewing Academy Concise Course in Brewing Technology held at the Siebel Institute of Technology in Chicago (Oct. 31 - Nov. 11, 2005). The Scholarships are open to professional brewers as well as homebrewers from the Pacific Northwest (including Alaska and Hawaii) and Northern California regions (San Francisco Bay/Monterey Bay areas and north). The selection committee includes brewers and professionals related to the brewing industry. More information about the Glen Hay Falconer Foundation is available at http://sasquatchbrewfest.org/ghff/ and for complete information about applying for the Glen Hay Falconer Scholarships, visit the Siebel Institute Scholarship web page at http://www.siebelinstitute.com/registration/falconer_scholarship.html. Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 05 Apr 2005 20:15:21 +0100 From: Signalbox Brewery <signalbox.brewery at ntlworld.com> Subject: UK Yeast Event Greetings to the other Brits Chris White of White Labs has offered to give a technical talk to homebrewers in the UK on Sunday 22nd May 2005. It was thought a central location would be best for this one off event. We have made a provisional booking at The Lamp in Birmingham for that Sunday. For a little insight to the pub please see CAMRA info at http://www.birminghamcamra.org.uk/Pubs.htm Upmystreet gives a distance of 0.6 miles from New Street Station Please see http://www.upmystreet.com/overview/?l1=B5+6AH The start time is suggested as being 1.30pm. There has been no discussion about the end time. This is a free event.. Would you please reply if you are interested in attending. This invitation is open to all UK homebrewers and interested parties. If there is sufficient interest within 7 days then we'll book both Chris White and The Lamp. Please also suggest any other elements you think we could include in the day - we're trying to make it worth your while to come. If you feel passionately that the event should be held elsewhere and wish to organise it, let me know as soon as possible. I'll confirm the arrangements here. David Edge Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2005 21:02:22 -0400 From: "Mark E. Hogenmiller" <mehogenmiller at cox.net> Subject: Spirit of Free Beer XIII Plan now to enter the Brewers United for Real Potable's (BURP) Thirteenth Annual Spirit of Free Beer (SoFB)competition. - -- The deadline for entries to be submitted is May 6th, 2005. So get your systems brewing! - -- The competition will be held on Saturday May 14th at the Old Dominion Brewing Company in Ashburn, Virginia. The Details The SoFB competition is open to all homebrewers and will judge all BJCP/AHA sanctioned styles including Meads and Ciders. The SoFB competition is judged by experienced BJCP certified judges. The SoFB prides itself on the quality of the comments made and prizes that are awarded. Questions can be addressed to sofborganizer at earthlink.net Information is now available on the Spirit of Free Beer website at http://www.burp.org/events/sofb/2005/ Mark Hogenmiller BURP Minister of Culture Return to table of contents
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