HOMEBREW Digest #2683 Thu 09 April 1998

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		Digest Janitor: janitor@hbd.org
		Many thanks to the Observer & Eccentric Newspapers of 
		Livonia, Michigan for sponsoring the Homebrew Digest.
				URL: http://www.oeonline.com

  Split Thy Skull III (Mike Spinelli)
  Elusive enzymes (Siegi Chavez)
  One fridge or two? ("Bryan L. Gros")
  Humor - (beer related - sort of!) (Ian Smith)
  Keg Stratification Solved / FWH %U (Kyle Druey)
  FWH & IBU ("Ray Estrella")
  122F ("David R. Burley")
  Chimay ("Briden, Thomas")
  Re: Mead in Mississauga? / affordable breathalyzer ("Keith Royster")
  Beeston's malt (Paul Shick)
  re: Gott Cooler via mail order (sbgr)
  A small HSA experiment (Martin A. Gulaian)
  Yeast recc. for AHA Big Brew 1998 event (Dan Cole)
  Celis (Kit Anderson)
  the democratic paradox (Vachom)
  Re: 122F rests (ThE GrEaT BrEwHoLiO)
  Gotts and Ronco Dehydrators (EFOUCH)
  Beta-glucans (Stephen Cavan)
  Pils (AJ)
  Recipes ("Houseman, David L")
  Nystagmus Testing Myths Debunked (Sully)
  Re: Gott vs. Igloo Coolers ("Jim Hodge")
  Why do the Germans filter out the Weizen yeast? (George_De_Piro)
  Celis/Hoegaarden clone (eaweston)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Tue, 07 Apr 98 16:59:23 est From: paa3983 at dscp.dla.mil (Mike Spinelli) Subject: Split Thy Skull III HBDers, I missed the first 2 orgies of barleywine but I'll be damned if I miss this one. Phillies own Jim Anderson presents Split thy Skull III on 11 Apr. 2 - 5 pm at Sugar Mom's on 225 Church St. in the Old City area of Center City, Philadelphia. phone is 215-925-9218. It's basically an afternnon of BW madness. No cover, you pay as you go. Last year they had like 10 BWs on tap including a wood cask of Young's Old Nick. Get there early and DON'T DRIVE. Plan on a BAC of >.08 :->. I'll be wearining the Mikey's Monster Brew T-shirt....on my body at first. Mike Spinelli Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 7 Apr 98 17:39:03 EDT From: Siegi Chavez <schavez at ad.ENET.dec.com> Subject: Elusive enzymes Greetings, all. I have a quick question with which to trouble you. What sort of diastatic power does wheat malt have? Would it be possible to brew a beer that relied upon wheat for the enzymes to convert starchy adjuncts? I have seen two sources that stated wheat had less enzymatic power than barley, but I have seen it said (admittedly in BYO magazine) that wheat actually has a higher level of beta amylase available for conversions. Is that the case? Can I just mash for a long time at low temperatures to get a full conversion? I haven't really seen this come up before, because barley is usually relied upon in this regard. However, I have become quite taken with the idea of attempting a barley-free beer. No real reason, just the perverse desire to add difficulty to an otherwise enjoyable hobby. As an option, I have some alpha amylase enzyme that I bought at my local HB store. Would this be a better way to go? As I recall it was quite the PITA to use. Private E-mail is fine, but please don't mail just to ask me "Why?". I am using my work address, and besides I don't have a good answer. S Chavez Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 07 Apr 1998 16:18:05 -0700 From: "Bryan L. Gros" <gros at bigfoot.com> Subject: One fridge or two? David Peters wrote in HBD #2681: >I want to be able to serve cold beer and do the occasional lagering in the >same refrigerator. I would like to have at least 2 or 3 on tap and 1 or 2 in >lagering. >Am I asking too much? > Good questions. I don't have an answer yet, but I can give you my thoughts on the idea. I used to have an old refridgerator/freezer I used for beer. I gave it away when I moved and bought a chest freezer, which I now use. I need another fridge. Originally, I thought I'd use the chest freezer to serve and lager in. I wanted to get a nice ceramic tap to put on top and have draught beer. I now know that I don't have room to keep three or four kegs at serving temp as well as a carboy or two for lagering. However, I don't want to get a full size fridge just to fit two carboys in for fermentation. What would be ideal is a milk dispenser like they have in school cafeterias. I bet they fit two carboys, and there's no wasted space. On the other hand, I can keep my chest freezer for fermenting in and get another fridge for dispensing. If I shop around long enough, I can find a fridge with dimensions big enough to hold six corny kegs. Then I can still use the freezer part for freezing. It would be cheaper, but not as pretty, to put six standard taps on the fridge door. Eventually, I will probably go with this last option. ******* Wade Hutchison wrote: >A few words on the Zymurgy burner article - I read the article with >interest the week after I got the magazine, and thought - 'Ok, where's >the bottom line?' Which, of course there was not. ... So, I fired up >excel and ran the numbers through. <great list of statistics snipped> It is obvious that efficiency can be defined any number of ways. Perhaps for most homebrewers, the best burner is the one that boils the water (or wort) the fastest. But looking at Wade's numbers, there is also a big cost difference depending on how much you pay for propane. Wade, you should send your numbers to Zymurgy as a letter to the editor. Maybe they'll have a bit of space between the ads to print it. - Bryan Bryan Gros gros at bigfoot.com Oakland, CA Visit the new Draught Board homebrew website: http://www.valhallabrewing.com/~thor/dboard/index.htm Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 7 Apr 1998 17:32:48 -0700 From: Ian Smith <isrs at cmed.com> Subject: Humor - (beer related - sort of!) 25 REASONS WHY GUINNESS SHOULD BE SERVED AT WORK... 1. It's an incentive to show up. 2. It reduces stress. 3. It leads to more honest communications. 4. It reduces complaints about low pay. 5. It cuts down on time off because you can work with a hangover. 6. Employees tell management what they think, not what management wants to hear. 7. It helps save on heating costs in the winter. 8. It encourages carpooling. 9. Increase job satisfaction because if you have a bad job, you don't care. 10. It eliminates vacations because people would rather come to work. 11. It makes fellow employees look better. 12. It makes the cafeteria food taste better. 13. Bosses are more likely to hand out raises when they are wasted. 14. Salary negotiations are a lot more profitable. 15. Suddenly, burping during a meeting isn't so embarrassing. 16. Employees work later since there's no longer a need to relax at the bar. 17. It makes everyone more open with their ideas. 18. Everyone agrees they work better after they've had a couple of Guinnii. 19. Eliminates the need for employees to get drunk on their lunch break. 20. Increases the chance of seeing your boss naked. 21. It promotes foreign relations with Ireland. 22. The janitor's closet will finally have a use. 23. Employees no longer need coffee to sober up. 24. Sitting on the copy machine will no longer be seen as "gross." 25. Babbling and mumbling incoherently will be common language. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 08 Apr 1998 06:21:29 -0700 From: Kyle Druey <druey at ibm.net> Subject: Keg Stratification Solved / FWH %U And the winner is: >From: Jeff Renner <nerenner at umich.edu> >I thought the original queston about thinner beers with time was an >Aril Fool gag, because, I thought, the answer was so obvious. I guess >from the discussion, it isn't, and no one else has suggested what I've >always felt was the explanation. >My beers, regardless of style, typically continue a very slow >fermentation in the keg (or bottle). Long ago (1979?), I read in Dave >Line's Big Book of brewing that this was due to slow fermentation of >dextrins. No April fool's gag, just a fool asking a foolish question. Jeff's solution confirms several other emails I received regarding the phenomenon I called "keg stratification". This is where the beer at the beginning of the keg was heavier (meatier), than at the end of the keg where it was thinner (yes, lighter) tasting. Looks like there is some fermentation continuing in my keg, the remaining yeast chewing up dextrins, which makes sense since I don't conduct a secondary fermentation. Good to know that Brownian Motion (aka a BM) has been validated once again, and that my infection paranoia has been alleviated. ********** We have had some recent discussion regarding the percentage utilization from first wort hopping (FWH). Some have suggested the following: >I have found at least in my brewing that some bittering makes it to the >finished product as a result of first wort hopping. I estimate that the >utilization is about 8%. >I've been using an extraction rate of 20% for FWH, no matter the boil >gravity. >To avoid too-high IBU bitterness calculations for FWH, I enter a fake 20 >minute boil time to my recipe calculator program. It seems that the last two responses are closer to the Fix's FWH utilization of 30%. Does anyone have some experimental data? I think the Fix's number is based on their own experiments. Looking forward to Louis' numbers on this. Kyle Druey Bakersfield, CA PS - I enjoy reading Burley's daily 5% allotment of HBD bandwidth. Keep it coming, Dave! Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 7 Apr 1998 19:33:09 -0500 From: "Ray Estrella" <ray-estrella at email.msn.com> Subject: FWH & IBU Hello to all, Steve Garrett says, >To avoid too-high IBU bitterness calculations for FWH, I enter a >fake 20 minute boil time to my recipe calculator program. >Does this sound about right? >How do others handle this problem? >Does anyone have some experimental data? I have made 18 batches using the FWH technique since the thread ran last year. At first I followed Fix's posted (reported) advice, and did not add IBUs for the FW hops. I had 5 brews come in overly bitter. Since then I go ahead and calc out the bittering as a 75 min. boil. (They are actually going 90 - 120 min.) Since doing it this way my beers have been a lot more predictable. I am having some of them IBU checked right now. (Thanks Aaron) As I get more hard numbers I will report them. I am a big fan of the practice now. Looking back at my records for this brewing season, out of 17 recipes that called for flavor/aroma additions, 15 were FWHed. Ray Estrella Cottage Grove MN ray-estrella at msn.com ****** Never Relax, Constantly Worry....have a better Homebrew ****** Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 07:44:28 -0400 From: "David R. Burley" <Dave_Burley at compuserve.com> Subject: 122F Brewsters: AlK comments on my method of a brief hold at 122F by saying: >An all Pale Ale malt beer mashed like this will be thin and >headless. Please carefully read what I said. I do this for Pilsner malts routinely and for Pale Ale, depending on the composition of the grist. If the grist in a Pale Ale malt mash has raw barley, wheat malt etc. I include this hold with Pale Ale malts to minimize the haziness caused by the beta glucans and proteins from the adjuncts. Pale Ale malts are highly modified and do not need such a hold and time spent at protein rests unless other inclusions in the grist dictate it. Often these adjuncts are included to increase the heading properties and no net negative effect on the head is noted. An alternative method is to do a goods mash in which only part of the malt is used to chew up the haze formers at these low temperatures and the main mash is carried out as an infusion at saccharification temperatures, sometimes with a conditioning hold at low temperatures. A second alternative is to do a real glucan mash in the 95-113F region if protein haze is not a problem. I hold at 122F, since it saves time by doing double duty on the glucans and the LMW proteins and gives me clear beer. Keep on brewin' Dave Burley Kinnelon, NJ 07405 103164.3202 at compuserve.com Dave_Burley at compuserve.com Voice e-mail OK Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 08:10:14 -0400 From: "Briden, Thomas" <TBRIDEN at erisco.com> Subject: Chimay Dr. Dwight Erickson wrote: >Greetings great brewers ! >I'm looking for a Chimay recipe. I have a couple "kinda" recipes, and >am particularly >interested in what yeast to use. >Help will be greatly appreciated (now and at drinking time). Try culturing the yeast from a bottle of Chimay, as they bottle with their primary yeast (they confirmed this in a e-mail response on the topic). I've used it myself and it works great, although I used it to make a trippel and not a Chimay "clone". It is easily cultured if you've got a reasonably fresh bottle. Tom Briden Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 08:41:29 +0500 From: "Keith Royster" <keith at ays.net> Subject: Re: Mead in Mississauga? / affordable breathalyzer Jason Henning advises Joe Guy how to brew his own mead at home... > How about your place? All you need is a carboy, 12 pounds (a gallon) > of honey, and a packet of champagne yeast. A big funnel is nice too. > > I add the honey to the fermentor. Add three gallons of water using > the container the honey came in to rinse all the honey out. Hydrate > the champagne yeast per the instructions and pitch it. Let it rip. > Rack once the fermentation subsides and again as you feel necessary. > Don't get in any sort of a hurry, mead is a slow fermentor (like a > couple months) but worth minute of waiting. I did this exact same proceedure last weekend. After a couple of days of vigorous fermentation, fermentation came to a stop, so I checked the gravity to see if it was even close to complete. It had only dropped from 1.058 to 1.055. I checked the pH to find that it had dropped down into the very low 3's, which the yeast can't handle very well. I pitched a couple of grams of CaCO3 to raise the pH (and some ground up brewer's yeast tablets for nutrients?) and within 5 minutes I had a nice rocky head and activity in the air-lock again. Point being is that honey is empty calories to the yeast and also has no buffering power against the drop in pH, so be prepared to handle these. However, if you mead is at least 1/3 fruit juice, then you will have plenty of nutrients (but you still need to watch your pH). - -------------------------------------- In the spirit of the dying .08 thread, I thought I'd mention that our local brew club recently purchased it's own breathalyzer (thanks to John Mitchel for finding this item!). It was only around $130 and I think is a great investment and educational tool. Many people, myself included, have only a very vague idea as to how our blood alcohol levels are effected by consuming alcohol. The breathalyzer gives club members an opportunity to learn how they react to alcohol and also gives them a reference point for the future when they might not have the breathalyzer available, so at least they can make a more educated decision when getting behind the wheel. If you are interested, you can purchase one online at... http://www.redrock.net/comm/auw/self/breath.html - -------------------------------------- And finally, a quick reminder that the entry deadline for the Carolina BrewMaster's U.S.Open homebrew competition is fast approaching (4/20), so get those entries in the mail quickly. Online entry forms and instructions can be found at our website: http://www.ays.net/brewmasters/ Keith Royster - Mooresville/Charlotte, North Carolina email: keith at ays.net http://www.ays.net/brewmasters -Carolina BrewMasters club page http://www.ays.net/RIMS -My RIMS (rated COOL! by the Brewery) http://www.ays.net/movingbrews -pumps, tubing, fittings, and more for the advanced homebrewer Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 08 Apr 1998 08:53:30 -0500 (EST) From: Paul Shick <SHICK at JCVAXA.jcu.edu> Subject: Beeston's malt Greetings all, Chas Peterson posted on good results with Beeston's Marris Otter malt. I agree completely. I've gone through several 25kg bags of Beeston's with nothing but good experiences. There may be advantages to having a non-adjustable MaltMill, since I've never had any problems with set mashes, as Chas reports. The problems that George De Piro first brought to our attention seem to be with a single shipment of Munton's Marris Otter. Chas, you mentioned longer clearing times for beers using a 135F rest. How long are you talking about, and at what temperatures? Should I wait until New Years for my Vienna? Paul Shick Basement brewing in Cleveland Hts OH Return to table of contents
Date: 8 Apr 98 08:59:00 -0400 From: sbgr at cbmsmail.cb.lucent.com Subject: re: Gott Cooler via mail order Greetings Erich Fouch asked: "Does anybody have a mail order source for the yellow Igloos or the orange Gotts? " The best online price I have seen for 10 gal Gott/Rubbermaid is from Wal-mart (http://www.wal-mart.com) for $36 dollars (plus shipping). I asked at the local Wal-mart, and was told that they occasionally get the 10 gallon size in stock for $36 as well, so you might avoid the shipping cost that way. Stacy Groene Columbus, OH Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 09:19:40 -0400 (EDT) From: mag6 at po.CWRU.Edu (Martin A. Gulaian) Subject: A small HSA experiment I worry about HSA from splashing while sparging (especially when recirculating the cloudy first runnings), and also from splashing while boiling, since I boil in a pair of 5 gal pots and usually try to equalize the SG a little by transferring wort back and forth when I'm done sparging. I've read that water vapor displaces the air in the lauter tun anyway, so not to worry, and the same thing ought to apply to the boiling kettles, but I thought of a quick test: I lit a match and stuck it down into the lauter tun, and the boiling kettles. Result: - lauter tun: match kept burning just fine. Conclusion: plenty of oxygen is still running around while you sparge, so don't splash! - boiling kettle: match went out instantly. Conclusion: not to worry. (wort was near boiling; if it were at still at sparge temps I would still worry). - -- Marty Gulaian - Cleveland, Ohio Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 08 Apr 1998 10:06:12 -0400 From: Dan Cole <dcole at roanoke.infi.net> Subject: Yeast recc. for AHA Big Brew 1998 event To those who are participating in the AHA's Big Brew 1998 event, What are your recommendations for a dry yeast for the barley wine recipes? The recipe calls for "British Ale Yeast", if I remember correctly, but my beer club doesn't want to have to deal with liquid yeast starters for all the batches. <gratuitous kiss-up> I thought that with all the brewing great minds on this list, and with Rob Moline a 'regular' on this list, I could get some good recommendations. <\gratuitous kiss-up> Thanks, Dan Cole Roanoke, VA Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 08 Apr 1998 08:13:04 -0700 From: Kit Anderson <kitridge at bigfoot.com> Subject: Celis Eddie Kent wrote; > I know from the tour at Celis, that they only use Willamette and Saaz > hops and say the yeast is a proprietary strain. Anyone had any luck > culturing this yeast from Celis White since its unfiltered. I am also > curious as to when to add the spices to the boil (last 5-10 min)? Anyone > that has a recipe that's worked for them, I'd appreciate ! (By private > e-mail or post) The grain bill is OK but I usually go 50/50 malt and flaked wheat. I rather like the BrewTek and YKKC wit strains better than Wyeast. It gives a breadier flavor and a little less phenolic. Celis is pasteurized, so no yeast is available in the bottle. Put the orange peel in the boil for 20 min and half the coriander at 10 min. Then add the rest in secondary. Two different flavors that adds to the complexity. - -- Kit Anderson ICQ# 2242257 Bath, Maine <kitridge at bigfoot.com> Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 09:31:00 -0500 From: Vachom <MVachow at newman.k12.la.us> Subject: the democratic paradox In his HBD #2682 post, AJ writes: "Several people have suggested that since the 0.08 thing isn't being debated we can all heave a sigh of relief. Take a page from the gun peoples' book. Remember that the price of freedom is eternal vigilance. We have lost so many liberties without even knowing it was being done to us because while were busy with our jobs, families, and hobbies (and you know which hobby I mean) the special interest nuts were working full time to make sure that we are compelled to live proper (as they define it) lives." The ironic presence of gun people as freedom fighters and special interest nuts in the same statement is, of course, the double edged sword of democracy. There is a very blurry line between freedom fighting and special interest insanity, especially when those groups employ slippery slope arguments to cartoonish effect. Thus, in the US those who remain eternally vigilant for gun rights (the vast majority unquestionably responsible hunters and sport shooters) find themselves in the disturbing position of having to argue for the right to carry concealed ceramic high caliber machine pistols, "cop-killer" ammunition and sten guns--for sporting use, of course. In the case of the gun lobbies, the cartoonish quality is a grim one. As I was brewing this New Year's Eve (with two small children, this is about as big a party as I can handle) and listening to automatic weapon fire chugging all around me (a fine New Orleans New Year's tradition) and wondering who would die this year from a falling bullet, I was reminded of any government's express duty to protect its wayward or wrong-minded citizens from themselves--a disturbing paternalistic idea, but necessary and present in the formation of our government, cf. Electoral College. Any social contract requires compromise and constant vigilance in maintaining that delicate balance of individual rights and civic responsibility. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 08 Apr 1998 09:37:52 -0500 From: ThE GrEaT BrEwHoLiO <skotrat at wwa.com> Subject: Re: 122F rests Al wrote: >The clarity I agree with, but unless you are malting (and >undermodifying) your own barley or adding unmalted barley or >wheat to all your recipes, I seriously doubt that your >head retention is up to par with this kind of mash schedule. >An all Pale Ale malt beer mashed like this will be thin and >headless. > Hmmmm, I have to disagree with this and sort of agree at least a little. First, an extended 122f rest say over 30 minutes might cause your brew to be more fermentable and that may cause it to appear thin. I almost always do a step mash that has a 122f rest for 20-25 minutes and my beers aren't thin. As for head retention, I have found that a 134-136f rest for 15 minutes produces a final product with excellent head retention. I know that Al will quote something that tells everybody this isn't so but this has been the case from my experience. 134-136f rest for 15 minutes gives great head... and we all could use some great head now and then. -Scott Abene "BLAH BLAH BLAH BLAH BLAH BLAH" Return to table of contents
Date: 8 Apr 1998 10:46:41 -0400 From: EFOUCH at steelcase.com Subject: Gotts and Ronco Dehydrators HBD- Thanks for all the responses on Gott v Igloo coolers (11 so far). Consenses says: Gott are best, and easily obtained from Walmart either online or in person. Now on to my next project: I purchased a Ronco Food Dehydrater (I told my wife it was for drying fruit) to dry my anticipated hop crop. I fabricated a 12" extension out of Polycarbonate. I'll put a tray on top and on the bottom of the extension, fill it with hops and shake it a few times a day to even out the drying. Any body else use these for hop drying? They don't get too hot, do they? Thanks as always Eric Fouch Director of Hop Plants Bent Dick YoctoBrewery Kentwood, MI Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 08:49:57 -0600 (CST) From: Stephen Cavan <cavanst at duke.usask.ca> Subject: Beta-glucans Al Korzonas mentioned yesterday that the kilning temperature of Pale Ale malt denatures this particular enzyme. This is true. If you want a malt that can do an effective beta-glucan rest, you'll need to use "Stout" malt. This type of malt is kilned between 45C and 50C until break, then raised to 85C. The retention of this enzyme is important when the grist may contain up to 20% barley (flaked or roasted), and is the standard malt for Guinness and others Stout brewers. Cheers, Steve Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 08 Apr 1998 09:59:38 -0500 From: AJ <ajdel at mindspring.com> Subject: Pils Clifford A. Hicks" <simtech at ka.net> asked for a recipe using Wyeast 2278 Czech Pils. I'm happy to oblige especially as a brew of mine made with this strain was commented on in this forum in a recent discussion of filtering. For 17 gallons. Scale down (or up!) to whatever you brew. Grain bill: 26 Lbs DWC Pilsner Malt 5 Lbs DWC Caramel Pils 1 Lb 25L Crystal Malt (Pauls) Water: 130 L RO Water plus 50 L Well water. Approximate result of this blend: alkalinity 18 mg/L as CaCO3; Calcium 8 mg/L, Mg 3 mg/L , Cl 2.5 mg/L , Na 2.5 mg/L, SO4 7.5mg/L. Dough in with sufficient water to cover grains with a small amount of standing water visible. Rest long enough to be sure that all water which is going to be absorbed is absorbed. Add additional strike water as necessary. Check pH. Should be about 5.6. During rest heat a small volume of the water to boiling. Infuse to raise temperature to about 105 F. Rest 10 - 15 minutes. Remove 12 quarts of the thickest part of the mash to a separate vessel. Add 2 quarts of boiling water and mix in quickly so that enzymes are not destroyed. Heat to 122F and hold 10 minutes, raise to 152 and hold 10 minutes. Raise slowly to 167F and then procede quickly to boiling. Boil 20 minutes. At conclusion of boil return to main mash. Temperature should come out at about 122F. If not infuse boiling water to get to approximately this temperature. Check pH. It should be about 5.5. Rest 10 minutes. Pull 22 quarts thick mash and place in a separate vessel. Add 2 quarts of boiling water and stir in quickly. Raise temperature to 152 F and hold 10 minutes. Raise temperature slowly to 167 and then rapidly to the boil. Boil 20 minutes. Keep main mash temperature from falling more than about 4 F by infusing boiling water. At the conclusion of the boil return gradually to the rest mash. Temperature should come out at 152F. If it does not, infuse boiling water until it does. Check pH. It should be close to 5.4. Up to 5.5 is OK. Rest 10 minutes and do an iodine test if you want. Pull 22 quarts of liquid. Push a large strainer down into the mash to get this liquid while leaving the grains behind. Place in a separate vessel and boil 20 minutes. Maintain main mash temperature close to 152 by infusions of boiling water. Return decoction to the main mash to raise temperature to 167 or a little above. If 167 can't be reached, heat the main mash with stirring. Infusions aren't as effective at this point because of the high temperature and the mash volume (from infusions added to rest mash). Rest 10 minutes. Transfer to lauter tun (if a separate lauter tun is used) over foundation water. Recirculate until quite clear. Lauter. Sparge. Apply heat to kettle as soon as collected wort is a couple of inches deep. Use a burner which allows temperature of collected wort to reach boiling just as or a little after completion of collection. Collect wort down to 2-3P. Don't worry about sparge water pH. Boil 2 hours. At the end of the first hour add 5 Oz Saaz, 3.8% alpha one and a half hours add 5 Oz Saaz. Add boiling makeup water throughout the boil as necessary to maintain wort volume. At the conclusion of the boil turn off heat and add 5 -6 Oz Saaz. Stir in the last hop addition. Run into fermenter through chiller. Wort temperature should be 43F for pitching. Pitch with a few hundred mL of 2278 paste. A couple of hundred is OK. 400 - 600 is better. Oxygenate (I recently checked and re-confirmed that my method results in about 200% saturation but I don't see why 100%, the level from thorough sparging with air, shouldn't suffice). Check pH. It should be a little over 5 i.e. 5.1 - 5.2. Allow temperature to rise to about 47F. pH should drop quickly in the first few days. Stay at 47 F until gravity is 3-4 P. Add sterilized (boiled and cooled) water as necessary to replace evaporation losses and to dilute the beer somewhat. I've been getting about 73% efficiency with this mash program which results in about 14.5 P and that's a bit much for a Pils. They are traditionally "12 degree beers". Then raise temperature to 55F for 2 days. After this cool rapidly to about 40F. Let the beer rest for a couple of days at 40 and then transfer to cornelius kegs for lagering. Final pH should be about 4.6, final gravity 2-3P. In a recent experiment I filtered some of this beer with no lagering whasoever. Modesty prevents me from repeating what Jim Busch said about it in this forum a couple of weeks ago but the result was unexpectedly delightful. Someone else here suggested that I should have saved some to see if was as good or better unfiltered after lagering. I did and it is! You probably won't win any prizes with this beer but it is as close to an authentic Pils as I've been able to get especially if you don't do the diacetyl rest (55F for 2 days thing). If you don't, you will have diacetyl and most judges, and even many professional brewers, think that "diacetyl has no place in a lager" (I'm quoting a pro here). Fortunately the people at Pilsen are blissfully unaware of this generally accepted truth. There is also definite sulfur character to this beer which judges who haven't been to Europe don't understand is an integral part of the style (but it's very rewarding when one who has comments favorably on its presence). This part of the character of this yeast strain. You will definitely notice a sulfur smell around the fermenter when this stuff is working. "Smells like a paper mill" is the way one of my fellow BURPers describes it. You can get the sulfur out of the beer by long lagering or by pressurizing the beer to say 15 psig for a couple of days, then bleeding it back to 8 psi and repeating the process a couple of times. The escaping CO2 will scrub most of the sulfur out. So to get closer to what the judges like do the diacetyl rest and scrub the sulfur with CO2. To be authentic don't do either but be prepared to wait at least a month before the "jungbuket" has dissipated to the point where you want to get near the stuff. Finally, lets note that the commercial brewers by and large are doing what the judges like these days. Few can compete using the triple decoction scheme, long lagering and exclusive noble hop additions of yesteryear. Pilsner Urquell is one exception to this as is, I think, Budvar. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 11:34:08 -0400 From: "Houseman, David L" <David.Houseman at unisys.com> Subject: Recipes Clifford Hicks asks: "I have a pack of Wyeast 2278 Czech Pils and have been wondering what to do with it (Maybe I'll brew some beer!) I have looked around a little and have found it strange that there are not many recipes calling for this yeast. (Perhaps I have not looked hard enough?) I turn now to the vast knowledge of the HBD membership. Does anyone have any good (extract) pilsner recipes that would make good use of this yeast? As always, your responses are greatly appreciated." While the HBD is a wonderful source of information, I'm not convinced that recipes should be counted on unless the use is by a knowledgeable brewer to begin with. There seems to be many requests for recipes. And others post recipes saying how they created this or that great example of some commerical beer or style. But normally they provide only ingredients used with only cursory mention of the processes. The process has such a vast affect on the finished product that unless one can absolute replicate the mashing, boiling, and fermenting conditions exactly, there's little hope to hit the same beer. Knowledgeably taking a recipe and adapting it to one's own environment and processes is worthwhile. Providing Clif Hicks with the styles for which 2278 would be a good choice of yeast, or even some base recipes would be useful to Mr. Hicks. But the minor investment in one of the very good PC packages for recipe formulation and Ray Daniels book on this topic would be much better approach for all those that ask for recipes. Reading about the styles from Jackson, the Style Series from the AOB, and the style sections of BT, BYO and Zymurgy provide a lot of insight into recipe formulation. Tasting the beers and understanding the affects of ingredients and processes is invaluable in adapting any recipe to one's own nano-brewery. What I'm suggesting is it's OK to get recipes but don't expect to re-create what others have done. Instead take the time to taste the appropriate examples of the styles, read all you can about the styles, experiment with processes, invest in the book(s) and a PC program (some are available for download free) and then formulate your own. Dave Houseman Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 08 Apr 1998 09:29:55 -0700 From: Sully <sully at drunkenbastards.org> Subject: Nystagmus Testing Myths Debunked Keep at a legal subject long enough, and the shysters won't be able to keep their gobs shut. Jethro and Lee have suggested that the nystagmus test is "infallible." (Quoting Lee in HBD #2682: "First, as Rob correctly sites, it is infallible.") Well, maybe yes, maybe no. 1) Nystagmus is one of the three field sobriety tests recognized and recommended by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). NHTSA research indicates that the test has a 77% reliability factor. 2) In a NHTSA study conducted at sobriety checkpoints, police officers using the nystagmus test for screening purposes incorrectly identified 15% of the sober drivers as being under the influence of alcohol, and fully 65% of those in the supposedly "safe" range of .05% to .09% as under the influence. [Pilot Test of Selected DUI Detection Procedures for Use at Sobriety Checkpoints, NHTSA DOT HS-806-724 (1985)] You California guys note that NHTSA considers .08 and .09 to be "safe." 3) To administer the test, the officer instructs the suspect to "keep your head straight ahead and follow this object with your eyes." The officer then moves a finger or pencil or a penlight at night, from the center steadily toward one side. The object is held 12 to 15 inches directly in front, 2 or 3 inches above the eye being tested. The object is moved slowly (3 to 4 seconds to complete the arc, roughly 10 degrees per second). At the onset of nystagmus, the object is held two seconds at that point and the officer notes the angle of onset. The jerking should continue as long as the individual stares at the object, even though it is no longer being moved. The test is performed twice on each eye, the second test being performed somewhat faster than the first (roughly 20 degrees per second). NHTSA researchers concluded that onset of 40 degrees correlates with BAC of .10, 35 degrees at .15, 30 degrees at .20. Individuals with BAC above .2 often cannot even follow a moving object with their eyes. (See V. Tharp, et al, Psychophysical Tests for DUI Arrest, DOT-HS-8-0197090 (1981)) Tharp also found that 3 to 4% of the 296 volunteers in one study had sufficient nystagmus when sober to be mistaken for having a BAC of between .08 and .10%. 4) A study conducted by the Santa Clara County (CA) Laboratory of Criminalistics attempted to determine the reliability of nystagmus in predicting actual BAC levels, with the officers using a special protractor to help them accurately measure the angle of onset. As reported in 25 Journal of the Forensic Society 476 (1985), the officers consistently overestimated the angle at low BAC concentrations and underestimated it at high BAC levels. The researchers concluded that nystagmus cannot be used to accurately predict the BAC. 5) Now the good stuff. Hope you made it this far. Next time you read an arresting officer's report on a DUI, make careful note of the officer's observations that the suspect was unsteady on his feet, he staggered, needing support in walking, couldn't walk a straight line, couldn't balance on one foot, swayed while standing, etc. And yet, the suspect will miraculously be able to hold his head rock steady while the nystagmus test is administered. Because if he can't keep his head immobilized, the test results are invalid. Of course, if he can, then the officer's other recorded observations are perhaps suspect. Hmmmm. 6) The accuracy of the test depends entirely on the officer's ability to estimate. Well, that and his honesty. A 5 degree error in estimation is the difference between BAC .05 and .10%. Or .07 and .12%. And the officer will rarely record the actual number. He usually says "early onset." There is no corroboration, and he will not recall the actual angle (unless he has "Infallible Memory"). Although there is now a device, the EM/1 developed by Eye Dynamics, Inc., of Torrance, CA, that videotapes nystagmus tests. It has a separate video camera for each eye and records smooth pursuit, nystagmus, pupil reaction and eyelid tremor. There is also a computerized version, called the EPS-100. You won't see many of these in your local patrolman's car. Of course, it *would* keep the playing field level, so to speak. 7) And the time of day can affect onset. In "Circadian Effects on Alcohol Gaze Nystagmus," 18 Psychophysiology 193 (1981), Tharp found that the angle of onset is decreased by approximately five degrees if the test is given after midnight. Another defect in the nystagmus test is driver fatigue, which can register as intoxication. (By the way, all these Tharp studies were commissioned by NHTSA.) 8) And physical ailments. You should tell the officer that you have borderline hypertension and glaucoma, along with an inner ear infection. (Stay away from brain damage, epilepsy, and Korsakoff's syndrome. They can also account for early onset, but are tougher to actually prove in court, unless you have them that is.) 9) And don't forget about common drugs that can increase the angle of onset, such as caffeine, nicotine, and aspirin. Here we go: "Gee officer, while I was having a smoke after my last cup of coffee, I felt a tension headache coming on, and this ear infection and the pressure in my eyes have been killing me, so I took a couple of aspirin.... Uh, oh, I feel a vertigo attack coming on." Of course, DUI defense attorneys make good use of trivia like this... -Sully brewlawz at napanet.net sully at drunkenbastards.org DUI should be a crime of responsibility, not of chemistry. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 11:43:05 -0500 From: "Jim Hodge" <jdhodge at worldnet.att.net> Subject: Re: Gott vs. Igloo Coolers I believe that the Gott and Igloo coolers are made of the same stuff, polyethylene, and neither are recommended for hot or steaming liquids. I have been using a 10 gallon Gott cooler fairly intensively for about two years now and it has come through the experience none the worse for wear. I find that when the inside gets hot, the plastic liner buckles and pulls away from the foam insulation. The buckling is relatively minor and the liner resumes its normal shape when it cools off. My maximum mash temperature is typically 165-170F and given the amount of buckling I'm seeing, I would be nervous about working at temperatures much higher than that. All in all though, I'm a big fan of these devices for mashing. Jim Hodge Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 12:47:47 -0700 From: George_De_Piro at berlex.com Subject: Why do the Germans filter out the Weizen yeast? Hi all, A private correspondence with Dave Humes about head stability in Weizenbier has lead to the following thought: Why do the most breweries filter out the Weizen yeast, and bottle condition with another strain? As someone pointed out, 3068 isn't horrifically nonflocculent. I don't buy flocculation as the main reason. The books I have all talk about this technique offering "improved stability" as if I should magically know what that means. Stability of what? In what way? Both Dave and I have noticed that our wheat beers (fermented and bottle conditioned with 3068) become clearer and suffer from heading problems as time goes on. The body even becomes thinner. Typically, I can expect about a 2 month shelf life on my HefeWeizen. Private correspondence with Hubert Hangofer taught me that one reason some breweries pasteurize their Weizenbier after bottle conditioning is to denature proteolytic enzymes. This pasteurization does leave some residual live cells, though (according to the paper delivered by Prof. Back at Weihenstephen in Feb. of this year.) Could it be that the Weizen strains commonly used are very good at chewing up the haze and head forming proteins in beer, while the lager yeast they replace it with are not? Anybody out there have some facts about this? I'll be brewing a Weizen this weekend. If all goes well, I'll try pasteurizing some of the finished beer and I'll track its stability (head retention, body, etc). Anybody ever try pasteurizing bottled beer at home? What are the odds of a bottle exploding? I guess I should leave the lid on the pot and not peak too much, eh? Have fun! George De Piro (Nyack, NY) Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 1998 13:49:00 -0400 (EDT) From: eaweston at email.unc.edu Subject: Celis/Hoegaarden clone <<I was wondering if anyone in the collective has had any luck replicating the Celis White. >> <snip> <<I am also curious as to when to add the spices to the boil (last 5-10 min)? Anyone that has a recipe that's worked for them, I'd appreciate ! >> The following was my attempt at cloning Hoegaarden, the definitive Belgian White. According to Michael Jackson, Hoegaarden has lost some of its characteristic flavor intensity over the past decade, so this recipe was an attempt to capture the Hoegaarden taste in that beer's glory days. This beer took 2nd place at the 1996 US Capitol District Open in the Belgian Ale category, but it is far from perfect. Fortunately for us, Jackson seems to feel that Celis White succeeds in duplicating Hoegaarden's original flavor profile perfectly--hence, we can all have a world class Wit whenever we want! (or can find it) - ------------------------- "Wit for Wisdom" 33% Belgian 2-row pilsner 19%American 6-row 43% Flaked wheat 5% Flaked or rolled oats East Kent Goldings(4.6%AA)--(60 min) Saaz(3.3%AA)--(15min) (.75 oz per 5 gal) Ground coriander (at knockout) (.75 oz per 5 gal)Bitter orange peel (20 min) Wyeast #3944 Dextrose for priming (4oz per 5gal) Lactic acid before bottling (10ml of 88% solution per 5gal) OG of 1.048 IBU=20 Mash in at 143F and hold 45min Step up to 156F and hold 45min Mashout at 170F Boil approx 90min TIPS/NOTES: 1)6-row malt is purely optional; now I would probably opt for rice/oat hulls to support the filterbed and go with an all 2-row malt bill 2)Don't use cracked wheat!!! Your mash tun will take on the guise of a cement mixer. 3)Keep an especially watchful eye on the mash pH--initially, it may be too high w/o the addition of some gypsum 4)The spice additions were based on a HBD post of a couple of years back. That poster (whose name unfortunately escapes me) experimented with different boil times in plain water, for both spices. He found that orange peel (I don't think he used Curaco) benefits from some time in the boiling wort, while the coriander flavor is rapidly boiled away. Coriander in the secondary in also an option to boost that flavor, but be careful...it can dominate the brew 5)There has always been reported to be a 3rd spice in both Celis and Hoegaarden, one which no one can identify (Jackson speculated once that it might be cumin)--might want to experiment here too. 6)Finally, the judges agreed that my beer could have been crisper/more sour--consider upping the lactic acid some. Good Luck, David Rinker Return to table of contents
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