HOMEBREW Digest #4991 Sun 09 April 2006

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  RE: Campden/sodium metabisulfite ("steve.alexander")
  UV sterlization, another thought (Michael Hetzel)
  Darrell Water ("Martin Brungard")
  Judges Need for 13th Annual BUZZ Off - CORRECTION ("Christopher Clair")
  AHA NHC Call for Judges (Great Lakes region) (Joe Preiser)
  Looking for PPG for unusual Adjuncts ("Jason Edwards")
  False Bottoms ("Keith Christian")
  malta ("D. Clark")
  Re: Missing HBD Issues (Paul Hethmon)
  Water ("A.J deLange")
  Gluten free beers ("Graham L Sanders")

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Fri, 07 Apr 2006 23:54:46 -0400 From: "steve.alexander" <-s at adelphia.net> Subject: RE: Campden/sodium metabisulfite Eric Wescott writes, >They do work to inhibit/kill yeast and bacteria up front >(pre-ferment). Actually yeast, including most wild Saccharomyces yeast and also some bacteria produce sulfite. As a rule the species that produce sulfite also have a mechanism (a transport protein in S.cerevisiae) for removing sulfite and therefore tolerate it's effects. In wine where a vigorous and concentrated fermentation scrubs the wine, a lot of sulfite can be used (100+ppm of sulfite) and this may stall the yeast growth at this low pH, but is unlikely to kill yeast outright. You cannot afford to add so much sulfite to beer - it will ruin the flavor. The sulfite is far less toxic at wort pH and virtually ineffective for infection control above pH 4 at any reasonable dose. >A boil will drive out most/all of the sulfites as gas, No - it really doesn't, and I made the beer to prove it. Because of the higher pH, wort boil does not remove all residual sulfite. It does reduce the levels somewhat, but it's not close to total removal. >Sulfites are also used as a preservative. Adding some level after all >brewing is done will kill off your yeast, and inhibit bacteria/yeast >from starting anew. Beer pH (as opposed to wort) is much lower, but still not low enough to use sulfite for effective infection control unless you are willing to add whopping huge amounts, like ~100+ppm. Beers "show" the sulfite flavor more than a red wine, perhaps comparably to a white. You really won't enjoy the taste of a finished beer with much more than 30ppm of sulfite for a hi-grav whopper or perhaps 15-20ppm for a pils/mild. You will taste sulfite at these levels but it can have just a crisp sharp aperitif dry edge to the flavor. Now you can add far more than this to the mash and most will be lost to reduction of oxidized phenolics and aldehydes. I've successfully added 40-50ppm (4-5 campden tabs per 5gal of finished beer) to the mash without significant flavor impact. I've unsuccessfully used ~75ppm. I personally think that 20-30ppm (2-3 campden per 5gal finished beer) in the mash is the best compromise and completely adequate for anti-oxidant effects. Also I think that sodium metabisulfite has a better flavor in the finished beer than potassium metabite. Note that if you are using metabisulfite for chlorine/chloramine control, then you only need one campden per 20gal and the flavor impact of potassium vs sodium is a non-issue. Sulfite does IMO have a place in brewing, but it is to prevent oxidation damage in the mash & boil and to remove chlorine, not to control infection. >Flavor. Yes, sulfites have their own flavor. After about a year of >homebrewing, I started to be able to pick it up. It's harsh to me, >like a rough wine, but not purely that. I sense it as a vague hint of sharp sulfur in the nose and also the dry flavor on the tongue. One can often get a real whiff of sulfur (a sharp note like the mineral, not the rotten egg H2S) when opening a pils, as some lager yeast produce 10-12ppm in the finished beer. == As for the 2-day brew ... I think the idea of controlling infection in sweet wort UV is a pretty interesting idea, but someone should do a careful side-by-side to see what it does to flavor. It's not just hops, but things like niacin which may have a photo-reaction and do who-knows-what to the fermentation & flavor. UV is probably does a nice job of knocking down the infection levels, but the flow-thru units meant for tap water do not kill all the bugs, but reduce the levels enough for short term storage. I see that UV has been used for cider processing w/o flavor damage that pasteurization causes. I don't think the extended time brew is a very good idea anyway. -S Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 8 Apr 2006 10:21:39 -0700 (PDT) From: Michael Hetzel <hetzelnc at yahoo.com> Subject: UV sterlization, another thought It occured to me later that UV sterilization of wort may not even be feasible if the wort is too dark. Brown bottles are used to block out light at 500nm or less, and so my reasoning is that dark wort would block shortwave light from doing its business. The degree of color would ultimately dictate UV penetration, so you would need fully turbulent flow, or a really thin stream (and alot of time).. I don't know how UV sterilization is applied (pass through? batch?) but these are to me more reasons to not use it. I do think using it for top-off water would be good, or even for filling kegs between brews (for the whole purge with CO2 idea). Does anyone know if it would it be more cost efficient than boiling? Thanks, Mike Hetzel Worcester, MA Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 08 Apr 2006 10:25:36 -0800 From: "Martin Brungard" <mabrungard at hotmail.com> Subject: Darrell Water Darrell's water is pretty hard at 177 ppm as CaCO3. Adding calcium is not the way to go if a lighter style like pilsner is desired. Darrell is correct that he could do something with his water to brew better. The alkalinity is fairly high at 143 ppm as CaCO3. Darrell needs to become knowlegible in the use of acid in his brewing. The first thing he'll need is to do is control the alkalinity for proper mash pH conditions. His raw water is well suited for dark beers, since a dark grist is capable of countering the alkalinity level. But for a light and pale styles like pilsner or cream ale, acid is the easiest thing to do. Recognize that the hardness is still too high for a really delicate pils, but you can get by with the present hardness. For the light styles, it looks like about 8 to 10 drops/gal of 88% lactic or 80% phosphoric would be about the right starting point to produce an appropriate mash pH of around 5.4 when using a pale ale or pils grist. An alternative for hoppier or hardier beers would be to harden the water to about 150 to 200 ppm of calcium. Then the mash pH would likely be about right for the light colored grists. For sparge water preparation, Darrell will need to add about 0.19 tsp/gal of 88% lactic or 0.17 tsp/gal of 80% phosphoric acid. This amount will drop the sparge water pH to about 5.7. It is possible to be this precise with the acid additions if a graduated medicine dropper is used. They are found at the drug store in the baby section. I'm confident that good beer can be made with the water that Darrell has. The flavor ion content is reasonably low and it is a good starting point for many styles. One caution is that the magnesium content is already moderate and there is little need to add any more since it can start to negatively affect flavor. If Darrell is committed to producing a really delicate Pils, then he should consider cutting the raw water by adding at least 1 part distilled to each part raw water. Please note that the sparge water will be cut the same way. The acid additions mentioned above should be halved too. Better beer through water chemistry! Martin Brungard Tallahassee, FL Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 08 Apr 2006 14:29:41 -0400 From: "Christopher Clair" <buzzclub at verizon.net> Subject: Judges Need for 13th Annual BUZZ Off - CORRECTION CORRECTION All judges must be BJCP certified (any ranking) OR have relevant experience. Sorry for the omission. Good luck and cheers! Christopher Clair buzzclub <at> verizon.net http://hbd.org/buzz Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 08 Apr 2006 16:15:09 -0500 From: Joe Preiser <jpreiser at jpreiser.com> Subject: AHA NHC Call for Judges (Great Lakes region) It's that time of the year again for the first round of the largest homebrew competition in North America. The Great Lakes region, while still at two states (IL & MI), is once again expected to receive over 400 entries and needs as many judges & stewards as we can get. This year, we'll be judging at Emmett's Tavern in West Dundee, IL (www.emmettstavern.com). The primary judging day will be Saturday, April 29, with breakfast and lunch provided. The time and location for an additional session (if needed) is still being worked out. Please contact Judge Coordinator, Steve Hamburg (stevie at chibeer.org), or Site Director, Joe Preiser (glnhc06 at jpreiser.com), if you have any questions or would like to help out. Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 8 Apr 2006 23:25:25 -0230 From: "Jason Edwards" <jedwards2 at gmail.com> Subject: Looking for PPG for unusual Adjuncts Hi, I am looking for some help in tracking down the PPG for adjuncts. This comes because I mashed an pale ale today. I mashed 9 lbs of plain 2-row from canada malting, with 1 lb of row that I toasted in the oven, plus 2 lbs of barley flour (I did a cereal mash with 1 lb of the aforementioned 2row), plus 1/2 lb of crystal 80.(total grain bill was 10 lbs 2-row, 2 lbs barley flour and 1/2 lb crystal 80) I mashed overnight and mashed out this morning, the run off took 2.5 hrs and lasted from from 7am to 930 am and i collected exactly 30 litres of wort, which I mixed and then took a pre-boil gravity reading (I haven't boiled it yet) with wort that I cooled to 70f which is the calibration setting for my hydrometre. I measured all my grain twice, I actually measured my collected wort in 1 litre measuring cups, I checked my hydrometre against plain water and it tells me that I have a preboil gravity of 1.060. this is seemingly impossible because (according to Promash) i have achieved greater then 100% efficiency, which is not bloody likely. So I have come to the conclusion, after checking my scales that the "factor X" is the flour I used, it must have contributed some crazy numbers to the mash. I would therefore like to find a listing of PPGs for adjuncts like barley flour, etc, which do not normally appear in Promash's or other like databases. The reason i want to know is because this is the second time this has happened, which means i am flying blind when I plan my recipes in terms of expected OG and IBUs. I use a ton of adjuncts in my brews and the more certainty i can get, the better. Thanks Jason Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 8 Apr 2006 20:26:34 -0700 From: "Keith Christian" <kchristian at surfside.net> Subject: False Bottoms Hello, I am interested in purchasing materials from a company like McMaster to make a false bottom in my converted keg. If you have done this I would be interested in your experiences. I would like to know what is the appropriate hole size and spacing for a false bottom. If you purchased the materials and have item numbers, that would be great. Something else that I am interested in doing is making a silicone gasket for sealing the lid to my keg fermentor. I think it is possible to use a tube of silicone to make a ring on wax paper and somehow shape it to make a large o ring so it will make a good seal. Any tips on doing this? Thanks, Keith Return to table of contents
Date: Sun, 09 Apr 2006 08:26:57 -0400 From: "D. Clark" <clark at capital.net> Subject: malta Hi list, Does anyone here have any experience with making malta? My pastor is from Puerto Rico, and he is very curious about the brewing process, as so many of us are. I thought it would be nice to make up a mild ale for him and then I ran across a recipe for malta in Charlie Papazian's book "The Homebrewers Companion". It is basically unfermented wort that is carbonated. When he heard about the malta he flipped. It's a real favorite of his and even more of a favorite for his wife, especially the India malta. I haven't been able to find much online about it. Some reviews of India malta suggest that it is very dark and thick with a flavor like molasses. The recipe in Charlie's book is an Americanized version that would be much lighter and more hoppy than what India malta sounds like. From what I have read, a rich porter or stout wort would probably come close to this version of malta. Maybe a brown ale for regular malta. Any thoughts? I would certainly welcome any and all ideas from the collective. Dave Clark Eagle Bridge, New York Return to table of contents
Date: Sun, 09 Apr 2006 09:36:21 -0400 From: Paul Hethmon <phethmon at hethmon.com> Subject: Re: Missing HBD Issues Scott and Spencer asked a few days ago about some missing issues from their HBD archives. Well, in finally cleaning out my office closet today, I found a cdrom of interest: The Beer Homebrewing Guide August 1994 A friend had given it to me years ago and I'd not even opened the shrink wrap until today. Well, I found the HBD archives on it from 1989 thru 1994 in Windows help file format. The only bad part is that the issues are not preserved as issues, they're in there as individual articles. I also can't seem to find #154 or #718. I actually found a reference for people looking for 718 back in 1991. Anyway, I put it up on one of my webservers: http://frisbee.hethmon.net/homebrew/ Cheers, Paul - -- Paul Hethmon phethmon at hethmon.com Farragut, Tennessee [443.2, 182.3] Apparent Rennerian Return to table of contents
Date: Sun, 09 Apr 2006 15:43:22 +0000 From: "A.J deLange" <ajdel at cox.net> Subject: Water The water in question contains 41 mg/L Ca and 18 mg/L Mg with alkaliity of 143 ppm as CaCO3. This gives a residual alkalinity of about 2 mEq/L which means that the dough in pH will be appreciably higher than in a distilled water mash. To lower the pH a lower residual alkalinity is required. One may lower alkalinity or neutralize it with acid. Lowering it by diluting the water with low mineral content water such as RO or distilled water is probably the easiest thing to do and will result in a more authentic beer as Pils is traditionally brewed with very soft water. Diluting 1 part of this water with 3 parts distilled water will lower the RA to 0.5 mEq/L (25 ppm as CaCO3). This should be low enough to give you a liveable mash pH even if no other steps are taken. Acid can be extracted from the malt by increasing the hardness of the mash water. If all the residual alkalinity were to be neutralized by addition of calcium 3.5*2 = 7 mEq/L would be required and if this were supplied by calcium chloride that would put the chloride at about 122 mg/L which is indeed pretty high. But there is no need to neutralize all the residual alkalinity. Half of it, for example, could be disposed of with half the amount of calcium chloride calculated above and while that would still leave you with 60 mg/L chloride that probably isn't too much as the water is low in sodium. I'd start with the diluted tap water with no treatment. It may be adequate. I've made good beers with dough in pH's of 5.7 -5.8 and the yields weren't that bad either (60 lbs of extract from 100 lbs of malt). Colored malts, even the faintly colored ones used with pilsners (carapils, light crystal) can lower the pH appreciably without darkening the beer even if used to the extent of 10% of the grist. If you want the pH lower still then you might want to consider the addition of some calcium chloride. While it's not Reinheitsgebot it will give the beer a rounder mouthfeel which many find desireable. Other methods of mash pH reduction involve the addition of mineral or organic acids. The latter can be supplied within the provisions of the Reinheitsgebot/Biersteuergesetz by allowing naturally occuring lactic acid bacteria to acidify a small portion of the mash. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 10 Apr 2006 11:22:50 +1000 From: "Graham L Sanders" <craftbrewer at bigpond.com> Subject: Gluten free beers G'Day All Yes its been a long time between posts. I live in the remote North of North Queensland for a reason, that being so the rest of the brewing world cant find me, thus bother me. And I thought with this lack of contact I would have time to enjoy life and drink beer. And this I have achieved. But I also thought that long ago I would have reached the apex of brewing knowledge, and thus would be able to sit back and just brew away, doing it in my sleep (thats what SWMBO says when I do my man-ly duties). And here I thought she would just be happy with me being with her. But I digress. This hobby continues to constantly throw up new challenges, and as always new surprises. Least of which is young Steve. This man is normally a fountain of knowledge, but more than once this fountain has sent forth rank, off water, or for some reason stops all together. Its most disturbing when the fountain just dribbles. Now his comment >>>>>>Again, it may be possible to make a beer with only corn, rice, millet, sorghum, possibly oats and so on, but I don't think we'd recognize the result as an adequate replacement for conventional barley based beer.<<<<< Dear oh dear mate, - how wrong you are. Australia is fast becoming the capitol of gluten free brewing in the world. We now make a range a commercial all malt gluten free beers, and have malting plants that make sorghum malt. Add to that the shortly to be annouced a millet malting plant, that will make a pilsner, munich, chocolate and caramunich/crystal type malts. And I have been lucky to be involved in the design, production and samplings of these beers. I can tell you, there are gluten free beers out there that would even fool you. O'Briens Lager and Aztec Gold are two examples of award winning all malt gluten free beers that anyone would drink, the equal to any barley beer. Millet to me has a huge potential to give barley a run for it money. In fact I made a half and half barley millet that is utterly a delight. You can here this on my latest radio program where I taste this beer. PLUS there are quite a number of programs on gluten free brewing in the back issues. So check them out. Gluten free brewing is far more advanced than you realise, so much so, that German brewmasters and teachers are coming to Australia to learn. http://radio.craftbrewer.org Now I am off to try another "budgeree lager". Not an "adequate replacement for conventional barley based beer" indeed!!!!!! Shout Graham L Sanders oh With a Cat 5 cyclone slamming into North Queensland a couple of weeks ago, and the continuous "wet" since, the backyard has tadpole and little green frogs everywhere, and smells like a swamp. What the real worry was I saw a fish swim by, and when that happens the salties are not far behind. And reports are coming in they are "missing" from their usual haunts. Such is the life in the tropics. Return to table of contents
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