HOMEBREW Digest #595 Wed 13 March 1991

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		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  To Clone Jenlain ... (Martin A. Lodahl)
  glass scratches, update (Russ Gelinas)
  Kosher beer (Bill Thacker)
  Extract Efficiencies (Mike Fertsch)
  small bottles (Dave Brown)
  Carbonation and Priming (Stephen Saroff--TMC Applications Scientist at NCSA )
  Wet towels (dbreiden)
  Re:  Capping champagne bottles (Bob Clark - Sun Engineering)
  Oxygen, Yeast and Good Brewing Practice (Bruce Mueller)
  Root Beer (Rick Myers)
  Calculating Bittering Units (Speaker-To-Bankers)
  Re: Campden vs yeast (Pete Soper)
  Types of bottles used. (Jim White)
  Alcohol-free beer (Paul L. Kelly)
  Summary: Campden tablets and mead (Dieter Muller)
  Brewing Sheet (Nik Subotic)
  Aluminum pots (Randy Tidd)
  Boilovers, small lager space (hersh)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 11 Mar 91 10:40:07 PST From: Martin A. Lodahl <pbmoss!malodah at decwrl.dec.com> Subject: To Clone Jenlain ... In HOMEBREW Digest #590, Jack D. Hill asked: >Does anyone have a good recipe for a French Bier de'Garde(sp?)? I would >like to try to recreate something like St. Leonard's or 3 Monts or Jenlain. >Also, has anyone had any luck culturing yeast from these brews? Jenlain is the only one of the beers mentioned that I'm familiar with, and I haven't tried to duplicate it, but I know where I'd start. I'd take a good brown ale recipe, substitute a German hop for the English to about the same degree of bitterness (and keep it all in a single application, 60 minutes before the end of the boil), "goose up" the pale malt significantly while holding the crystal and dark malts constant, and ferment it with a lager yeast of mild attenuation and neutral character. That should get you into the "fine tuning" range. I've read that Jenlain pasteurizes their beer, which is counter to customary biere de garde practice, and pretty much precludes culturing the yeast. My recollection is that it didn't taste like a yeast of great truth and character, so that's probably not a great loss. Good luck! = Martin A. Lodahl Pacific*Bell Staff Analyst = = malodah at pbmoss.Pacbell.COM Sacramento, CA 916.972.4821 = = If it's good for ancient Druids, runnin' nekkid through the wuids, = = Drinkin' strange fermented fluids, it's good enough for me! 8-) = Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 1991 9:17:52 EST From: R_GELINAS at UNHH.UNH.EDU (Russ Gelinas) Subject: glass scratches, update I know that scratches on a plastic fermenter are a perfect breeding ground for all those things that we don't want in our beer, but just how dangerous are scratches on a glass carboy? The scratches are the result of the metal part of a carboy brush rubbing against the glass. I fill the carboy with water and bleach when it is not being used. Will days of soaking kill off any critters? Now a follow-up: I cultured a batch of Wyeast german ale yeast, tossed it in a batch, nothing (seemed to) happen, so I pitched dry yeast, which worked fine. Soon after bottling, I started getting gushers, with all the indications that the German yeast had started up. The beer was undrinkable at that time. So I emptied all the bottles back into a carboy, added ~.5 cup of corn sugar, and stirred it up alot. It fermented quite a bit more (and I gave it a good shake every day to try to get any dissolved off-flavors to bubble out). After about a week (maybe more, I don't have the brewsheet with me), I bottled it (again) with 0.5 cup sugar. It's been bottled for ~2 weeks now, and it tastes just fine!!!!! A little bit flat (to be expected after all that shaking), but no off flavors. Alot of work for one batch, but I'm not complaining. Russ in Manchester, NH, site of 1991 AHA conference Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 8:59:41 EST From: Bill Thacker <hplabs!hp-lsd.cos.hp.com!cbema!wbt> Subject: Kosher beer A few issues ago someone asked if beer was kosher/vegetarian (parve or whatever it's called). It's worth pointing out that some fining agents (um, isinglass and Irish moss, I think) are derived from various bits of animal guts, so that beers using these would not be strictly vegan (or is that (vegetarian?). (Don't you get sick of people who use too many commas ?) Oh, and thanks to all who replied about travelling brews and Seattle pubs. I'll post a summary in a day or two. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Bill Thacker AT&T Network Systems - Columbus wbt at cbnews.att.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 10:06 EST From: Mike Fertsch <FERTSCH at adc1.adc.ray.com> Subject: Extract Efficiencies There has been some discussion lately regarding extract effieiency. It's good to see this discussion. Over the years it has seemed to me that discussing extract efficiency is like comparing professional salaries. People just don't do it! I use a 5 gallon igloo cooler to do my mashing and sparging. I get around 30 points per gallon. I've found that extract efficiency depends on grain type. I've had bad luck with American 2-row Klages (25-27 points per gallon), but get 30-31 points on English 2-row. Imported grains cost more, but, IMHO, are worth it because they give better extraction, and less grain is needed. In addition, I've just started tracking sparge times - slower sparges give better extraction. With my equipment, I've noticed that bigger batches (5 gallon) give a better yield that small (3 gal) batches. I suspect that the depth of the grain bed affects extraction. Although I don't worry a great deal about extraction rate per se (a few points either way doesn't really matter); I feel that good extraction rate is indication that "the mash went well". Good extraction rate implies that the grain bed settled well, resulting in clearer beers with less phenol content. Good extraction rate implies that less grain is used, and less grain implies less tannins in the beer. Higher extraction means less grain is needed, helping the pocketbook, and reducing brewing effort. The real bottom line is that the taste tells the tale, and that extraction rate doesn't matter. I feel that beers with good extraction rates are cleaner and better tasting than those with low extracts. Mike Fertsch Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 08:44:41 PST From: brown at ocelot.llnl.gov (Dave Brown) Subject: small bottles Find some yuppies. The small, single serving perrie bottles are nice. Well shaped, cap well, and they are green, which is at least better than clear. - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- David S. Brown | The Carboys brown at ocelot.llnl.gov | Lycanthrope Brewing, CCC CA .__ / .__ | HM(415) 625-1029 | \ \ |__) | WK(415) 423-9878 |__/ / |__) | beer at ocelot.llnl.gov FAX(415) 294-5054 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 11:12:37 CST From: saroff at ncsa.uiuc.edu (Stephen Saroff--TMC Applications Scientist at NCSA ) Subject: Carbonation and Priming I recently tried to make a batch of pale ale without using any sugar. To do this, I used M&F tinned Malt and amber dried malt in the fermenter. And that seemed to work well. I used the same amount of dried malt as I would have used sugar (I was using the recipe ont he M&F can). Then when it came time to prime, I tried to use some Geordies canned malt instead of sugar. I boiled up the Geordies so that I had ~ a cup of 'new' wort and mixed that in to prime. Now almost a month later, I have a clear beer, with yeast at the bottom, but little carbonation. It seems to me that I should have used more Geordies. Any suggestions as to how to estimate amounts for this sort of half-assed kruesenning I did? Or was I insane to prime without sugar? SzS - --------------- Stephen Saroff (Thinking Machines) o o TMC Application Scientist for NCSA (_)_____o 405 N Matthews Ave ~~~~~~~~~(_____)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 5215 Beckman Institute oo oo The Bear who Swims (217) 244 5556 <tmc at ncsa.uiuc.edu> <saroff at think.com> Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 12:18:24 -0500 From: dbreiden at mentor.cc.purdue.edu Subject: Wet towels In the past couple of digests, the question of fermenting in a warm apartment came up, and the suggestion of a wet towel around the fermenter was given. I've heard of this suggestion before, and I am left wondering how good it really works. Let's say we've got a 75 degree room--low humidity--and a wet towel around the fermenter. What sort of temperature should this result in? Would the fermenting wort actually drop below 70 degrees?? Danny Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 09:31:51 PST From: bobc at Eng.Sun.COM (Bob Clark - Sun Engineering) Subject: Re: Capping champagne bottles -> I just got a case of champagne bottles and want to bottle in them. The -> normal 28 mm. caps I use on beer bottles do fit, but they don't come down -> on the sides of the bottle top as snugly as they do on the 12 ox. bottles. [...] -> Dan Graham My buddies and I concluded that you should only use domestic champagne bottles. We observed that capping imported bottles tended to be very error prone, and generally unsatisfactory due to the bottles being slightly larger. Bob C. Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 10:31:45 PST From: Bruce Mueller <mueller at sdd.hp.com> Subject: Oxygen, Yeast and Good Brewing Practice Oxygen, Yeast and Good Brewing Practice This is a summary of an outstanding talk given by the eminent Dr. George Fixx, a kineticist from the University of Texas, at the First Annual Southern California Homebrew Conference. George was asked to pull out some practical advice from the wealth of information in his recent book. He said what he did was look back and see what he'd changed from the early days of his brewing to the present. The two most important areas concerned oxygen and yeast. The following is how to apply this to homebrewing. Regarding oxygen, it is important to prevent its introduction into hot wort, because at that time it will very rapidly (seconds to minutes) oxidize the phenolic (and other unsaturated) components therein. This includes the alpha acids from hops, among other things. The oxidation products can produce off flavors and contribute to a very short shelf life in the finished beer. Contrary to the above, cold wort should be thoroughly aerated. The breakpoint is about 70F (20C) for aeration: do it below this temperature to allow rapid growth of yeast; above this, see previous paragraph. Oxygen here is also good in preventing growth of some bacteria, and wild yeasts don't get as good a chance to compete with the ones you want under these conditions. Shaking the wort is not adequate to really oxygenate it. George recommends an aquarium pump WITH A FILTER to keep out particulates, like the one advertised in Zymurgy. Bottom line: if your fermentations start quickly and never get stuck, you are probably in good shape here. Yeast was the other big area to George. He used to think reuse was bad news; however, he learned that if you want to reproduce a great beer you've just finished and can get (or have) unpitched wort ready quickly, the yeast from the secondary is THE BEST IN THE WORLD for getting more of the same. Washing yeast, George believes, can best be done with cheap beer (e.g. Keystone) acidified to approximately pH 2.3. He feels the most detrimental part of washing is not the low pH but the different osmotic pressure inside and outside the yeast when the standard acidified water wash is employed. Also, he recommends only washing every fourth to sixth time; washing each and every time can increase the percentage of wild yeast unacceptably. Speaking of washing with grocery store beer, George had a suggestion for the rinse after sanitizing, before filling the carboy with wort: use the cheap stuff. Beer absorbs the leftover chlorine and/or sulfites quite nicely--use your nose! He recommends a 12 ounce beer for a 5 gallon fermentor. Swirl it around so it contacts all surfaces and sniff the result. He is also suspicious that a lot of the off flavors blamed on bacterial infections (in the case of advanced brewers) actually come from remaining sanitizer. Chlorinated phenols are detectable by taste at very low levels, and have obnoxious flavors, sometimes metallic in nature. So rinse with the bee-ee-squared-arr. If George had a brewery of his own, he would. Hope this info helps y'all make world-class beer. Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 12:19:48 MST From: Rick Myers <cos.hp.com!hpctdpe!rcm at hp-lsd> Subject: Root Beer Full-Name: Rick Myers > Subject: sassafras in beer > > Maybe sassafras root would work better than the bark; if you try it I > hope you'll post your results. I've thought about trying a little root > beer extract in something like a stout. Has anyone out there ever tried > this before? > > Terry Noe I have made a 'root beer ale' by using a can of malt extract (light) along with the root beer extract, and then fully fermenting it out. It tasted like a dry root beer (not at all sweet, of course), but had a kick to it. :-) It was hard to drink more than one at a time, and it left the taste of root beer in my plastic primary, which didn't go away until I had used it 5 or 6 times. I doubt that I would try this again... - -- Rick Myers rcm at hpctdpe.col.hp.com Hewlett-Packard Colorado Telecommunications Division Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 14:51:12 EST From: cmorford at umbio.med.miami.edu (Speaker-To-Bankers) Subject: Calculating Bittering Units I have just been reading the Winter 1990 issue of Zymurgy and came across a definition of International Bittering Units, which is a measure of how bitter a beer is (Or should be). The definition given is .000133 oz. of IsoAlpha Acid per Gallon of solution or about 1 mg./L. I have been trying to figure out what the bittering unit figure would be for my latest brew, a respectable classic pale ale, but I keep coming up with a number much larger (An order of magnitude larger) than I have been expecting. The formula that I have been using is one of my own devising, but I think it should at least be close to the expected figure. Here is my formula: Total Bittering Units = (Amount of Hops used * % Alpha Acid content)/.000133 Bittering Units/ Gallon = Total bittering units / Total gallons My numbers are as follows: 2 oz. of 4.5% AAU hops, 6 Gallons. (2 * .045)/.000133 = 676.69172 Total Bittering Units 676.69172 / 6 = 112.78195 International Bittering Units I have been expecting a number in the range of 10 to 30.... Is my formula wrong? Am I working without all of the needed info? If anyone has an answer, or a formula that works, please let me know... C.Morford Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 14:58:33 EST From: Pete Soper <soper at encore.com> Subject: Re: Campden vs yeast dworkin at habitrail.Solbourne.com (Dieter Muller) asks about Campden tablets. The basic notion behind Campden tablets is that for wines and the like that have fruit-based ingredients it is not a good idea to boil so boiling cannot be used to kill infection organisms. The metabisulfites in Campden tablets when mixed with water create a dilute sulfur dioxide solution which is used in place of boiling to sanitize the must. Another key notion is that wine yeast is resistant to a certain amount of SO2. The 24 hour wait that many wine making books specify gives the dilute SO2 solution time to nail infection organisms while there may also be some loss of SO2 to the atmosphere in the process, reducing the concentration that the yeast have to contend with. The theory is not that the sulphite settles out, so moving the fermenter poses no danger. Are there alternatives to sulfites for wine making these days? With the pressure to get these substances out of wine because of the allergy problems, I wonder if there are alternatives that we can use at home? - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Pete Soper (soper at encore.com) +1 919 481 3730 Encore Computer Corp, 901 Kildaire Farm Rd, bldg D, Cary, NC 27511 USA Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 15:32:13 EST From: JWHITE at maine.maine.edu (Jim White) Subject: Types of bottles used. I'm going to try using the plastic soda bottles next time I bottle some brew. I see a few advantages/disadvantages; Advantages; 1) They're bigger, thus fewer bottles with which to hassle. 2) They're designed to contained carbonated beverages. 3) No need to buy caps, as one can re-screw the cap. Disadvantages; 1) They're plastic. Somehow seems criminal to bottle beer in plastic bottles. 2) They're bigger, thus could have problems if I don't drink it all and disturb the bottom. Also, might lose some carbonation Any thoughts, or experiences? Has anyone used other then recapable beer bottles? Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 15:09:08 EST From: pkel at psych.purdue.edu (Paul L. Kelly) Subject: Alcohol-free beer I have tried a few no alcohol beers (e.g. Kaliber), and have found them wanting in one or more ways, such as too watery, not hoppy, etc. My wife, an avid homebrew fan, is now pregnant and has sworn off alcohol for the dur- ation. I would like to make it possible for her to satisfy both her desire to drink real beer and her wish to not consume ethanol. So how would a home- brewer make alchohol-free beer? I have thought about boiling off the ethanol, priming, and inoculating with yeast, but I'm afraid the boil after fermenting would be detrimental to the flavor. Is there some other way of removing alcohol from a fermented product? Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated. Thanks, Paul Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 17:17:28 MST From: dworkin at habitrail.Solbourne.COM (Dieter Muller) Subject: Summary: Campden tablets and mead I recently (was it really only yesterday?) sent off my confusion over Campden tablets, mead, and yeast. I got replies from: loc at bostech.com smithey at hulder.css.gov sherwood at adobe.com Here's the summary: smithey> Duncan and Acton, I think -- a brewing friend of mine has it, smithey> and I borrowed it recently when I made my first batch of mead. This is indeed the book under discussion. I can't really recommend it for the first-time brewer. loc> No need to be confused about Campden tablet and yeast.8-) Well, when your only source of reference is a book written by people that assume you already know about wine-making.... sherwood> The campden tablets make SO2 which comes out of solution and sherwood> dissipates into the atmosphere. The directions usually say sherwood> to cover the batch with a towel for those 24 hours -- this sherwood> allows the SO2 to diffuse out. If you put an airlock on it sherwood> (I did this before realizing what was involved) you can sherwood> indeed kill the yeast when you add it. Yup. Dead yeasties. *sigh*. It's time for another trip down to the guy that sells brewing supplies out of his sitting room. For some reason, I always feel a little odd about that.... smithey> I think the idea is that the the "active ingredient" in the tablets smithey> escapes as sulphur dioxide (?) gas over the 24 hour period, so the smithey> waiting is not only to give time for wild yeasts and bacteria to smithey> die, but also for the mead to become safe again for your yeast. smithey> As for the sulfiting at each racking, our guess is that you wait smithey> for the mead to "finish" (either ferment all the way out, or until smithey> it reaches the desired dryness), then rack and sulfite. This stops smithey> the yeast, and your mead is pretty much finished. The additional smithey> racking and sulfiting is to allow the mead time to settle/clear, smithey> and the sulfiting is to inhibit acetic acid producing bacteria, smithey> which would like to turn your mead to vinegar. My mead has been smithey> in a 3 gallon glass carboy for a couple of months now, the first smithey> sulphiting definitely stopped any remaining fermentation, and I've smithey> racked/sulphited once. Honey vinegar sounds intriguing, but I must admit it's not quite what I'm looking for. loc> The addition of one campden tablet each time you rack, does not raise loc> the sufite concentration high enough to kill healthy yeast (it just loc> weeds out the weak ones :-)). This addition of sufites at racking loc> also protects the mead from oxidation when you rack. loc> Just to fill in the cracks a bit more: There is some contraversy loc> over the need for the initial sulfites anyway (especially if you loc> make great meads, those with #2.5-3.5 of honey per gallon of loc> water). Honey is naturally antiseptic and hence the contraversy. loc> Some people say it is not worth the chance and sulfite anyway. loc> Personally (since I make great meads) I tend to avoid any extra loc> sulfites. I do use them at racking and do use them when I make loc> small meads. Additionally, I will add 1/2 tsp. of sodium meta- loc> bisufite per gallon at bottling time if I am making still mead. loc> This prevents the mead from undergoing a secondary fermentation loc> while in the bottle.(I'm not fond of watching corks fly out of loc> bottles in my cellar and having a sack mead rinse the floor, but loc> that's a different problem|-O) loc> loc> I also prestart all my yeast so that there is a minimum of lag loc> after pitching. I boil up 1/4 cup each of orange juice and loc> water, cool it, add a tablespoon of yeast nutrient, put all of loc> that in a sterile bottle, pitch the yeast in there, put a lock on loc> it and let it go for 24 hours before pitching the 'must'. I loc> think of it a appetizers for my pets.:-) Dworkin See you at Al Packer's Legendary Culinary Fast-Food Cannibal Bar and Buffet dworkin at solbourne.com Flamer's Hotline: (303) 678-4624 Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 17:26:27 PST From: dannet!bruce at uunet.UU.NET (Bruce Hill) Greetings! I have several questions to ask the collective wisdom of the homebrew readers. I have been reading this mailing list for about 6 months now and have been very impressed with the comprehensive and understandable answers given to most questions. Here goes: 1) Has anyone used the soda-type (cornelius?) stainless steel kegs for primary fermentation? It seems that using these would have numerous advantages over the glass carboys that I am now using. Advantages: They don't break. They are easy to move. Stainless-steel is not going to impart anything to the fermenting beer. They are narrow enough so I can fit two of them, side by side in the incubator (refrigerator) instead of one glass carboy. They are easier to clean (wide-mouth). You can transfer the contents from one keg to another by pressurized CO2 (no exposure to oxygen and no siphoning or pumping). A filter cannister can be put in-line between primary and secondary fermenters to reduce sedimentation and clarify the beer when transferring. You can easily draw off small amounts for checking specific gravity. Disadvantages: Have to rig up some type of fermentation lock or blow tube. Can't see through stainless steel. Sanitation of various inlets and outlets. Any other comments about doing this? 2) I have a 6lb bag of liquid weizen extract from Williams. Does anybody have a good wheat beer extract recipe they would like to share? I would like to make a 5 gallon batch for this summer. Do I need a special strain of yeast for wheat beer or can I use my Sierra Nevada culture? 3) Speaking of Sierra Nevada, does any one out there have an extract recipe that comes close to SN Pale Ale? I have seen this question before but no answer. Making a decent copy of SN Pale Ale is my goal in life :-). A homebrewer friend claimed that SN used CFJ-90 hops. Has anyone ever heard of these before? Where can I get some? 4) Our wort chiller is made out of 1/4 inch copper tubing. My brew partner is a microbiologist and he is concerned about possible affects from passing hot wort through 10 feet of copper tubing. Is this going to affect the flavor of the beer or our health in any way or is he just being paranoid? Does anyone know where I can get 1/4 to 3/8 inch stainless steel tubing to use instead of copper? How much does it cost per foot? My brew partner and I recently upgraded much of our brewing equipment and our first batch using the SN yeast culture, a wort chiller, racking off the trub, and a temperature controlled refrigerator (set to 60F) has come out by far to be our best yet. Many thanks to all of the great suggestions that have come from the digest! I eagerly await your answers and comments to the above questions. Thanks, Bruce Hill Email: uunet!dannet!bruce Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 20:36:04 EST From: Nik Subotic <subotic at osl380a.erim.org> Subject: Brewing Sheet Hi All, I recently downloaded Chris Shenton's bewsheet that he put together in the Latex format via anonymous ftp from mthvax.cs.miami.edu. It's a very useful document in which you can tabulate procedures and ingredients for a particular batch (thanks Chris :-)). As I looked over the sheet, I must admit that I don't quite understand some nomenclature and symbols. The questions are: Under the "Malts, Grains and Adjuncts" area, there is a column reserved for a quantity in units oL (degrees L)? I'm not familiar with this unit convention. Anyone have an idea? Under the "Prodedure" section there are some unfamiliar terms: "Mash-in, Acid Rest, and Mash-out." I can conjecture what these *might* mean but if someone knows for sure it would be nice to have the real scoop. Thanks for the info! Nik Subotic subotic at osl380a.erim.org Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 91 22:43:31 EST From: rtidd at ccels2.mitre.org (Randy Tidd) Subject: Aluminum pots Sorry to rehash an old topic, but why exactly did people have problems with aluminum brewpots? I don't want to start a flame war here, I just want some facts. A local warehouse-type place has 20-quart aluminum pots on sale for like $25, and they LOOKED good for brewing. Send me e-mail so we don't get this argument going again; i'll submit a summary if there is interest. Thanks! Randy Tidd rtidd at mwunix.mitre.org Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 13 Mar 91 00:43:29 EST From: hersh at expo.lcs.mit.edu Subject: Boilovers, small lager space You've got to keep an eye on your pot near the beginning of the boil especially. FOr gas stoves no problem, turn down the heat, for electric, you'll have to use the cold water approach. Handy tip gleaned long ago from this digest. Take a soapy sponge and wipe down the stove top . This makes cleaning subsequent boilovers mcuh easier. You could consider a 3 gallon carbouy. Also Cornelius kegs can be used to ferment in by attaching the CO2 in hose up and placing the end in a jar to serve as an airlock. Cornelius comes in 3 and 5 gallon sizes. Avoid plastic water coolers unless you know they are of a type of plastic that is safe for alcohol storage. Remember when plastic liquor bottles first came out, they were not sufficiently tested. Seems the plastic that was used leached carcinogens when in contact with alcohol. Wouldn't want this happpening, eh?? Jay H Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #595, 03/13/91 ************************************* -------
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