HOMEBREW Digest #704 Mon 19 August 1991

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		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  alcohol by weight and volume ("Spencer W. Thomas")
  Kegging in mini kegs (Eric Pepke)
  Re: Sulfites (Ted Stefanik)
  Re: Cleaning Glass Carboys (Ted Stefanik)
  what is high gravity/weizen style definitions (Tony Babinec)
  Re: carboys, buckets, and scratches (Chris Shenton)
  Water treatment with CaCl2 (Ken Giles)
  Re: Time to pour (mll)
  Re: Time to pour (mll)
  Lambic Critters (Martin A. Lodahl)
  Wort chilling, etc. ("Dr. John")
  Nordic Brew (nnieuwej)
  lemon in weizen (Brian Smithey)
  Calculating Alcohol Content, East Coast Homebrew Stores ("Roger Deschner")
  Crappy malt extracts (Ron Rader)
  Melting solidified wort agar? (Chris Shenton)
  liquid yeast question(s) (Greg Pryzby)
  detecting glass grenades (Chip Hitchcock)
  Bicarbonate (ez005142)
  Re:  Malt Extracts (Randy Casey)
  Chill Haze (LEITH  Graham Arthur)
  All grain pale ale malt selections (joshua.grosse)
  Harvesting and storing hops (cj)
  Quebec City pubs & brewpubs (STROUD) (Tim Carlson)
  USENET Newsgroup Rec.Crafts.Brewing is on the air ("a.e.mossberg")
  German 2-row (Andy Leith)
  Sulfite Discussion (MIKE LIGAS)
  MALTING (Jack Schmidling)
  Re : Boots yeast (Conn Copas)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 09:53:06 EDT From: "Spencer W. Thomas" <Spencer.W.Thomas at med.umich.edu> Subject: alcohol by weight and volume Clearly, these formulas are approximations, valid at low concentration. I'll address the second, as it is subject to fewer guesses. %V(alc) = 100 * V(alc) / V(alc+water) %W(alc) = 100 * W(alc) / W(alc+water) 1/SG(alc) = 1.25 = V(alc) / W(alc) %V(alc) / %W(alc) = V(alc) / W(alc) * W(alc+water) / V(alc+water) = 1.25 * W(alc+water) / V(alc+water) Now, if the amount of alcohol is small compared to the amount of water, the second fraction is approximately 1. Assume the total weight is 1, the weight of the alcohol is wa, and therefore, the weight of the water is 1 - wa. W(alc+water) / V(alc+water) = 1 / (1.25 * wa + (1 - wa)) = 1 / (1 + .25*wa) = 1 / (1 + .25 * %W(alc) / 100) For a 4% by weight brew, this amounts to 1 / 1.01 = .99 so the true percentage of alcohol by volume, instead of being 5% is 4.95%. Not really a measurable difference, at least with HB equipment. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 1991 10:33:33 EDT From: PEPKE at SCRI1.SCRI.FSU.EDU (Eric Pepke) Subject: Kegging in mini kegs I "kegged" a batch of bitter in a couple of mini kegs a few weeks ago. (By mini kegs, I mean those 5 liter cans that are roughly shaped like kegs and have a stopper with a 1 cm hole in the top.) It worked fine. I just santitized the can, poured the beer in, and plugged it up with one of the minimalist taps. They hissed and bubbled a bit through the imperfect seal over the next couple of weeks. Last night, I tried drinking the first results. I used a CO2 tap designed for the kegs inserted not quite to the bottom to avoid picking up sludge. The beer was not carbonated much at all, which was desirable, as this was supposed to be a bitter. In contrast, the same beer bottled (with bulk priming) was a borderline gusher. The total annoyance factor, though, was not much less than bottling. Eric Pepke INTERNET: pepke at gw.scri.fsu.edu Supercomputer Computations Research Institute MFENET: pepke at fsu Florida State University SPAN: scri::pepke Tallahassee, FL 32306-4052 BITNET: pepke at fsu Disclaimer: My employers seldom even LISTEN to my opinions. Meta-disclaimer: Any society that needs disclaimers has too many lawyers. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 10:44:47 EDT From: ted at evi.com (Ted Stefanik) Subject: Re: Sulfites Spencer W. Thomas writes: > Unfortunately for those sensitive to sulfites, a certain amount can be > produced during fermentation. This is why almost all (in fact all that > I've seen) wines are labelled "contains sulfites". I don't know if > this is also true of beer (I haven't seen such labels on beers), maybe > it's something in grapes that does it. I was under the impression that the sulfites were added to the wine must before fermentation and during racking. Sulfites are added in the form of SO2 gas, or as sodium metabisulfite or potassium metabisulfite. Sulfites are added to kill stray bacteria and yeasts in the must. I've never heard that SO2 can be produced by fermentation and I'm quite suspect of this claim. The reason that most wine bottles are labelled as "contains sulfites" is that most wine makers use sulfites to control the quality of the product; the practice is near universal. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 11:03:35 EDT From: ted at evi.com (Ted Stefanik) Subject: Re: Cleaning Glass Carboys >From GC Woods: > If there is some gadget I'm missing to clean carboys, please e-mail me! I clean my carboys as follows. It never fails to get them 100% clean. 1) Fill the carboy with hot water to within 2 inches of the top. 2) Top off with chlorine bleach 3) Let stand for several hours. You should see the scum bubble off the sides! 4) Brush the carboy thoroughly with an appropriately sized carboy brush. (Carboy brushes of various sizes are available from your local homebrew supply store). 5) Rinse the carboy thoroughly with a jet-stream type bottle washer (also available at your homebrew supply store). Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 10:29:33 CDT From: tony at spss.com (Tony Babinec) Subject: what is high gravity/weizen style definitions A few digests ago, someone posed the question of what's a high-gravity beer. I think of a starting gravity of about 1050 or so as the cutoff. Why? If you think of the common styles, here are some gravity ranges and styles. 1030s berliner weisse, mild, ordinary bitter 1040s brown ale, kolsch, alt, standard pale ale, standard pilsner 1045-1055 munich helles, munich dark, vienna, flanders brown, california common beer 1050-1060 dortmund, maerzen 1060+ trappist, old ale, bock, doppelbock, imperial stout, etc. Beers in the 1030s are truly session beers. You can have 2 or 3 pints for lunch (food optional) and go back to work and still expect to function. Beers in the 1040s and 1050s are progressively heftier. By the time you get to the 1060s, alcohol is pronounced and even becomes part of the expected flavor and aroma profile. A related reason for considering 1050 the cutoff is that high-gravity worts, with 1050 or so being the cutoff, require progressively greater hops due to inefficient hop utilization. See Ramsey's article in the special hop issue of Zymurgy for the formula including the adjustment. An interesting related point is this. When I brewed extract beers, I'd add the malt to a couple of gallons of water, and top off to 5 gallons in the fermenter. I assume this is how many homebrewers do it, given the expense of large brewpots. In this situation, the couple of gallons of wort are a high-gravity wort. For example, if the wort when topped off with 2.5 gallons of water becomes 5 gallons of 1050-gravity wort, then the original 2.5 gallons of wort before topping off must have been 1100-gravity wort. By all rights, hop additions should take this into account! Needless to say, when I thought of hop additions in the 1/4-1/2 ounce increments the book recipe called for, this point was not known or appreciated. Regarding Weizens, here are style attributes taken from a recent Zymurgy which presented definitions of the styles. weizen dunkelw weizenbock starting gravity 1040-1050 1045-1055 1066-1080 alcohol volume 4.5-5.0% 4.5-6.0% 6.5-7.5% IBUs 8- 14 10- 15 10- 15 SRM range 3- 8 17- 22 7- 30 So, according to these style definitions, a dunkel weizen is a dark weizen with perhaps a slightly higher starting gravity, while a weizenbock is definitely a bock in starting gravity while affording the brewer much leeway in color. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 11:07:49 EDT From: Chris Shenton <chris at endgame.gsfc.nasa.gov> Subject: Re: carboys, buckets, and scratches On 15 Aug 91 16:41:49 EDT (Thu), GC Woods <gcw at garage.att.com> said: >From: Chris Shenton <chris at asylum.gsfc.nasa.gov> >Carboys are easier to keep clean than buckets -- they don't scratch like >plastic -- so there will be less chance of infection. I wouldn't worry Geoff> You must be kidding. Maybe I am not using the correct type of brush or Geoff> something, but I can wash out a food grade plastic bucket with no Geoff> problem (and no scratches yet), but have a very difficult time getting Geoff> all of the stuck junk off the inside of a glass carboy. No scratches yet *that*you*can*see*. I usually fill the carboy with hot water and bleach and let it soak overnight if there's serious scum in it. Geoff> If there is some gadget I'm missing to clean carboys, please e-mail me! A long handled bottle-type brush helps too, once the soaking has softened up the goo. [such technical terms!] Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 09:18:46 PDT From: keng at ic.MENTORG.COM (Ken Giles) Subject: Water treatment with CaCl2 George fix states (in Principles of Brewing Science, p.20) that bicarbonate (HCO3) combines with calcium ions to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3), water, and carbon dioxide when heat is applied and aeration is performed. Calcium carbonate is precipitated. Here's the formula: heat Ca(+2) + 2HCO3(-) --------> CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 aeration He further states that the calcium content must be above ~10 mg/l to facilitate this reaction. As for the resulting cloride ions, I can't find a place where he mentions their effect. _Clorine_ is a problem because it causes formation of clorophenol compounds, which adversely affect flavor. Cloride ions will not cause this problem. Since NaCl (and hence, cloride ions) is a common additive in pale ales, it seems like low risk to have some extra cloride hanging around. Someone was concerned about the resulting saltiness. Doesn't this require presence of sodium as well? George also says on p.13 that "Calcium cloride is finding increasing favor in water treatment programs because it does not have sulfur ions." Its useful to keep in mind that the intended audience for Principles of Brewing Science is the microbrewery industry as well as the homebrew crowd. P.S. If you're trying to achieve a target concentration of calcuim ions, note that calcium cloride is really (according to George, p.12) CaCl2 + 2H2O. This will affect your molecular weight calculations. kg. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 11:19:47 -0500 From: mll at aio.jsc.nasa.gov Subject: Re: Time to pour Bill Thacker writes: >Michael Bass writes: > >> I had the good fortune to attend a conference in Berlin, Germany. >> One of the interesting features of the way they >> server beers: Apparently the length of time it takes to pour a beer is >> a measure of the quality of the beer and the bartender. It takes >> anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes to poor a good beer. (You have to wait >> for the head to die down before you can continue to fill the glass!) > >Coincidentally, a friend of mine, in a telephone call Sunday night, >mentioned discovering a bar in Chicago which served Guinness on tap. >He marvelled that it took several minutes to pour the beer, because of the >foaming, and asked me what that meant. > > >Several possibilities dawned on me, including the "new keg" foaminess >mentioned here, but he assured me that he'd investigated for a sufficiently >long time to see the keg well on its way toward emptiness. 8-) > >Also, his description of the flavor didn't match with my own very well, >giving me to wonder if this bar might be serving the *real* draught Guinness >as found in Ireland (it *is* an Irish pub). I worked for a Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 11:25:07 -0500 From: mll at aio.jsc.nasa.gov Subject: Re: Time to pour Bill Thacker writes: >Michael Bass writes: > >> I had the good fortune to attend a conference in Berlin, Germany. >> One of the interesting features of the way they >> server beers: Apparently the length of time it takes to pour a beer is >> a measure of the quality of the beer and the bartender. It takes >> anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes to poor a good beer. (You have to wait >> for the head to die down before you can continue to fill the glass!) > >Coincidentally, a friend of mine, in a telephone call Sunday night, >mentioned discovering a bar in Chicago which served Guinness on tap. >He marvelled that it took several minutes to pour the beer, because of the >foaming, and asked me what that meant. > > >Several possibilities dawned on me, including the "new keg" foaminess >mentioned here, but he assured me that he'd investigated for a sufficiently >long time to see the keg well on its way toward emptiness. 8-) > >Also, his description of the flavor didn't match with my own very well, >giving me to wonder if this bar might be serving the *real* draught Guinness >as found in Ireland (it *is* an Irish pub). I worked for a restaurant in Munich about 10 years ago. We had 3 kinds of beer, a normal helles, a Pilsner, and Guinness. The helles poured in a few seconds. The Guinness took about 10-12 minutes to pour, and the Pilsner took almost 15!!! That was not unusual either as when we would drink Pilsner at other places, we would generally order the next round just as the last round we ordered was being served. ===================================================================== Mark L. Littlefield Automation and Robotics Division internet: mll at aio.jsc.nasa.gov Intelligent Systems Branch USsnail: Lockheed Engineering and Sciences 2400 Nasa Rd 1 / MS 19 Houston, TX 77058-3711 "The closest night table, when I tried to open it, nearly bit my hand off...No, that wasn't at all how furniture was suppose to behave; there was clearly something wrong with this agriculture." - Tichy: The Star Diaries ==================================================================== Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 9:15:26 PDT From: Martin A. Lodahl <pbmoss!malodah at PacBell.COM> Subject: Lambic Critters In HOMEBREW Digest #703, Andy Leith asked: > Does anybody know of somewhere I can get hold of the cultures > necessary to make a kriek, for less than the $45 that it costs from > UC Davis? Contact Mike Sharp (msharp at hawk.ulowell.edu). He has virtually all of them. The two "big hitters" as identified by Jean-Xavier Guinard, Pediococcus damnosus and Brettanomyces bruxellensis, come from a lab "of awsome repute" that refers to remain nameless, and are marvelously vigorous and apparently quite pure. = Martin A. Lodahl Pacific*Bell Systems Analyst = = malodah at pbmoss.Pacbell.COM Sacramento, CA 916.972.4821 = = If it's good for ancient Druids, runnin' nekkid through the wuids, = = Drinkin' strange fermented fluids, it's good enough for me! 8-) = Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 12:29:37 EDT From: "Dr. John" <JELJ at CORNELLA.cit.cornell.edu> Subject: Wort chilling, etc. In HBD #701 Steve Anthony asked about a wort chilling system based on ice water This is the sort of system I have employed since I started doing all-grain, full-mash beers. I opted for a somewhat simpler design though. I use a coil (20 or 25', I can't remember which) of 1/4" copper tubing immersed in a 5 gallon bucket of ice water. I won't bore you with the details now, anyone who is interested can get in touch for a more in-depth description. This system chills 5 gallons of wort in about 20 or 25 minutes, and gives me a very good cold break; the wort goes in boiling hot and very clear and emerges cool (somewhere in the 60's (F)) and lokking as muddy as the Mississippi. By incorporating both parts of my Zapap lauter tun into the chilling system, I kept the expense to a minimum. In addition to the coil of copper tubing the only extras I needed to put this together were an extra 5 gallon bucket (food grade of course, and thick enough so that it doesn't distort when filled with boiling wort), a couple short lengths of racking tubing, and a couple little metal hose clamps. I'm not sure, but I suspect that this method uses less water than either a counterflow or an immersion chiller. On another topic, Geoff Woods, in HBD #703, says that he thinks carboys are more difficult to clean than plastic fermenters. Carboys aren't really all that difficult to clean, if you have patience and a carboy brush. I usually rinse mine several times to loosen as much of the gunk as I can, then fill them completely with a bleach solution and let them soak for several days. This usually loosens most of the rest of the gunk and the carboy brush will get whatever is left. Of course you can omit the soak and have at it with the carboy brush immediately after the carboy is emptied. One indispensable item, at least for me since I haven't come up with the bucks for a keg system yet, is one of those jet bottle washers. They really speed up the rinsing of bleach-soaked bottles, and put out a forceful enough spray to do a nice job on carboys too. Mitch Evans, in HBD #702, related the sad tale of an exploding bottle and its nasty effect on his thumb. I hope things are on the mend Mitch. You might consider getting a kit to do a reducing sugar test. I have some of the Clinitest tablets that are sold by drug stores to diabetics. There was an article in Zymurgy, a couple years ago, by Nancy Vineyard on using this kit to test beer for reducing sugars. I'm not sure about her suggested procedure, seems that she doesn't use enough beer to get a good test, but I haven't gotten around to calibrating the thing myself yet, haven't felt a pressing need as I haven't had any explosions. This sort of test, if properly calibrated, should be more reliable than the hydrometer and a prayer method that seems to be so commonly used. Al Edwards, in #703, raises a question about formulae for approximating alcohol content based on attenuation. These formulae, or something very much like them, come from Papazian, and probably elsewhere. Now, while they obviously break down for extreme values on the high end they are probably accurate enough for approximating alcohol contents in the ranges we normally achieve with our beers. If you want something more technical try Noonan's "Brewing Lager Beer" in which you will find a description of how to go about determining real attenuation, as opposed to apparent attenuation, and a bunch of related stuff. As for me, I'll stick to the approximation I can get using my hydrometer and calculator. Even though the relationships may not be linear the approximation seems good enough, we are probably talking about some pretty small approximation errors here. Ooogy wawa, Dr. John Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 12:40:35 -0400 From: nnieuwej at pooh.bowdoin.edu Subject: Nordic Brew Does anybody know anything about Scandinavian beers? I'm particularly interested in anything Norwegian brews that may be commercially available in this country. -Nils Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 10:17:29 PDT From: smithey at esosun.css.gov (Brian Smithey) Subject: lemon in weizen I've seen mention in Jackson's writing that Bavarian weizen is traditionally served with lemon, but have never been able to determine how it's CONSUMED. Is the lemon wedge left on the glass for aroma only, or is the juice squeezed into the beer, or the lemon intermittently sucked on, etc. ? Perhaps some of you who have been there and had the real thing can help me out, I've brewed some weizen and would like to try some with lemon. Thanks, Brian - -- Brian Smithey smithey at esosun.css.gov - uunet!seismo!esosun!smithey Return to table of contents
Date: 16 August 1991 12:21:41 CDT From: "Roger Deschner" <U52983 at UICVM.uic.edu> Subject: Calculating Alcohol Content, East Coast Homebrew Stores In HBD 703, Alan Edwards asked: > If you don't know the correct equations, what do you use in practice? I use Dr. Bob Technical's Amazing Wheel of Wort. You just dial in how much of what you used to make it, and all the numbers are right there on the wheel. Get one from your local homebrew supply shop. and somebody else asked about East Coast homebrew suppliers. I've used The Modern Brewer, in Cambridge, Mass. The phone number is easy to remember - 1-800-SEND-ALE. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 11:46:26 EDT From: rlr%bbt at mcnc.org (Ron Rader) Subject: Crappy malt extracts Thanks very much to Martin for posting the Extract Report. I found it very interesting, although depressing. I'd like all the extract brewers to post their experiences with particular extract brands, so we can all figure out which brands to select and which to avoid. It's hard to believe that a product labelled "100% Barley Malt Extract" could have a lot of sugar syrup added. Sucks. - -- ron rader, jr rlr at bbt.com OR ...!mcnc!bbt!rlr = Opinions are my own and do | | i gotta six-pack & nothing to do... = not necessarily reflect those | | i gotta six-pack & i don't need you = of BroadBand Tech. (SO THERE!) *** Punk ain't no religious cult, punk means thinking for yourself - DKs *** Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 13:57:09 EDT From: Chris Shenton <chris at endgame.gsfc.nasa.gov> Subject: Melting solidified wort agar? If I cook up a batch of wort for culturing stuff, then solidify with agar, can I assume I can melt it later? By boiling, or steaming? (Microwave? :-) Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 01:48:07 EDT From: neptune!pryzby at uunet.UU.NET (Greg Pryzby) Subject: liquid yeast question(s) I have made the jump from dry to liquid yeast with my latest batch. I have a few questions concerning liquid yeast though. I started the liquid yeast about 26 hours before I needed it. The package was HUGE (I don't think it could have gotten bigger.) I pitched the yeast at 70F and waited for the fermentation to start. Well, about 48 hours later the fermentation started. But it has been VERY slow. With dry yeast, the fermentation started within a few hours and was vigorous for a few days and done between 3-5 days. This batch looks like it is going to take alittle (or alot) longer. Is this typical for liquid yeast? A slow start (about 48 hours to start)? Slow fermentation (some bubbling)? Temp should not be a problem, it is the same as for my last batches, between 70-76F. I would appreciate any feedback from someone who can tell me about the difference between liquid and dry yeast. And why liquid yeast is preferred? Or will I know that when the batch is tasted? peace, greg Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 14:38:14 EDT From: cjh at vallance.HQ.Ileaf.COM (Chip Hitchcock) Subject: detecting glass grenades David Resch points out that a bottle whose cap has become convex is overpressured. I found the hard way that it's easier to spot an everting cap if you've used bottles with a long collar (e.g., most bar bottles). The homebrewer's standard two-lever capper makes a distinct, sharp-edged dimple when capping long-collared bottles; you can see a pressure problem starting if part of the edge of the dimple smooths out. Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 10:57:11 -0700 From: ez005142 at pollux.ucdavis.edu Subject: Bicarbonate Thanks to all who responded to my somewhat foolish questions regarding chlorine and chloride. After several people beat me over the head, I think I am finally beginning to understand why my idea won';t worlk. But if my idea is that bad, how the hell does one get rid of 700 ppm of bicarbonate? One answer given awhil back was to use acid to shift the buffering potential (or something like that) to a level where the bicarbonate would por precipitate out. But what would it precipitate out as, and where would it get positively charged ions to bind with. According to Miller you need a certain ratio of Ca+ ions to each carbonate ion in order to precipitate anything. In my water I've only got 70 ppm og of Ca+. Where would all the precipitate come from? I can't add more Ca+ because all the compounds containing Ca+ also contain things I don't want in my water (like Cl- and sulfates) Doesn't anyone else have this problem or is Davis water really THAT bad? Or am I oworrying about something that really doens't matter anyhow. In any case, I appreciate all the answers on my last stab in the dark. Thanks to everyone who can help me with my currect questions. Pretty soon I'll say screw it and buy bottled water! Adios Chris Swingley csswingley at ucdavis.edu Institute of Ecology University of California, Davis Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 11:37:57 PDT From: rcasey at caticsuf.CSUFresno.EDU (Randy Casey) Subject: Re: Malt Extracts >Martin A. Lodahl <pbmoss!malodah at PacBell.COM> >The sugar profiles provided the real bombshell. They divided the >extracts into 3 groups, according to the contents listed on the >labels. Groups 2 and 3 both had various supplements listed, and the >analyses tracked pretty well with the labeling. Group 1 extracts, >however, "were labeled at the source as pure malt extracts". Of the >21 extracts in that group, a commendable 14 had carbohydrate >profiles "similar to the standard all-malt wort" I was wondering if the list of extracts by group could be posted. I would like to see what brands/styles were labeled pure and what ones were 'supplemented' with other frementables. - ----------------- rcasey at caticsuf.csufresno.edu Randy Casey Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 1991 15:38:32 -0300 From: LEITH Graham Arthur <leith at ecf.toronto.edu> Subject: Chill Haze I have recently moved up from kit brewing to brewing with extracts, adjunct grains, and hops. While I have been very pleased with the taste of these beers, they have a chill haze that I never encountered with the kits. I suspect that it is due to the proteins dissolved in the wort from the adjunct grains (crystal malt and toasted barley malt) that I've been using. I put the adjuncts into the cold water and remove them when it comes to a boil, then add the extract. Does anybody have any suggestions on the use of finings, or better still, how to avoid a chill haze without the use of finings? Is it alright to add finings to a secondary or will this precipitate out too much of the yeast needed for bottle carbonation? Should I close my eyes, not worry, and just enjoy the taste of the beer? Graham Leith Return to table of contents
Date: Friday, 16 August 1991 10:12am ET From: joshua.grosse at amail.amdahl.com Subject: All grain pale ale malt selections In HBD #703, tony at spss.com (Tony Babinec) writes: > The degree of kilning of British pale ale malt accounts for the > wonderful color of pale ales.... I'm an extract brewer and make IPAs using an amber extract with crystal malt as an adjunct. My books on brewing (and they're for extract brewers, of course) tell me that my wonderful copper-red color comes from the crystal malt. Killian's Red (a Coors commercial lager) describes their use of caramel malt (US commercial name for crystal malt) in the beer. Is British pale malt a cross between, say, German 2-row and crystal malt? I don't have any recipies for all-grain pale ale, so I wonder. - ----------------------------------------------------------------- Josh Grosse jdg00 at amail.amdahl.com Amdahl Corp. 313-358-4440 Southfield, Michigan Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 15:12:28 EDT From: cj at wisny.att.com Subject: Harvesting and storing hops Someone recently asked how to tell when hops are ready to harvest and I don't remember seeing an answer. Mine are getting to that point and, while I can make a pretty good guess, some advice would be helpful. The buds seem a little small right now, but in past years I think I've let them go a little too long. Once the hops have been picked, what's the proper way of processing and storing them? I had one shop tell me to just put them in plastic bags in my freezer, but it seems like they get a little too damp this way. One final question. Is there any way to tell what I've got? The hops were just growing there when I bought the house (no, that wasn't a consideration -- I didn't notice them until the first time I mowed the yard -- they're growing semi-wild along the edge of the property) and I've got now idea what variety they are. I'm pretty sure the previous owner didn't use them & he had the place for 15 years before me. The house was built in 1823, so who knows how old they really are. Thanks for any help. Chris Hughes cj at wisny.att.com 508-374-5613 Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 91 17:40:09 MDT From: Tim Carlson <timc at hpfctjc.fc.hp.com> Subject: Quebec City pubs & brewpubs (STROUD) Full-Name: Tim Carlson > >I'm going to Quebec City in a few weeks. Never having been there, I wondered >if anyone knows of any especially good bars/pubs/restaurants to visit. A good >beer selection is important, of course. > >Also, I believe that there is one brewpub there, called L'Inox??? Anyone ever >been there? > I've been trying to catch up on mail after having been gone for almost 2 weeks, and haven't seen any response to this request. I was in New England & Quebec in June of this year, and stopped in at L'Inox. L'Inox is in old town (vieux ville, if I remember my spelling); in fact its in the lower part of old town (along the river) at the 'downstream' end of town (northeast I think). I probably have the address at home; let me know if you want the address.... When I was there they had 2 "blonde" biers (light color); one filtered and one unfiltered (and slightly cloudy). The bartender gave us a sample of each of the biers, and I decided that the unfiltered was better (more hops taste as I recall). The only food that they serve is steamed sausages in a steamed bagette (french roll) -- not fancy, but still good. For a 1 or 2 block stretch along the "main drag" (something boulevard, as I recall) just outside of vieux ville, the street is lined with restaurants and sidewalk cafes. We ate dinner one nite at a place serving excellent "homemade" sausages and good bier, and at another restaurant serving great dinner and dessert crepes (and reasonably good bier). Hope this helps, Tim Carlson Hewlett Packard Fort Collins, CO timc at hpfctjc.fc.hp.com Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 17 Aug 91 13:29:18 -0400 From: "a.e.mossberg" <aem at mthvax.cs.miami.edu> Subject: USENET Newsgroup Rec.Crafts.Brewing is on the air The vote succeeded, and USENET has a new newsgroups dedicated to brewing: rec.crafts.brewing For a test period, I will be posting the Homebrew Digest to the group. aem Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 17 Aug 91 13:36:26 CDT From: andy at wups.wustl.edu (Andy Leith) Subject: German 2-row Tony Babinec writes that >German 2-row malt is suited for pilsners. It tends to be >less-modified. If it were especially undermodified, you might have to >use a decoction mash. If it isn't too undermodified, you could use a >step-infusion mash. Apparently many commercial German brewers now use a single step infusion (to save on energy costs), so I assume that you don't necessarily "have" to use a step infusion with German 2-row. On an unrelated topic I recall reading several weeks ago that someone recommended only using British crystal for making bitters and pale ales. I have had good successes with Briesse crystal malts and don't think that the secret to making good bitters lies with the nationality of the crystal used. What does help is to let the cooled wort sit overnight in the fridge, and racking it off of the trub before pitching the yeast. I only use British pale ale malt for pale ales, and this may help. (A 55lb sack costs me $45). Andy Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 17 Aug 1991 23:04:00 -0400 From: MIKE LIGAS <LIGAS at SSCvax.CIS.McMaster.CA> Subject: Sulfite Discussion It seems that I've touched a sensitive point with some HBD'ers with my mention of sulfites in mead making. First of all, if one is making staight mead (no additional fruits) then a boil is all that is needed to provide sufficient killing of unwanted microbes. As I mentioned a few issues ago, I use a low level of potassium metabisulfite when fresh fruit is added to the preboiled and cooled honey/water mixture, and that sulfiting is a standard practice in winemaking. One can make wine without sulfiting and let the resident yeasts in the must carry out the fermentation. This would of course be true to historical methods but can be a hit or miss proposition depending on the yeasts present. The advent of pure strains with particular fermentative characteristics allowed zymurgists more control over the final outcome of their fermented nectars. It followed that to ensure that the yeast strain of choice would dominate the fermentation one would need to kill or reduce the population of 'wild' yeast and other microbes prior to pitching the chosen strain. Hence the use of sulfites when using fresh fruit since boiling fruit would set the pectin and destroy some of the finer aromatic and flavour components of the fruit. One objection to sulfiting is that some people are 'allergic' to sulfites. This is partially true. The real problem is that sulfites hypersensitize you to what you are already allergic to, like airborne dust and mould. Many wine makers add a small amount of sulfite to their wine at bottling time in order to ensure a long shelf life and to actually enhance bouquet development in the bottle. The problem here is that SO2 cannot escape and the wine can pose a threat to those who suffer from allergies. I have experienced quite an attack of sneezing and watery eyes once after consuming a heavily sulfited Italian red wine. The trick is to use minimal sulfite to ensure that most wild beasts are killed or weakened and to add sulfite 24 hours prior to pitching your yeast, thus allowing sufficient time for SO2 dissipation. Do not sulfite prior to bottling. The use of sulfites is not restricted to wine and mead making. Read the contents of a bottle of Mackeson's XXX Stout. Sucrose is added at bottling time to make this Sweet Stout style of beer but if the yeast fermented the additional sucrose a Stout bomb would be the result. Therefore the beer is pasteurized and sulfited to stabilize it from bottle fermentation. IMHO, judicial use of sulfite is warranted in certain circumstances and should pose no real health problem unless you constantly exhibit allergic reactions to various allergens. Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 17 Aug 91 09:57 CDT From: arf at ddsw1.mcs.com (Jack Schmidling) Subject: MALTING To: Homebrew Digest Fm: Jack Schmidling Subject: MALTING BARLEY, AGAIN I note, with some cynicism, Darryl Richman's comment in Zymurgy, that the brewmaster of Pilsner Urguell seemed totally ignorant of the malting process. From the responses I received to a very basic question on malting, that particular form of ignorance seems to apply equally to home brewers. The diagram in the article came tantalizingly close to answering my question but left out details that could be used in action. As I suspected, in order to get acceptable germination, dormancy must be broken. He talks about three steeping periods and a temperature range but leaves out what separates one "period" from another. What happens after 21 hours at 15-17 degs that seperates this period from the next 21 hour period or from the final 17 hour period? I have been experimenting with freezing, friging and steeping but surely someone out there can save me from re-inventing the wheel. Darryl.... where are you? Finish your article. jack Return to table of contents
Date: Sun, 18 Aug 91 18:47:52 bst From: Conn Copas <C.V.Copas at loughborough.ac.uk> Subject: Re : Boots yeast Regarding the difference between Boots' 'standard' and 'genuine brewers' dried yeasts, I have only tried the latter and can vouch for it (surprisingly enough, given the supplier !). It is a good general-purpose yeast, producing a very clean flavour even at fermentation temperatures up to 25 C; possibly a bit too neutral for ale fanatics. Its other main characteristic is its sedimenting ability, which allows glasses to be poured repeatedly from the bottle without disturbing the deposit. Keeps fermenting down to at least 15 C. For reasons that escape me, it seems to produce a better head on the finished beer than some other strains I have used. Looks like a mainly bottom fermenter. Come to think of it, where are all these top fermenting yeasts we keep reading about ? You know the ones I mean, that are supposed to send up rocky pancake heads of yeast which threaten to engulf the house, and which require daily skimming and rousing management. I have tried most of the commercial dried yeasts available in both Australia and England, and am yet to see anything which resembles this description. Ditto culturing from Guinness, although I suppose they could be using a supplementary bottle-conditioning strain. The only thing I haven't tried is begging the dregs from a cask at the local pub. We have very few liquid cultures available here in the UK. Which brings me to another set of questions : is it possible that top fermenting yeasts do not like closed fermentation ? In the absence of oxygen, might they possibly dive to the bottom ? Consequently, are we robbing our ales of some complexity by using airlocks during primary fermentation ? Just to complicate matters further, I recently tried Geordie's Extra Pils kit. The kit is touted as producing a genuine continental lager (and does, full of sulphide). Strangely enough, there are also instructions to rouse the yeast daily. Why do this with a lager yeast ? Lastly (I know, I'm full of questions today), what about the advice not to stir yeast with metal spoons. Myth or not ? Conn V Copas tel : (0509)263171 ext 4164 Loughborough University of Technology fax : (0509)610815 Computer-Human Interaction Research Centre Leicestershire LE11 3TU e-mail - G Britain (Janet):C.V.Copas at uk.ac.lut (Internet):C.V.Copas%lut.ac.uk at nsfnet-relay.ac.uk Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #704, 08/19/91 ************************************* -------
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