HOMEBREW Digest #827 Wed 19 February 1992

Digest #826 Digest #828

		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  other uses for crystal (chip upsal)
  Re: Mashing in the Microwave (Eric Pepke)
  St.Sixtus yeast (Russ Gelinas)
  Batting .250 (Mike Tavis)
  cold break (Houck)
  Re: Help!! I'm trapped in a non-brewery!  (David L. Kensiski)
  Re: Home made pH meter (Robert Schultz)
  Why's this? and culture supplier comment (ingr!b11!mspe5!guy)
  co2 info (richard barrett)
  listserv list (N E N Strangelove)
  Sourdough starter (csswingley)
  Thanks You For Your Support (ZLPAJGN)
  Further hydrometer question clarification (ingr!b11!mspe5!guy)
  U Fleku (Todd Breslow)
  Nutrition, BEER BREAD (Jack Schmidling)
  Homebrew Club E-mail Database...42 clubs so far (Stephen Russell)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: 18 Feb 92 07:06:44 EST From: chip upsal <70731.3556 at compuserve.com> Subject: other uses for crystal Steve writes: > Last Saturday I was brewing up a brown ale and also involved in >baking some bread. I have been trying grinding some of my own grain >for the bread using my trusty Corona with the plates tightened down. >Anyhow, there I was, grinding my wheat, when I looked over and there sat >the bag of crystal malt. Why not? thought I and I dumped about a cup in >the hopper. rember that beer malt has the barly husk still intact thus it would add quite a bit of bran to your diet. Chip Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 1992 8:39:54 -0500 (EST) From: PEPKE at SCRI1.SCRI.FSU.EDU (Eric Pepke) Subject: Re: Mashing in the Microwave Tom Haley asked about mashing in the microwave. The problem with this is that the heating in microwaves is very uneven. You would get hot spots which would destroy enzymes and may even burst the starch granules, which would not get a chance to undergo saccharification because of a local lack of enzymes. A microwave chamber would only be a satisfactory heat source if the mash were stirred constantly. Because of the more rapid local heating of the microwave, the stirring would be much more important than with a heat source. I've done decoction, infusion, and stovetop mashes. IMO, the easiest is the stovetop mash a la Dave Line, unless you have a very large mashing tun, in which case a single-step infusion mash is the easiest. Eric Pepke INTERNET: pepke at gw.scri.fsu.edu Supercomputer Computations Research Institute MFENET: pepke at fsu Florida State University SPAN: scri::pepke Tallahassee, FL 32306-4052 BITNET: pepke at fsu Disclaimer: My employers seldom even LISTEN to my opinions. Meta-disclaimer: Any society that needs disclaimers has too many lawyers. Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 1992 9:33:09 -0500 (EST) From: R_GELINAS at UNHH.UNH.EDU (Russ Gelinas) Subject: St.Sixtus yeast I've successfully cultured the yeast from a bottle of St.Sixtus Ale, a Belgium abbey ale (although I think it's the version made *outside* of the abbey). Delicious ale. The question is, what yeast have I got? Is it a conditioning yeast or (one of?) the main fermenting yeast(s)? The aroma from the starter is heavenly (Ha!) : cinnamon, cloves, flowery. I can't wait to brew with it. Re. light on fermeting carboy: I was in a kitchen/wine/homebrew shop recently, and as a demo, they had a fermenting carboy on display, sitting on a counter, with all the bright store lights shining right on and into it. It was for a homebrew class! Sort of wish I could be there when they crack into their first "Pepe' Le Peu" brew! Russ Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 10:27:22 est From: mtavis at saturn.hyperdesk.com (Mike Tavis) Subject: Batting .250 After almost 2 years of fairly successful brewing, I have falling into a "infection" slump. Three of my last four batches have gone South. The first batch I attributed it to lax cleanliness (the sin of hubris - -- "My batches never get infected"). The next one went fine, so I figured I had learned my lesson. Then the third went bad. With the fourth batch I was more careful than any batch in the last 2 years and still it is infected. After I calmed myself (I couldn't RELAX because I was out of homebrew), I started to think more carefully about what was different about the second batch. The only thing that I came up with was that I had used hop plugs for the three bad batches and hop pellets for the one good one. I have had successful batches with hop plugs, but I am pretty sure that these three are the only ones in which I used plugs for the finishing hops. Could it be that the finishing hops plugs are the culprit? I noticed that when I toss them into the boil they take a minute or two to break up (unplug?). This is also about the time that I stop the boil. Perhaps, nasty microbes are hiding in the center of of these plugs and are not exposed to the boil long enough? What do say ye? Is this a good possibility or a red herring? Thanks. - -- Mike o o| Michael Tavis, HyperDesk Corporation o o| Suite 300, 2000 West Park Dr., Westboro, MA 01581 ---+ E-mail: mike_t at hyperdesk.com (508) 366-5050 Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 08:58:15 MST From: jeorg at chs.com (Houck) Subject: cold break i brewed a extract brew this weekend, chilled the wort fairly quickly with an immersion chiller ( <15 mins), and then poured the cool wort into the carboy leaving behind a small amount of trub. after about 10 minutes, when i was going to add the yeast, i noticed a considerable amount of matter (protein?) precipitating out of the wort. i added the yeast anyway and the matter settled out after about four hours (before the yeast took off). the yeast have not stirred up the precipitate and i will rack to a secondary after seven days. now the questions: should i have let the precipitate drop out first, then rack into another carboy, or continue as i have been? is this a sign of poor extract? (john bull amber unhopped) thanks, jeorg houck, jeorg at chs.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 08:24:14 -0800 From: kensiski at nas.nasa.gov (David L. Kensiski) Subject: Re: Help!! I'm trapped in a non-brewery! In Homebrew Digest #825, Eric Mintz <ericm at bach.ftcollinsco.NCR.COM> writes: > It's finally happened: I had to move and my new house doesn't have a > basement or any other room that is cooler than 65F. I once lived in the Central Valley of California and tried brewing where the summer temperatures soar in to the mid-hundreds. Well, OK, the low-hundreds, but it *felt* like the mid-hundreds. Even our air conditioned house didn't get much below 80. My solution was to place the fermenter in our spare bathtub half full of water. I made sure the water level was above the wort level, but below the top of the fermenter. Of course, this assumes you have ample air space at the top of your fermentation vessel to prevent the tub water from sloshing on top of it and possibly leaking in. To control the temperature of the tub water, I kept a couple of gallon milk jugs of ice in the freezer. I would monitor the water temp, and as it crept up a few degrees from 65F, I would plop the milk jugs in the tub and wait until it dropped a few degrees below 65. Then I'd return the jugs to the freezer and start the cycle again. Using this method, I was able to keep the temperature within a few degrees of 65 with only one or two dippings a day. With the ice in the tub, the water temp would drop below 65 within about 10 minutes. Naturally, your mileage may vary... - --Dave ________________________________________________________________________ David L. Kensiski [KB6HCN] Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation kensiski at nas.nasa.gov NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 258-6 (415)604-4417 Moffett Field, California 94035-1000 Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 1992 09:46 CST From: Robert Schultz <SCHULTZ at admin1.usask.ca> Subject: Re: Home made pH meter >PS. I posted an article a while back about a homemade pH meter. I got one > request to post the plans. I am not very good at ascii graphics, and > I don't want to take up Digest space with it. If anyone wants a > schematic and circuit description, send me a Self Addressed Stamped > Envelope. > ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Jim Griggers: You may wish to place your home made pH meter plans in the archive file (i.e. Mac format ...or other --- if anyone uses anything other than Macs) like the beerstax.sit.hqx program. Rob Schultz Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 9:55:57 CST From: ingr!ingr!b11!mspe5!guy at uunet.UU.NET Subject: Why's this? and culture supplier comment First, an interesting thing happened on a batch of India Pale Ale that my brew partner and I brewed in January. When we were ready to pitch the yeast, we siphoned off a sample of the wort to take a gravity reading. We both have hydrometers so we took two readings on the same sample. The interesting thing is that my hydrometer read 1.088 and his read 1.080. When we racked to the secondary, we again took gravity readings with both hydrometers. Mine read 1.022 and his read 1.019. When we bottled, mine read 1.020 and his 1.018. Anyone want to venture a guess as to why there is a difference and why it lessened as the wort fermented out? The hydrometers came from different places and their appearance is slightly different if it matters. Second, I would like to thank whoever posted the information about the new yeast culturing equipment supplier. It was concise and informative. Darren also posted a comment on the supplier as he had received a catalog. I see absolutely nothing wrong with either of these posts. I have obtained a wealth of supplier information from these pages and it is one of the most useful functions of this digest. Relax people. To paraphrase (the real) Ferris Bueller, don't be so tight that someone could shove a lump of coal up your *ss and get a diamond. Keep the information flowing. Also, someone mentioned that a local homebrew supplier was culturing their own yeast. The Homebrewers' Store, 1-800-TAP-BREW, cultures their own yeast. It comes in a vial with a Teflon cap and costs $2.00 if ordered with at least $10.00 of other merchandise. It costs $3.00 otherwise. I have only used it once but I was quite pleased with it. The prices are great and $10.00 buys a good deal there. Even with shipping to Alabama from their location in Washington state, I find it hard to beat his prices on most items. Just another information point. My only affiliation is that I am a satisfied customer blah blah blah. - -- Guy McConnell "And the beer I had for breakfast wasn't bad, so I had one for dessert" Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 13:09:06 EST From: richard barrett <RBARRETT at uga.cc.uga.edu> Subject: co2 info I am new to homebrewing and have just tasted my first batch. It has a very wei rd flavor to it. I have been recieving this list for a while now and I have no ticed that some of you have said that RED STAR brand ale yeast is not any good. Maybe that explains the odd taste. If some of you have any good fruit flavore d recipes...could you please send me some. Also if anyone knows of a mail order company that offers co2 and tank set ups..please let me know. Thank You, Richard T. Barrett <rbarrett at uga.bitnet> Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 1992 19:09:53 GMT From: mstrange at alfred.ccs.carleton.ca (N E N Strangelove) Subject: listserv list I am looking for the Listserv List counterpart to culist.homebrew. Can aynone help me locate it? Thanks in advance, N. Strangelove Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 11:25:52 -0800 From: csswingley at ucdavis.edu Subject: Sourdough starter Someone inquired a few days ago about making a sourdough starter from scratch. Here is a technique I found in the LA Times, 31Jan91 p. H20, that worked the one time I tried it (and since then I've just kept my starter going with water and flour each week) Recipie: 2.5 oz. Russet potato, peeled and cut into small pieces unbleached (organic if possible) white flour 1. Combine potato and 1.5 cups water in a saucepan 2. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, simmer for 15 minutes. 3. Pour contents into a glass container and mash potatos with a fork 4. Cool to room temp 5. Gradually stir in 7.5 oz flour until it forms a stiff batter 6. Cover tightly with plastic wrap and store in a warm place 7. In 6-8 hours it will begin to grey. Stir vigourously and recover 8. Taste after 24 hours--should taste like mild cheese 9. Stir, let stand another 24 hours covered 10. After the second 24 hours it should have a sour taste 11. Stir in 4 Tablespoons of water and 1.25 oz flour 12. Let stand another 48 hours 13. Stir in 4 T water and 3 oz flour until sticky and heavy 14. Let stand until it triples in volume (about 8 hours)--Don't cover! 15. Starter is complete! Refresh every week by stirring in 1/8 cup water and 1 oz flour. Keep covered, but loosly enough to allow gases to escape. If you want more details, or are interested in recipies, check out the article in the LA Times. As I said, this method worked for me the first time, although the tastes and smells didn't occur at exactly the times listed in the recipie. Don't sweat it. Good luck. Adios Christopher S. Swingley Institute of Ecology University of California, Davis csswingley at ucdavis.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 13:43 CST From: ZLPAJGN%LUCCPUA.bitnet at UICVM.UIC.EDU Subject: Thanks You For Your Support Dear Fellow Brewers, It's been four days now since I embarked on this odyssey of home brewing and I think I'm coming to grips with the idea of parenthood. Thanks to the advise, guidance, and experience from other brewers, especiallyfrom those who contacted me directly, I no longer fear that my firstborn will be deformed. (Unique, certainly, but not deformed!) My concerns now are more along the lines of particular methods of fermentation. Presently, I'm planning to rack my beer off to a second, closed fermenter (glass carboy) and store it for about two more weeks before bottling. My question is whether or not in the future I should just stick with a single-staged fermenter. My primary fermenter now is a trash-can-like container with a tight lid, but no fermentation lock. (There's enough space between the beer and the lid that I'm not worried about the top blowing off, and I'm under the impression that the lid is tight enough not to allow nasties in, especially with the negative pressure created inside by the fermentation process, while still allow- ing those gasses to escape.) If I use the single-staged method, should I install a lock on the lid of the trash can, or employ a Barton Union System with a blow-off hose at the top of the carboy?And if I use the carboy, what's the best way to get hydrometer readings? Finally, although I've already heard from a few others on this topic (thanks!!), what's the best way to use a syphon for racking and bottling? Again, thanks to all for your input. I'll keep you informed. John Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 15:11:05 CST From: ingr!ingr!b11!mspe5!guy at uunet.UU.NET Subject: Further hydrometer question clarification One other interesting thing that I forgot to include in my hydrometer question is that both of our instruments read 1.000 in tap water. My hydrometer is somewhat larger and heavier that his and it has what apppears to be lead shot in the bottom covered by a red substance (glue?). His has what appears to be solid lead in the bottom. - -- Guy McConnell "So I'm going outside to have an ice cold beer in the shade" Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 17:40:37 EST From: Todd Breslow <V5149U%TEMPLEVM at VM.TEMPLE.EDU> Subject: U Fleku Does anyone have a recipe or any insight into recreating the lager served at U Fleku in Prague? I've been trying to do this but having minimal success. Also, I've always thought that ales must be brewed at room temp in order for ale yeast to work -- isn't that what defined an ale, warm (rrom temp) top fermentation? Originally I only made ales and this winter I started making some lagers and in the cold basement they seem to do very well -- even better than my ales. So, I opine that room temp is defin. OK for ales. - --Todd Breslow Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 19:34 GMT From: "KATMAN.WNETS385" <6790753%356_WEST_58TH_5TH_FL%NEW_YORK_NY%WNET_6790753 at mcimail.com> Subject: KWAS Date: 18-Feb-92 Time: 02:30 PM Msg: EXT02864 Hello. Sorry I've taken so long to get back with this. Work has been very busy. The recipe for Kumiss is eluding me. I know I have it in a book somewhere. As I recall, there was something about putting mare's milk in a leather sack (perhaps an old stomach of some animal?) in the sun by the front door and kicking it as you went in and out. I'll still look for that one. Now that we have Jack's bread recipe (which I plan to try next time I brew), we have to make beer, make bread with the grains, take any leftover bread and make kwas, and take the kwas leavings to make bread pudding. This is from FOLK WINES, CORDIALS AND BRANDIES by M.A. Jagendorf Vanguard Press ISBN 0-8149-0125-5 $22.50. When he refers to yeast and sugar he means fleischman's bread yeast and household cane sugar. Bread Wine and Kwas If you are adventurous in your viniculture, and if you have made it a truly exciting avocation or hobby, make a wine of the Staff of Life. A wine of bread, a semi-wine I would call it, is very common among Slavic people. I have spoken earlier of Kwas. It is a wine, a very mild one, containing about 6 percent alcohol. It is very common in Russia, Parts of Austria, and Rumania -- in fact, in all countries that have a Slavic population. To make it pleasing for your use, you will have to add spices or honey -- unless you develop a taste for its particular sour flavor. Of course, the lore of bread runs through the world without end. It was a food from the earliest days of time. There are innumerable miracles connected with it. There are innumerable references to it in all the lore and history of the world. But it is far too great a lore to set down, so I will turn to the wine. You need: 1 to 2 gals. water 2 lemons raisins spices (different kinds, but not too much) 1 to 2 lbs. sugar for each gallon of water 2 to 3 lbs. black bread for each gallon of water 1. put the water into an enamel pot. 2. wash and peel the lemons thinly, and put the rinds into the water. Squeeze the juice of the lemons and put that in. add the raisins, cut up as well as possible. put the spices (cloves, caraway, coriander, a few peppercorns, and any others you favor) into a little cloth bag and put it in the pot. bring the water to the boiling point. 3. dissolve the sugar in the boiling water. 4. slice the bread and toast it, taking care not to burn it. put it into the crock. (if you have stale, hard, whole-wheat bread, it can be used without toasting.) 5. when the water is still quite hot, pour it over the bread. cover the crock and set it in a warm place. if you have used good wheat bread, it will start fermenting very quickly without any yeast. stir it with a wooded spoon every day. 6. when it has ceased fermenting, let it rest for a few days so that the bread settles. then siphon off the wine and clear it. It is best to put the wine into strong bottles -- champagne or heavy burgundy bottles -- then cork it, wiring the corks. You may get a powerful, bubbling champagne, which will force out any ordinary cork or even explode an ordinary bottle. Bread wine matures quickly, but it is best to let it rest for a year. KWAS There are many ways of making kwas. The method varies with the locality. In Bukowina, a province of Austria where there are many Slavic folks, kwas was made with apples and had a pleasant cidery, slightly sourish taste. I have chosen the simplest of the recipes, and you can try it, making it once for the sheer novelty of it. It is modified from a recipe of Harry Rubin and Vasily Le Gros, of the Monastery of Our Lady of Kursk, about a mile from my farm. The kwas is made at the monastery by one of the monks. You need: 3 lbs. stale, well-baked rye bread 5 gals. water 3 lbs. raisins 2 lbs. dark molasses (or honey) 1/2 oz. yeast (2 pkgs) 1 tsp. whole-wheat flour 1. Cut the bread into small pieces and put them into a crock or barrel. 2. Boil the water and pour it over the bread. Add the cut-up raisins. Cover the crock well with a tablecloth and let the liquid stand until it cools. 3. Filter it through a napkin or towel, but do not squeeze it. 4. Pour into the liquid the molasses (or honey); use a greater amount if you want a sweet wine. Mix thoroughly. 5. Dissolve the yeast in 1/2 cup warm water and pour it in, and also add the flour. 6. Cove and place in a warm room (65 - 70 deg.). Let the must stand until it starts fermenting, then filter it. Pour it into bottles, putting two raisins into each bottle. After a few days, it should be good to drink. At the monastery, the priest makes it somewhat differently, using little syrup and no raisins. The result is a very sour drink. In Bukowina, small whole apples were put in the water before boiling it, and one was put into each glass of kwas when you bought it. Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 12:17 CST From: arf at ddsw1.mcs.com (Jack Schmidling) Subject: Nutrition, BEER BREAD To: Homebrew Digest Fm: Jack Schmidling ------------------------------ Amazing what leaving off a quote mark in the subject will do. This is what yesterday's posting should have looked like..... Date: Fri, 14 Feb 92 12:35:59 -0800 From: ktk at nas.nasa.gov (Katy T. Kislitzin) Subject: Nutritional Value of Homebrew >So, my question is: how nutritious can a homebrew be? or a good stout for that matter? I will leave that to the nutritionists. > how would one go about making a "healthy" beer? I feel the most unhealthy aspects of beer, homemade or otherwise is the nitrosamine factor. This is an issue that has been glossed over by the industry and totally cured by some and bandaided by others. The first step to nitrosamine free beer is to use only malt produced by indirectly fired kilning. Several companies produce such malt and I buy mine from Minnesota Malting. One of the largest producers of homebrew malt, Breis uses DIRECTLY fired kilns for all except crystal malt and should be avoided like a plague. It took about an hour on the phone to squeeze this information out of them. They would like to talk about anything but nitrosamines. The next step is to remove all chlorine from the brewing water before it gets anywhere near your malt. I boil all water before use. Although the jury is still out on aluminum and Alzheimer's, I would avoid using aluminum anywhere in the brewing process. If you have a thing about organic food, Minnesota Malting will even provide an organically grown malt. Aside from those few things, if you stick to Reinheightsgbot, there is nothing else to talk about. >Least my question be interpreted as anti-bread, let me state for the record that i enjoy baking and eating bread at least as much as brewing and drinking beer! Considering the wonderful bread that can be made with spent grain, you have just compleated the circle. For anyone interested in MM.... The contact is: Bob Jensen Minnesota Malting 918 N 7th St Cannon Falls, MN 55009 (507) 263 3911 .......... BEER BREAD RECIPE I seem to have left out an important detail..... > Roll dough into bars about 2" in diameter and the length of your baking > sheets or form loaves for bread pans. LET RISE AGAIN FOR ABOUT AN HOUR IN WARM PLACE >Bake at 375 F for 25 min. js Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 18 Feb 92 21:27:46 EST From: srussell at snoopy.msc.cornell.edu (Stephen Russell) Subject: Homebrew Club E-mail Database...42 clubs so far Greetings, all. In my quest to get an e-mail address from as many homebrewing clubs in the US and Canada as possible, I posted a call for folks to send their e-mail addresses to me. The twin goals of this database: to aid the clubs in recruiting new members and to promote interclub activities. So far, I have gotten responses from the following 42 clubs: Madison Sobriety Club (Madison, AL) Barley Bandits (Orange County, CA) Hoppy Campers (Modesto/Stanislaus County, CA) The Draught Board (East Bay, CA) Maltose Falcons Home Brewing Society (San Fernando Valley) Gold Country Brewers Association (Sacramento) San Andreas Malts (San Francisco) Brewing Students of Harvey Mudd College (Claremont, CA) Santa Clara Valley Brewers Association (Santa Clara, CA) Worts of Wisdom (South Bay, CA) Deep Wort Brew Club (Colorado Springs, CO) Hop, Barley and the Alers (Boulder, CO) Mash Tongues (Fort Collins, CO) Brewers United for Real Potables (Washington Metro Area) No Name Yet (Athens, GA) Heartland Homebrew Club (Grinnell, IA) Chicago Beer Society Trubadours (Springfield, MA) Boston Wort Processors Chesapeake Real Ale Brewers (MD) Ann Arbor Brewer's Guild Keweenaw Real Ale Enthusiasts United for Serious Experimentation in Naturally- Effervescent Refreshment Science (KRAEUSENERS) (Houghton, MI) Minnesota Brewers Association (Minneapolis/St. Paul metro area) Minnesota TimberWorts (Rochester) St. Louis Brews Fish n'Brew's (Newfoundland and Labrador) Brew Free or Die! (Manchester, NH) Bellhops (Bellcore, Piscataway, NJ) Los Alamos Hill Hoppers (NM) Ithaca Brewers' Union (Ithaca, NY) Sultans of Swig (Buffalo) Bloatarian Brewing League (Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky) Society of Northeast Ohio Brewers (Cleveland Area) CAMRA of Ottawa, Ontario Heart of the Valley Homebrewers (Corvallis, OR) Oregon Brew Crew (Portland, OR) Palmetto State Brewers (Columbia, SC) Berry Brewers (Saskatoon, SK) SCA Brewers Guild (Bryan, TX) North Texas Homebrewers Association (Dallas and northern Texas) James River Homebrewers (Richmond, VA) Brews Brothers (Seattle) =========================== If anyone wishes to contact one of these clubs, please send e-mail to me with your request (no auto-daemon, I'll be doing this manually). If anyone else wishes to be added to the database, send me e-mail with your state/provincial two letter abbreviation and club name in the subject header (such as "MN/Timberworts") Note: I still have yet to hear from anyone in Connecticut (hey Steve Morley, aren't you out there??), PA, WI, much of TX, and other places where I do know that clubs are 'thick'. Even in my home state, just 2 of 11 known clubs have responded. Still, it's a start. I would appreciate it if you would inform members of your club with e-mail who are *not* on the HBD of this database. Cheers and beers, STEVE srussell at snoopy.msc.cornell.edu srussell at crnlmsc3.bitnet Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #827, 02/19/92