HOMEBREW Digest #3308 Tue 25 April 2000

[Prev HBD] [Index] [Next HBD] [Back]

		Digest Janitor: janitor@hbd.org
		Many thanks to the Observer & Eccentric Newspapers of 
		Livonia, Michigan for sponsoring the Homebrew Digest.
				URL: http://www.oeonline.com

  Yeast Q-Wine Part 1- Dr. Cone ("Rob Moline")
  Yeast Q-Wine Part 2- Dr. Cone ("Rob Moline")
  The Jethro Gump Report ("Rob Moline")
  RE HBD 3304 (Pump problems ) ("David G. Humes")
  Smooth Stout (Gravel Stephen E NPRI)
  Apology... Must mess ("Jack Schmidling")
  cardamom (Marc Sedam)
  NYC Trip ("Philip J Wilcox")
  bottle storage ("S. SNYDER")
  Hot water pump, Burrabadoo, Manhattan, Oversulfited must (Dave Burley)
  Re: DakBrews question on iodophor (Robert Arguello)
  Yeast Q's- Rick Olivo- Dr. Cone ("Rob Moline")
  Yeast Q's- Ernie Baker- Dr. Cone ("Rob Moline")
  Yeast Q's- Pete Czerpak- Dr. Cone ("Rob Moline")
  re: temps/more ... (Lou.Heavner)
  Pump Questions (RCAYOT)

* Beer is our obsession and we're late for therapy! * 18th Annual Oregon Homebrew Festival - entry deadline May 15th * More info at: http://www.hotv.org/fest2000 Send articles for __publication_only__ to post@hbd.org If your e-mail account is being deleted, please unsubscribe first!! To SUBSCRIBE or UNSUBSCRIBE send an e-mail message with the word "subscribe" or "unsubscribe" to request@hbd.org FROM THE E-MAIL ACCOUNT YOU WISH TO HAVE SUBSCRIBED OR UNSUBSCRIBED!!!** IF YOU HAVE SPAM-PROOFED your e-mail address, you cannot subscribe to the digest as we canoot reach you. We will not correct your address for the automation - that's your job. The HBD is a copyrighted document. The compilation is copyright HBD.ORG. Individual postings are copyright by their authors. ASK before reproducing and you'll rarely have trouble. Digest content cannot be reproduced by any means for sale or profit. More information is available by sending the word "info" to req at hbd.org. JANITORS on duty: Pat Babcock and Karl Lutzen (janitor@hbd.org)
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Sun, 23 Apr 2000 23:00:17 -0500 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: Yeast Q-Wine Part 1- Dr. Cone Folks, Though this is a wine yeast question, I thought that you would find it of interest...I know I did. It is broken into 2 parts, due to length.... Rob Dear Dr. Cone: There are many yeasts available for winemakers, all having some desirable qualities to fill a particular niche. Could you please tell me which yeast or yeasts (if the answer is different for red and white wines) best meet the following characteristics. Perhaps no yeast will meet all these characteristics, so the answer may be a compromise: Vigorous fermenter that starts fermentation rapidly. Produces little volatile acidity. Produces little sulfur dioxide. Little acetaldehyde is left at the end of fermentation. Readily goes through malo-lactic fermentation. Little sugar is left over at the end of the fermentation. Not prone to produce sulfides. Efficient at utilizing nutrients. Neutral, or if possible, positive sensory qualities. Thanks very much for your help. Phil DeVore (ped at qtm.net) Long-time home winemaker, retired chemical engineer and winery consultant. Phil DeVore, It would be great if there was a yeast that had all of the attributes that you have on your wish list, it would take a lot of the responsibilities off of the winemaker. However, a great deal of what you are asking for is controlled by the winemaker. Lets go through some enological characteristic and see how the winemaker can help the yeast. My goal has always been to produce and maintain a healthy yeast cell. You will be surprised at what a wonderful job a healthy yeast will do for you. We produce about 150 different yeast strains for the wine industry each year. Each strain has a little different characteristic. There has been an evolution in the selection of wine yeast. 15 years ago we were satisfied with four strains: Red wine, white wine, cold temp. and Champagne. 10 years ago we became a little more sophisticated with better analytical tool and began to isolate and select strains that could fall into three groups: 1). Yeast that produced fermentative character to the wine (as in 'vin nouveau'), 2). yeast that tend to be neutral as desired by most Champagne houses and 3). yeast that do not produce fermentative character to the wine but promote the release of bound flavor and aroma compounds that are already in the grape. About 5 years ago we began to build on 1). & 2). by looking for yeast that increased acidity (succinic acid) where needed, reduced acidity where needed, assisted in color extraction, assisted in color stability, removed color, produce polysaccharide and manoprotein production, improve mouthfeel, cell wall hydrophobicity / lipophobicity, friendly to ML fermentation, unfriendly to ML fermentation (also protects against other spoilage bacteria), specific for Grenache, specific for Syrah. The list grows every day as the wine research institutes, around the world, improve their understanding of both the yeast and the grape. Now you have an array of yeast strains to use as a tool to tailor your wine to your style. Vigorous fermenter that starts fermentation rapidly. There are only a few strains on the market that are slow fermenters (i.e.Lalvin SIMI White). The exquisite character that they give to the wine makes it worth while for some winemakers to make the added effort and sweat that goes with their fermentation. The remainder of the yeast strains have been selected because they are strong fermenters. Built into the Dry Yeast at the factory is a large amount of trehalose that should get all strains off to a good start With proper attention given to rehydration procedures, attemperation of the yeast before inoculation, adequate inoculation size, adequate nutrients throughout the fermentation and Oxygen available for the yeast during the first 24 - 48 hours of the fermentation, all yeast should get off to a good healthy start and ferment steadily until there is no residual sugar. Yeast like Lalvin DV10, K1V-1116. EC-1118, R2, L2056, L2226, 71B-1122 (just as a starter) are all good, strong fermenters. Produces little volatile acidity. VA is usually produced by spoilage bacteria and certain wild yeast. A deficiency in Pantothenic acid will sometimes cause the yeast to produced increased amount of VA. As you increase fermentation temperature from 50F. up to 90+F. the VA production increases. As you drop the fermentation temperature below 45F. the VA increases. As the initial sugar in the must increases above 25 brix the VA increases as in Late harvest and Ice Wine (up to 50% sugar). Return to table of contents
Date: Sun, 23 Apr 2000 23:02:03 -0500 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: Yeast Q-Wine Part 2- Dr. Cone Part 2 Wine Q Produces little sulfur dioxide. This is strain related. Some yeast produce as low as 1 ppm i.e. Lalvin Wadensville 27. Some produce around 30 ppm: i.e. Lalvin EC-1118. Some go as high as 60 - 100 ppm (not in our collection) but has a place for some white wine stability and definitely prevents ML and other spoilage bacteria. Because of SO2 labeling laws, these high SO2 strains have not been explored. Little acetaldehyde is left at the end of fermentation. Acetaldehyde is part of the natural pathway sugar takes as it is converted to alcohol. A deficiency in Vitamin B1 will cause a buildup in this intermediate pathway product causing the yeast to expel some of it. The addition of SO2 causes the yeast to produce acetaldehyde to neutralize it. This is the yeasts natural mechanism to protect itself against the harmful effects of SO2. So be judicious in the SO2 addition. Readily goes through malo-lactic fermentation. There does seem to be friendly and unfriendly yeast to Malo lactic bacteria fermentation. This is not clearly understood. There is a relationship between yeast production of high levels of SO2 and poor ML fermentation. There is not a lot of data on the level of SO2 production by each strain. The strain Lalvin EC-1118 produces up to 35 ppm SO2 and seems to be involved with slow ML fermentations and a yeast like Lalvin Wadensville 27 produces around 1 ppm SO2 and is noted to encourage ML fermentation. High SO2 producing yeast can be used as a tool to minimize or eliminate ML fermentation if this is your style. It also assists in controling other spoilage bacteria. There are factors other than yeast that cause problems with ML fermentation: low pH (<3.1), low temperature (<60F) and high alcohol (>12%). There are several new strains of yeast that address these problems. There is also a selection of ML bacteria that offer a range of flavor profiles. There are other problems with ML fermentation such as octanoic and decanoic acid produced in some primary fermentation.These acids also harm the yeast causing slow and stuck fermentations. Little sugar is left over at the end of the fermentation. All health yeast should ferment all of the sugar. Some fermentations, especially chardonnay, occasionally produce octanoic and decanoic fatty acids that are toxic to the yeast and will cause stuck fermentations. Sometimes the addition of yeast hulls will tie up these two compounds and allow the yeast to continue to ferment. Most stuck fermentation leaving residual sugars are caused by 1). Ferment at too high a temperature causing the alcohol to become very toxic, 2). nutrient deficiency in the must, (primarily Nitrogen), will result in a low yeast growth leaving one yeast cell doing what several should be doing. Also, low nitrogen levels will cause the yeast to be very susceptible to alcohol toxicity near the end of the fermentation. 3). Yeast require air (oxygen) during the growth phase to produce lipids that act as growth factors and will also protect the yeast against alcohol toxicity near the causes problem fermentations, 5) poor yeast rehydration and inoculating practices. Not prone to produce sulfides. Except for a few mutated yeast, H2S is a natural metabolic pathway in the production of two of the sulfur containing amino acids. The big problem is to minimize the excess production of H2S. An adequate supply of nitrogen (DAP and autolyzed yeast) throughout the first half of the fermentation goes a long ways to achieve this. An unhealthy yeast cell will die prematurely and cause the production of mercaptans (sulfury type compounds) at the end of the fermentation. Efficient at utilizing nutrients. Every strain has built into its DNA instructions its own efficiency in nutrient utilization. Some strains require twice as mush nitrogen to do the job as other require. We have suspected this for several years. Now research instituted are documenting this for every strain. The same goes for O2 requirements of each strain. We will be offering this information on each of our strains within 12 - 18 months. High brix and low pH must gives the yeast lots of trouble utilizing the nitrogen. Must with less than 300 ppm Potassium has troubles growing. Neutral, or if possible, positive sensory qualities. Lalvin DV10 and EC-1118 are two strains of yeast that are very strong fermenters tending to be neutral in fermentation aromas. They are excellent yeast for base and secondary Champagne fermentation. These two yeast are good for juices that are already rich in flavors and aromas and need not help from the yeast. Lalvin 71B-1122, K1V-1116 and L2056 are only a few that contribute to the bouquet. Lalvin BM45, RC212 and BRL97 are only a few that assist in color extraction and stability, product polysaccharides and manoproteins that contribute to mouth feel Lalvin VL1 is an example of a strain that frees up bound flavors in the grape. Clayton Cone Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 00:06:35 -0500 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: The Jethro Gump Report The Jethro Gump Repor >From: Jim Liddil <jliddil at vms.arizona.edu> >Subject: Re: iodophor, AHA Bashing :-) >Oh let's go to the stoning. Well though Rob moline is on the AHA board >you will note that under is title for lallemand he brought dr. cone here >and not to the useless aha forum. Did the Siebels guys show up at the AHA >forum? nope, hbd. <SNIP> >Jim Liddil Sir, I wear many hats, and try to contribute to all the groups and activities that I care about...in some way or another. That's why I wanted Lallemand to contribute the BOS prize for MCAB 2000...and the Siebel Scholarship for members of the AHA. That's why I occasionally call HBD'rs and Lallemand beer questioners on the phone when I think it would help. Sad to say, I haven't been as active on the IBS Forum as I was when working professionally as a brewer, but that's another story. I had an idea that I think would help TechTalk, linking the experts that participate on the IBS Forum to TechTalk, but whether or not it can be implemented is yet to be seen. But this is all beside the point... Quite honestly, I find it curious that you would choose this time to denigrate an organization that Mr. Sedam felt was changing along the lines you desire! And I don't believe it to be true that the HBD refused any money from anyone...I had suggested to the AHA BOA that we make a donation, and while there was a general agreement to this, it couldn't be done with other more pressing accounts to be paid. Pat did say that the AHA couldn't expect any higher level of acknowledgement for any possible gift than that traditionally assigned...this is only fair and that would have been fine with me. The 'Siebels guys' you refer to came here 'cos I asked them to....Dr. Cone did the same......'cos they were kind...and happy to generously share knowledge with brewers... As a Member of The AHA BOA, you offend my efforts here, by taking my intentions for granted...My future efforts could just as easily be assigned elsewhere.... Further, I announced my affiliation with Lallemand, so that all would know where I stood....and avoid the appearance of any impropriety. I am trying to build bridges with brewers, no matter where they congregate......It has always returned more to me than it costs. Jethro Gump Rob Moline AHA BOA Lallemand Siebel Alumni IBS MBAA MCAB Steering Committee "The More I Know About Beer, The More I Realize I Need To Know More About Beer!" Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 01:19:52 -0400 From: "David G. Humes" <humesdg1 at earthlink.net> Subject: RE HBD 3304 (Pump problems ) Greetings, Brent describes various pump problems: 1. Difficulty priming. This really should not be a problem, but it can take a little patience. 2. Pump losing its priming. I have experienced this problem. I do not suspect that it is a leak as others have suggested or cavitation. I think that it is caused by dissolved gasses that break out of solution due to the lower solubility at elevated temperature and reduced pressure created on the suction side of the pump. The dissolved gasses accumulate in the impeller chamber causing the pump to lose its prime. You can confirm this with a little experiment. Try preboiling your sparge water for about 20 minutes. This will drive off most of the dissolved gasses. Let the water cool down to your normal sparge water temperature, and then run the pump and see if it loses its prime. If it does, then you probably still have a leak. Otherwise, it's dissolved gasses coming out of solution. I used to preboil all my brewing water. When I did this I did not have the problem you describe pumping sparge water. However, when I started filtering rather than preboiling, the problem came back with a vengance. If you orient the head of the pump so that the inlet is at the bottom and the discharge is at the top, the problem can be minimized. I've found in this configuration that bubbles still collect in the impeller chamber, but if you leave both the kettle drain valve and sparge pump discharge valves open and shut off the pump, the bubbles will rise up the discharge line and clear the pump. You can change the pump head orientation easily by removing the 4 screws on the front of the pump body and rotating the head to the desired orientation. This keeps the oil tubes for the motor vertical. 3. Stuck runoff Chances are you were recirculating too fast. Throttle back on the pump discharge valve. 4. Cleaning I flush mine with lots of clear water and then blow it out with compressed air. CO2 will due nicely as well. If you don't do this some water will stay in the impeller chamber and may grow some funk. It's probably not a problem if you flush it out good before you use it next time. - --Dave Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 08:32:13 -0400 From: Gravel Stephen E NPRI <GravelSE at Npt.NUWC.Navy.Mil> Subject: Smooth Stout Hi All, I brewed a Foreign Extra Stout recently and it came out pretty good. It took second place in the SSBC Brewoff 2000. However, I sampled the first place winner and noticed a nice smooth almost creamy texture to the beer that mine was lacking, it reminded me of the Young's Double Chocolate Stout (although, not quite as good). I have several questions: 1. How do they get the smooth creamy flavor? (I was told that an addition of Lactic Acid would do the trick.) 2. If this is correct, how much Lactic Acid would be recommended for a 5 gallon batch? 3. When should it be added during the brewing session? 4. Is Lactic Acid the key ingredient, or is there another way to achieve this smooth creamy texture/flavor? Thanks in advance for any advice/assistance I receive. Steve "Homebrew, it's not just a hobby, it's an adventure!" Return to table of contents
Date: Sun, 23 Apr 2000 22:34:40 -0500 From: "Jack Schmidling" <arf at mc.net> Subject: Apology... Must mess From: Dan Listermann <72723.1707 at compuserve.com> > He used 3 tsp of sodium bisulfite powder to sterlize the must. Needless to say, it won't ferment despite a prolonged peroid of venting. Is there any hope for the must?.... Tell him to hang in there. Once upon a time, a friendly hb retailer told me to use 1 tsp (powder) per gallon of must. I didn't bother double checking on this and used 5 tsp in a 5 gal batch. It smelled ghastly and I looked it up in other refs and found the number to be 1 tsp for 5 gals and was really upset. I pitched a small sample of the yeast in a small sample of the must every day until it started fermenting and then pitched the whole batch. It was a special yeast that I didn't want to lose either. Don't recall for sure but it was at least 5 days. js PHOTO OF THE WEEK http://user.mc.net/arf/weekly.htm HOME: Beer, Cheese, Astronomy, Videos http://user.mc.net/arf Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 09:41:44 -0400 From: Marc Sedam <marc_sedam at unc.edu> Subject: cardamom A-B hasn't been "sitting" on this since 1981...it's been a publicly available document since 1983, tho'. The patent is designed to protect very light lagers from being sunstruck in either the bottle or the glass. Of course, if you let Budweiser heat up in the sun it tastes nasty for reasons other than skunked flavors. You could always make up a "tincture" by soaking the cardamom in grain alcohol, but it might change what you get out of it. Dunno. The patent expires in a year. To avoid infringing on a useful AB patent, I'd skip the experiments until next June. ;-) Cheers! Marc Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 10:06:08 -0400 From: "Philip J Wilcox" <pjwilcox at cmsenergy.com> Subject: NYC Trip Digest, Yes, I am still working on my notes from Germany...In a nutshell, Cruising for Koelsh bars is my kind of drinking! Pilsner Urquell in Pilzn is the best beer I've ever had anywhere. Its easier to drink than water! U Flecku in Prauge was the coolest brewpub on the whole trip! Munich is too big to properly explore in a month, and I only had a day and a half--Best Munich Beer was Andechts. Best Helles, Spatan and the previous. Best Wheat, Frankenkaiser, Best Maibock (and Brewpub)--Forschungsbrauerei, Biggest suprise-Salavator on tap (ligher in color, body, and preceptable alcohol than the US Bottled counterpart) Biggest disappointment, Brewpubs. In general they are no better than ours--Very Hit or miss. If your on a limited time budget, skip them and stick to the Big Brewers beergartens and Kellers. All of which were top notch. My next trip is NYC this Saturday till Tuesday. My wife has a conference at the Downtown Manhattan Hilton (1335 Avenue of the Americas). I suspect that since my father-in-law Bailed out, I being the lone male (9.5 mo old daughter, wife, her Mother, Aunt and Sister) I will get (demand) more time to do some beerexploration. So Where should I go? I have heard that Manhattan is not a brewpub mecca, but being the largest import/export city in the world, has to have some beer advantages somewhere. Quality Multi-taps??? Is there a place like Sam's Wherehouse in Chicago??? All help, hints, and tips appreciated. and if any of you NYC HBD'rs want to meet for a Pint somewhere, I am definatly up for that. G DeP--We missed you at the MCAB, care to come to the bigtown for beer cruising???? Phil WIlcox Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 11:31:23 -0400 From: "S. SNYDER" <SSNYDER at LBGHQ.com> Subject: bottle storage Greetings- I just joined the list a few weeks ago. I have been homebrewing for about 2 years now and have accumulated quite the repository of bottles, mainly 12 oz'ers but some Grolsch w/ceramic tops, etc. All bottles are routinely rinsed (all have been delabelled) free of all visible sediment etc. However, my storage of bottles concerns me everytime I go to bottle because I am afraid of contamination by bacteria. The bottles may sit on the shelf for 6 months or so before I sanitize them just prior to bottling. Should I cover the bottles over the long period, or, if they are clean and dry, can I just sanitize, rinse, and fill? Thanks in advance for the help. Scott Snyder ssnyder at lbghq.com "The eye seldom sees what the mind does not anticipate." Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 11:51:16 -0400 From: Dave Burley <Dave_Burley at compuserve.com> Subject: Hot water pump, Burrabadoo, Manhattan, Oversulfited must Brewsters: No pump expert am I, but with very hot water the pump can cavitate as the water boils in the low pressure IN side if the input is limited in flow far below the delivery volume of the pump. Non? Is your input restricted? How hot is the water? - -------------------------------------------------------- Phil, you do know what "Burrabadoo" means in Abo, don't you? - -------------------------------------------------------- Jeff, I can only add one thing which will improve your Manhattan, IMHO. Add a small amount of the maraschino cherry juice. - -------------------------------------------------------- Dan, other than adding chlorine to your customer's oversulfited must ( Just kidding), I can suggest this procedure: Dilute a small portion such that the sulfite concentration is about 30 ppm. Add fresh yeast and get this fermenting. Add the high sulfite batch a bit at a time to keep the sulfite at 30 ppm ( which the yeast can stand) and the CO2 formed in the fermentation will sweep out the excess sulfite as SO2 from the acidic wine. Each day add some more. As this addition goes along, more and more of the oversulfited batch can be added, so it will only take a few stages of this addition. I do not recommend pouring it through the air as others suggest. This wine will be as good as the original concentrate allows. An alternative is to start another fermentation with the same kind of concentrate and add portions of the sulfited batch. This will be faster and no dilution. - ------------------------------------------------------- Keep on Brewin' Dave Burley . Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 09:35:16 -0700 From: Robert Arguello <brewhawk at pacbell.net> Subject: Re: DakBrews question on iodophor ON: Sat, 22 Apr 2000 09:06:11 EDT DakBrew at aol.com Subject: RE: Roberts RE: Jeff's queation on Iodophor ==Robert is this a direct quote? == ==He said that the solution should be renewed when the amber color fades, or ==after 24 hours ... whichever comes first.<< ==If it is I would interpret the word Renewed to mean small amounts of Iodophor ==added to bring the solution back up to 12 of 25 PPM. Most homebrew shops sell ==test strips for testing iodophor solutions. ==Dan K No, it wasn't a direct quote. I didn't have the exact wording he used in front of me at the time, so I pretty much para-phrased. If it were a direct quote, the word renewed would have actually been "replaced". However..... We did discuss "refreshing" the iodophor solution with subsequent additions of iodophor concentrate. While this is possible and is done to some extent, we both concluded that the practice on the homebrewing scale was problematic. You CAN refresh or renew the working solution by adding more iodophor but I would suggest it only be employed when refreshing a working solution that has NOT been subjected to any protein loading. In other words, only to an unused working solution that has lost its amber color or older than 24 hours. "Refreshing" the solution might be the ticket to folks like Mr. Renner, who earlier wrote to mention that he likes to keep a solution in a spray bottle. As to the test strips. I did experiment with some a while back and found them to be vague and difficult to interpret. YMMV as part of my problem with them may have been related to my faulty color vision. Robert Arguello brewhawk at pacbell.net (Please note new email address, finally switched to DSL) Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 15:51:07 -0500 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: Yeast Q's- Rick Olivo- Dr. Cone Dear Sir: In virtually every brewing text I have ever read, there are warnings against reusing dry yeast. The rationale for this is perhaps best summed up by Dave Miller: "Do not repitch slurries from dry yeast. Because all dry yeasts contain some degree of contamination, and because the contaminating organisms will grow from one pitching to the next, the only safe course is to use dry yeast on a one-shot basis." However, since I have begun maintaining a yeast ranch for members of the on-line brewing fraternity, the Brew-Rats, I have noticed that dry yeasts I have examinined under the microscope have been at least as "clean" as yeast cultures derived from liquid yeasts. In any event, wouldn't it be possible to eliminate the entire question by use of the single-cell origin colony harvesting method? "Find a single colony on the original ager plate that is physically isolated from all the other colonies on the same plate. This colony is homogeneous in the sense that all the cells degenerate from the same parent. Thus this can be considered as a pure culture" (Nam Sung Wang Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Maryland) The same instructions are given in the "Advanced Yeast Culturing for Homebrewers: "Using a plate you can also "cone" your yeast stocks so that they originate from a single colony of yeast. This is a sure way of getting rid of potential bacterial contaminants..." The question is this; has this caution, as outlined by Miller, been overblown, at least using the procedures outlined by Wang and in the Advanced Yeast Culturing for Homebrewers document? I haven't been able to note any contamination of yeast cultures derived from dried materials. Is it possible that technical production improvements have made this advice obsolete, at least for those of us who "yeast ranch" rather than merely wash yeast for short-term storage? Your comments on this subject will be most welcomed. Rick Olivo Rick, Until a few years ago the quality of the Active Dry Yeast for beer making was not up to the rigid standards required by the brewing industry. The beer yeast was marginally satisfactory for a one time use but not advisable for repeated pitching as Miller noted. That was satisfactory for many home beer makers because there was no interest in repitching. In recent years, companies like Lallemand's Dan Star, have made dramatic improvements in the quality of their beer strains. The wild yeast and bacteria levels now meet the rigid standards of such well know brewing institutes as Weihenstephan, Siebel, Herriot Watt and others. You should feel very confident in being able to repitch the Dan Star beer yeast as often as you repitch your liquid yeast. However, we feel that it is prudent practice to limit the repitching to two or three times at most. Even the big breweries, with all of their sanitary savvy, limit their repitching to less than 6 times The cost of dry beer yeast is such that it is economical to maintain minimum repitching practice. Many brew pubs do not attempt to recover yeast for repitching, they just rehydrate and pitch fresh each time. I am pleased that you have noted the marked improvement under the microscope. I have never been an advocate of single cell cultures. I have always isolated several (15 - 20) colonies and studied each separately in test tube and under the microscope. When I was satisfied that all were OK, I would then blend into one culture. This would prevent the isolation of a single strain that would be mutated or might have a weak gene. Fermenting from a packet of ADY Beer Yeast is very simple. Fermenting from a single cell is rather involved. I realize that many of you like the challenge of preparing isolates and liquid cultures. Go to it. When the excitement and joy wears off, remember; there is ADY beer yeast. I hope that Dr. Nam Sung Wang did not really mean that "all cells degenerate from the same parent." Also, I believe that "Using a plate you would also "clone" not "cone" your yeast stock- - - - - - . Originating from a single pure colony of yeast is the first step in getting rid of potential bacterial contamination. Good laboratory and sanitary practices are equally important. You would be surprised how many single yeast colonies contain bacteria when you streak from an infected wort. Miller's caution was well taken several years ago but is not as apropos for all suppliers of ADY beer yeast today. Clayton Cone Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 15:52:21 -0500 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: Yeast Q's- Ernie Baker- Dr. Cone From: erniebaker at webtv.net Subject: Dr Cone, Dry Yeast Amounts? Dr Cone My question is concerning the proper amount of dry yeast to pitch to a 5 gallon batch. Years ago it was always 1 (5 gram packet) to 5 gallons. A couple years ago it was two 5 gram packets. At present it has been recommended to pitch 15 or 20 grams of dry yeast. I believe its time to issue good firm advice on the real amount of dry yeast to pitch. (Ale & Lager).. Thanks for sharing your knowledge.. ernie baker 29 Palms, CA Ernie, I am glad that you brought this to my attention. It would be neat if there could be a label with a single inoculating rate that would satisfy all beer makers and all worts. The initial instructions for inoculation rates came from the Beer Kit makers 10 - 20+ years ago. They were well aware of the sensitivity of the home beer maker to cost, so they offered the minimum amount of yeast possible to do the job. A few pennies more to cover the cost of adding more yeast would lose them many customers. Today the kit makers and the beer yeast producers are aware that the home beer maker is willing to pay for quality and increased amount of yeast for pitching if it is needed to give improved control over the fermentation. Both are beginning to respond. Some label changes have already been made in response to the trend to increase the inoculating rates. Others will be made in the near future. Built into the ADY Beer Yeast is a large trehalose reserve that gets the freshly rehydrated yeast off to a good start. It does not require as high a cell population for pitching as it does for the repitching. For a 10 Plato wort, I would be comfortable with two packets / 5 gallons wort. If you are satisfied with the fermentation rate and the taste of the finished product you should stick with the 2 packets / 5 gallons. This will give you about eight million yeast cells per ml. of wort. If you are not happy with the fermentation rate and the attenuation of your particular wort then you should experiment with 3 or more packets. If you go to a higher gravity wort and or dark wort you will need to experiment with higher pitching rates. Clayton Cone Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 15:56:44 -0500 From: "Rob Moline" <brewer at isunet.net> Subject: Yeast Q's- Pete Czerpak- Dr. Cone From: "Czerpak, Pete" <Pete.Czerpak at siigroup.com> Subject: yeast questions on flavor profile A few yeast questions that resulted from some competition comments: 1) Is the Wyeast Fullers strain, 1968, thought to throw off deacetyl type compounds? Could use of about 10% flaked maize contribute to this taste? 2) What would low temperature conditions do to the flavor profile of the Wyeast Weihestephen yeast in terms of phenol, clove, banana tastes? Are these sensitive greatly to a 62deg F ferment temperature? Thanks for the help. Its about time to be brewing again. Pete Czerpak Pete , I have no experience with Wyeast Fuller Strain 1968 so I cannot comment on it. I will make the comment that Wyeast, White Labs and G.W.Kent Inc are excellent sources of liquid yeast. It is not uncommon for yeast to produce diacetyl. Studies have shown that there is a doubling of Diacetyl production with the increase of cereal adjuncts in the wort from 20 % to 40% and another doubling when the adjunct is increased to 50%. So it is possible that a 10% addition of flaked maize would result in a slight increase in diacetyl. It is interesting to note that yeast produce diacetyl during the early part of the fermentation and can in turn consume the diacetyl at the end of the fermentation if the yeast are alive and healthy. Because diacetyl is so commonly produced, at some level, during the brewing fermentation, most brewmasters are prepared for it. They include a "diacetyl reduction stage" a secondary fermentation at the end of the fermentation for every batch either in the same fermenter or in a separate tank. The more active the yeast, the higher the cell count, the warmer the temperature, the faster will be the diacetyl reduction. Usually 1 - 3 days is scheduled to reduce the diacetyl and other procusors to a level below 0.1ppm. If you detect diacetyl at the end of fermentation, you should allow the yeast a day or two to remove it before filtering. If you note the diacetyl after filtering you should add fresh yeast to the beer and allow a few days for the yeast to reduce it. A trace amount of fresh wort would assist the new yeast to do the job. 2. I have no experience with the Wyeast Weihenstephen strain so I cannot comment on what it can do. I am assuming that you are asking about cold conditioning of the yeast at the end of the fermentation. I can say that the phenols come from the mashing and will probably not be effected by cold conditioning. Cold temperature conditioning should have little effect on the 'clove' or 'banana' character of the beer. Clayton Cone Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 24 Apr 2000 15:55:15 -0500 From: Lou.Heavner at frco.com Subject: re: temps/more ... Oops! You should always take the words "must always" with a grain of salt. And actually, I was referring to temperature boosts, not dough-in, so heat of hydration would have already been released. But it is a good point to consider. I never really suspected it would be noticable. Cheers! Lou Heavner - barking like a dog in Austin, TX, but trying not to be dogmatic... ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ >Date: Fri, 21 Apr 2000 16:14:09 -0400 >From: "Stephen Alexander" <steve-alexander at worldnet.att.net> >Subject: temps/more ... > >Lou Heavner sez ... >> you must always take into account the amount of heat your mash >tun >> will absorb. Typically, this will only be 1 or 2 degrees >fahrenheit, >> but will vary from system to system. > >Using the word "must" makes you dogmatic on this forum Lou. I agree >tho',and add that the it's more like 5F if you are making 5g batches >in a >cellar cool sanke. Of course as a resident librarian I should point >out >that heat of malt hydration is also a measurable factor at the HB >level. Return to table of contents
Date: 24 Apr 2000 16:58:02 -0400 From: RCAYOT at solutia.com Subject: Pump Questions To all of those who recently wrote about their experience with pumps, I thank you. I am in the process of taking some or all of my current brewery and building a rack to put it on so I don't have to lift hot wort. I have decided that I do not necessarily want to be able to apply heat directly to may mash tun, I will use my 10g Gott cooler. What I do want however is to be able to pump boiling water infusions from the hot liquor tank to the mash tun for temp boosts. Is there a good pump for ~$125 or less that can actually pump boiling water/wort? I know that really boiling will be impossible, but close enough so that if I boil water in my HLT can I really pump it quickly to the mash tun? I need to pump about 2-3g of boiling water in <5 minutes? For the last tempo boost, or mash out, I usually run 1-3g of sweet wort from the mash tun into the kettle, boil it and return it to the mash tun. This has worked well many times before, but I suspect that at times it has led to starch haze. For those who have a problem with pumping hot wort, may I suggest something I saw my brewing buddy do last time he brewed- He drew the wort through his counter-flow wort chiller and into the fermenter, thus only chilled wort went through the pump! It would have quite a restriction on the inlet rather than the outlet, but since the wort is cool, and very well de-gassed, it did not appear to cavitate, and went rather quickly. I am really looking forward to being able to brew 10-12.5g batches without having to lift! Roger Ayotte Return to table of contents
[Prev HBD] [Index] [Next HBD] [Back]
HTML-ized on 04/25/00, by HBD2HTML version 1.2 by K.F.L.
webmaster at hbd.org, KFL, 10/9/96